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Turning to Dust or Digital Denise Troll Covey Associate University Librarian, Carnegie Mellon Future of the Book Conference Cairns, Australia – April 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "Turning to Dust or Digital Denise Troll Covey Associate University Librarian, Carnegie Mellon Future of the Book Conference Cairns, Australia – April 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 Turning to Dust or Digital Denise Troll Covey Associate University Librarian, Carnegie Mellon Future of the Book Conference Cairns, Australia – April 2003

2 Perilous Facts Books are turning to dust on library shelves Even if digitized, books can disappear or go dark, & licenses & technologies can trump legal uses Stewardship of our heritage is endangered Equitable access is becoming a platitude Education & scholarship are in peril

3 The Copyright Absurdity 95% of books ever printed are still in copyright < 3% are still in print 92% of the world’s books are neither generating revenue for the copyright owner nor easily accessible to potential readers

4 Solution: Copyright Permission for Open Access Protecting private interest Promoting public good

5 Digital Free-to-Read Feasibility Study Statistically valid random sample Couldn’t locate publisher for over 10% books If located publisher, half didn’t respond If got response, fewer than half gave permission If got permission, fees or other restrictions applied Overall success rate 22%

6 Success of Copyright Permission Books Total items Copyright protected94% 2. Publishers contacted88% 3. Publishers responded51% Permission granted43% Overall success rate22% Wayne State 2000 Carnegie Mellon Articles 96 70% 45% 90% 28%

7 Success Rate Scholarly associations 45% University presses 37% Museums & galleries 31% Commercial publishers 12% Permission by Publisher Type

8 Labor Cost to Digitize Books $25 - $150 per book in the United States –Digitization, OCR, metadata capture, & initial storage –Not hardware, software, or catalog links –Contingent on characteristics of book & scanner Disbound book Bound book Rare book

9 Copyright Permission Costs Permission cost – Fee for permission itself –Hundreds of dollars per book Transaction cost – Labor & related costs –Hundreds of dollars per request Wayne State 1,000 Articles Permission $26,000 (51%) Transaction $24,500 (49%) TOTAL$50,500 Total CostMillionsBooks netLibrary$8540,000 Questia$12740,000

10 Free-to-Read Million Book Project Digitize 1,000,000 books in 5 years –NSF - $3.6 million for equipment & travel –India - $1.5 million for labor (1000 people for 5 years) –Led by Carnegie Mellon Libraries & Computer Science –U.S. Partners – Internet Archives, OCLC, & libraries

11 Collection Development November 2001 (NSF) –Collection of collections 200,000 indigenous Indian works 700,000 public domain works 100,000 copyrighted works – Books for College Libraries November 2003 –Select more bibliographies –Strategize logistics

12 Scanning Underway in India Labor cheaper than in U.S., but high paid in India Each scanner, 2 shifts a day = 4000 books a year 100 scanners – 400,000 books per year

13 Copyright Negotiations Educate –Find online, but use print –Online access increases use –Open access doesn’t decrease, & can increase sales –Copyright absurdity Ask –Non-exclusive permission to digitize & offer free-to-read –Minimal system functionality –Focus on out-of-print books Give –Preservation-quality copies –Metadata & OCR Motivate –$$ Use in added-value, fee-based services –$$ Print on demand for out-of-print titles –$$ Buy button for in-print titles

14 Initial Copyright Approach Do not pay permission cost Focus on out-of-print, in-copyright titles –Books for College Libraries has 50,000 titles –Begin with scholarly associations & university presses Transaction cost per title is prohibitive –Identifying & inserting titles in letters –Negotiating & tracking permission per title

15 Epiphany & New Approach Focus on publishers of quality books –Treat bibliographies as approval plan of publishers –Books for College Libraries has 5600 publishers Ask for permission to digitize –All out-of-print, in-copyright titles –All titles published prior to a date of their choosing –All titles published # or more years ago –List of titles they choose Follow-up with phone call or visit 

16 Results of New Approach Estimate transaction costs remain the same –Shift $$ from clerical to administration But acquire more books for $$ spent –National Academy Press – 99% increase 26 titles in Books for College Libraries Permission for 3046 titles –Brookings Institution – 96% increase –Rand McNally – 60% increase

17 “More Bang for the Buck” Indigenous Indian Public Domain In Copyright Initial Current

18 Projections Success rate (# BCL publishers) # of books per publisher Million Book Collection 3% (168) ,000 5% (280) ,000 20% (1,120)15001,680,000 We could need to negotiate with India for more labor

19 Current Status 100 letters sent Hiring full-time staff & distributing negotiations –6% permission granted –5% permission denied –21% negotiations underway –52% no follow-up or response –5% copyright reverted to author –1% no electronic rights –4% incorrect address

20 Copyright Workflow #1 India Carnegie Mellon

21 Copyright Workflow #2 India Carnegie Mellon

22 Metadata Bibliographic - for delivery system –MARC record or Dublin Core Administrative - for reporting system –Bibliographic metadata –Source library –Return requested –Copyright status – check renewal records –Permission status – used by delivery system –Copies sent to publishers, libraries, & mirror sites 

23 Funding Copyright Permission Foundation proposals not funded UC Merced – $35,000 pending IMLS – pending IMLS Copyright, collection development, & project management $234,700$445,000 Acquisitions, shipping, & survey software $265,300 Outcomes assessment $78,000 TOTAL $500,000$523,000 Cost share 51% of total project

24 Copyright Assessments Number of copyrighted books in the Collection Success rate of permission requests Participating publisher –Overall satisfaction –Quality of the copies –What they did or plan to do with the copies –Impact on revenue & view of open access


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