Presentation on theme: "Deep Roots of the Revolution Two ideas take root in the colonies: 1. Republicanism- Idea that the stability of society and the authority of the government."— Presentation transcript:
Deep Roots of the Revolution Two ideas take root in the colonies: 1. Republicanism- Idea that the stability of society and the authority of the government depended on the virtue of the citizen- its capacity for selflessness, self- sufficiency, courage, and desire to be civically active.
Deep Roots of the Revolution 2. Radical Whigs –Group in England who criticized the arbitrary power of the Monarch and his ministers. They tried to expose the corruption rampant in his government So…….Republicanism and radical Whigs predisposed the American colonists to be on guard to any violation of their rights. Also, distance weakens authority; great distance weakens authority greatly. So it was a shock to the American colonists when the British government tried to put the colonists snuggly in their grip in 1763.
Mercantilism Economic theory that a nations wealth depended upon its reserve of gold and silver and also a favorable balance of trade. Thus, in this context, colonies were expected to furnish products needed in the mother country (tobacco, sugar, ships masts etc) while only trading exclusively with the mother country and her other colonies. Required to import from Mother Country and have no dreams of economic self-sufficiency or self-government.
Mercantilism Navigation Act Goods must be shipped trough England and a duty put on them Enumerated goods such as tobacco could only be sold to England. Money shortages in colonies due to unfavorable balance of trade – printed paper money that depreciated. Parliament banned the printing of money in the colonies
Mercantilism Negatives: –Burdened the colonists with annoying liabilities –Stifled economic initiative and forced dependency on English agents and creditors. –Most importantly, the colonists felt used and in a state of constant economic adolescence. Positives: - Ship builders and suppliers benefitted - Monopoly on tobacco in England - Protection from the strongest Navy and military
Mercantilism To prohibit a great people, however,, from making all that they can of every part of their own produce, or from employing their stock and industry in the way they judge most advantageous to themselves, is a manifest violation of the most sacred rights of mankind. -Adam Smith (1776)
James Otis A mans house is his castle, and whilst he is quiet he is as well guarded as prince in his castle. This writ, if it should be declared legal, would totally annihilate these privilege. Custom house officers may enter our houses when they please; we are commanded to permit their entry. Their menial servants may enter, may break locks, bars, and everything in their way; and whether they break through malice or revenge, no man, no court can inquire. Bare suspicion without oath is sufficient.
British Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling: 1761 writs of assistance or illegal search and seizure James Otis caseJames Otis case Protection of a citizens private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.Protection of a citizens private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight. He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
George Grenvilles Program, 1763-1765 1. Sugar Act - 1764 2.Currency Act – 1764 3.Quartering Act – 1765 4.Stamp Act – 1765 Greenville had to eliminate debt from the war (140 million pounds). First, strictly enforced Navigation Act in 1763. Then decided to raise tax revenue from the colonies, starting with the Sugar Act
Stamp Act Protest Stamp Act Congress of 1765 –27 delegates from 9 colonies meet to draw up a statement of their rights and grievances and to convince the King and Parliament to repeal stamp act. Even though the statement was mostly ignored in England and not well-known in America, the Stamp Act Congress was one more step towards more intercolonial unity.
Stamp Act Protest Nonimportation Protests –Against British goods –A promising stride towards unity because average American colonists could participate –Many signed petitions swearing to uphold the boycott –Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty Liberty, Property, and No Stamps They would tar and feather violators of the boycott and ransack British agents homes and hang effigies of stamp agents
Tar and Feathering
Stamp Act Protest England hard hit by boycott (1/4 of all exports go to the colonies and ½ of all shipping was devoted to American trade. English make appeals to have the Stamp Act repealed due to disruption to commerce and trade 1766, Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament
Declaratory Act As soon as Stamp Act repealed, Parliament passed Declaratory Act –Stated parliaments right to rule over the colonies in all cases and arenas. –Basically, it claimed absolute sovereignty over the North American Colonies –However, Colonists had already made it clear they wanted a measure of sovereignty of their own
Townshend Acts Charles (Champagne Charlie) Townshend 1767, passes the Townshend Acts –Light duty on imported goods such as glass, white lead (dont ask, I do not know), paper, paint, and tea. –Makes distinction between internal and external taxes and this is an indirect tax paid at colonial ports –Revenues earmarked to pay Royal Judges and Royal Governors
Townshend Acts The tax on tea was the most hated due to the fact that an estimated 1 million people drank at least two cups per day. However, in Boston, a lot of tea was simply smuggled so the Townshend Acts were largely ignored and did not cause the same unrest as the Stamp Act So, British land two regiments of soldiers in Boston
The Boston Massacre ( March 5,1770 )
Boston Massacre What is the difference between the two depictions of the Boston Massacre? Who is the man in the middle of this depiction?
The Gaspee Incident (1772) Providence, RI coast
King George III and Lord North George III was 32 in 1770. Good man in private life, but an ineffective ruler. Surrounded himself with Yes men like Lord North Lord North, what do you think of my fancy outfit? Well your majesty, YES, I think you look ravishing!!!!!!!!!!
Townshend Acts Repealed Lord North, under pressure from British Manufacturers who were losing revenue due to the nonimportation agreements, convinced Parliament to appeal the Townshend Acts. However, he kept the three pence tax on tea to assert Parliaments authority to tax.
Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement. First organized by Sam Adams, cousin to John Adams. A great propagandist, he trained his mob to resist British policy. The committees started in Boston, then throughout Massachusetts, then spread to other colonies. Main objective was to exchange letters and keep alive opposition to the British
Tea Act (1773) 8 British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. tea imports. Monopoly on Br. tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares. Many members of Parl. held shares. Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) 8 North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
Colonists Reaction to Tea Act Even though the tea was cheaper- the colonists were still angry at the three pence tax. Saw the move as a way to make the colonists accept the tax with cheaper tea.
Boston Tea Party (Dec, 16 1773)
The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) Lord North 1.Port Bill- 2. Government Act 4. Administration of Justice Act 3. New Quartering Act
The Quebec Act (1774) - Act designed to administer the 60,000 French who lived in Canada. -Gave French a guarantee of their Catholic religion and also permitted them to retain old customs and traditions such as not having a representative assembly and no trial by jury -Area extended into the Ohio river Valley -Horrible to colonists, because it had such far reaching implications: Ohio river valley for Catholics and Parliament could suppress representative government and trial by jury
First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies (Georgia did not attend) Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.
First Continental Congress The Association was formed. Complete boycott of British goods. April 1775- Lexington and Concord –Small British force of Redcoats were ordered to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Minutemen were killed and several wounded. At Concord, the colonial militia forced the Redcoats to retreat
The British Are Coming... Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard Round the World ! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition
Imperial Strengths Population odds in their favor (2.5 million colonists to 7.5 million British) Greater Monetary Wealth and Naval power British had a professional army of 50,000 soldiers, employed around 30,000 Hessians, attracted some Native Americans to fight on their side, and also had 30,000 Loyalists
Imperial Weaknesses Ireland was on the brink of revolt and troops were sent to watch over it France was eager to stab Britain in the back due to recent defeat in Seven Years War British leadership was inept compared to the brilliance of William Pitt (King George III and Lord North English Whigs openly triumphed American victories (at least at the beginning) and this encouraged Americans Fighting in North America was difficult: Generals were second rate, soldiers were treated poorly by officers, and provisions were scarce, rancid, and wormy. Distance made it difficult. England was 3,000 miles away. Difficult to defeat colonists due to Geography: The American Colonies were huge with no large city that served as a node.
American Advantages Strong leadership –Washington, Franklin, and Lafayette Americans were generally fighting a defensive war with the odds in their favor American agriculture kept the army well fed Americans were fighting for a just and moral cause that gave them greater morale and motivation Understood and new the terrain and environment much better
American Negatives Poorly organized and loosely united Jealously and suspicions between colonies caused conflict and many resented the Continental Congress for trying to assert its authority Economic issues, in particular, currency issues. (No metal currency, so C.C printed money that quickly depreciated, and later individual states printed their own) The subsequent inflation forced many soldiers to desert the campaign and return home to work Military supplies were scarce Other shortages in manufacturing supplies and clothing and shoes. Generally, the American soldiers were a ragtag group that was poorly equipped to fight the trained professional Redcoats.