2 N.Y. SightseeingsFloridaThe political systemStatue of LibertyWashington D.C.Death PenaltySeattleNational ParksThe F.B.ISan FranciscoU.S. Navy SEALsWest frontierLos AngelesNative AmericansJ.F.K Space CenterAlaskaSettlers & ImmigrantsGeorg W. Bush
4 Von Sabine Dinter 1. Location of the J.F.K. Space Center 2. The Space Center3. History3.1 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald ( )3.2 John F. Kennedy's enthusiasm for technology- source of the name of the Space Center4. NASA4.1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration4.2 Projects5. The USA - center of technology and progressVon Sabine Dinter
5 Location of the J. F. K Space Center Location of the J.F.K Space Center The Kennedy Space Center is located on a barrier island, called Meritt Island in Florida, about 34 miles long and varying in width from five to 10 miles. The total land and water area covers just over acres. In addition many people don’t know that the Kennedy Space Center is also a National Refuge. The federal state of Florida borders in the north upon the federal states of Alabama and Georgia, in the east upon the Atlantic Ocean and in the west upon the Gulf of Mexico.
7 2. The Space Center The KSC is managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is the main base for launches of satellites and rockets in the USA. The Patrick Air force Base is situated there too. The Kennedy Space Center has hosted millions of guests from around the world for more than 30 years. It is a special event to look how a space shuttle starts its voyage to the universe.
9 3. History 3. 1 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917-1963) 3. History 3.1 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald ( ) He was the 35th president of the United States of America ( ). Kennedy was born on May 29 in 1917 as the second son of a banker, Joseph P. Kennedy in Brookline (Massachusetts, USA). He studied at Harvard University. During the Second World War, he was a commissioned officer in the US-Marine.
10 3.2 John F. Kennedy's enthusiasm for technology - source of the name of the Space CenterJohn F. Kennedy was committed to technology and progress. He wanted to have independent space politics. He gave the responsibility to intelligent persons with great experiences. With his work the discovery of the universe really started. In his honor, the space center in Florida is called the John F. Kennedy Space Center.
11 4. NASA 4.1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration This civil institute was founded in 1958 with the help of organizations like National Aeronautics and Space Act. At first it was called National Advisor committee for Aeronautics (NACA). NASA controls and plans all American space projects (like satellite programs or unmanned space flights). At first NASA worked only for civil projects but with the beginning of the Space Shuttle Program, it now works in the military sector too. But after the Challenger disaster in 1986 NASA stopped the research in space. NASA has many places for launches, for example the J.F.K. Space Center (also called Cap Canaveral), institutes of research like Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California (progress of probes) and last but not least the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston (Texas). The administration of NASA is in Washington D.C. .
12 4.2 Projects NASA is the program that launched men to the Moon,(Apollo project), orbited satellites that have improved our lives and sent probes into distant space to solve the mysteries of the universe.
13 5. USA - Center of technology and progress 5. USA - Center of technology and progress Aeronautics and Space Administration is the most important part for the future. NASA is the main project in the world. NASA remains a leading force in scientific research and in stimulating public interest in aerospace exploration, as well as science and technology in general.
14 Sources: - Microsoft Encarta 98 Enzyklopädie - Zweiburgen ”Sie schrieben die Geschichte der Menschheit” -
16 The life of Native Americans today 1. past a) the image of Native Americans in the past b) historical background 2. today a) spreading b) living conditions today c) politics for Native Americans d) the position of women 3. future a) still problems to deal with b) how to fight these problemsBy Johanna Ostermeier
17 The life of Native Americans today The following text deals with the situation of the Native Americans in the USA today. How their lives have changed and which problems still remain.1/a)The image of Native Americans in the pastFirst there‘s the old image of Indians, that has its roots in the past and which is about a wise chief.Sometimes people even thought of some savage people living in wigwams.Some people still have this idea of Native Americans and they don’t see them as very peaceful nations that love nature.But in most parts of society, especially as far as the law is concerned that has changed.
19 1/b)Historical background In spite of all disadvantages they have tried to resist immigration since Christoph Columbus came to their shores.After the cruel wars between Natives and immigrants, the USA acknowleged the Natives as American citizens in the year 1924.Today they have the same rights as every other citizen of the United States, but unfortunately their material and cultural situation hasn’t changed enough till now. 2/a)Spreading On these two maps one can see that there are still a lot of Native Americans living in the USA today.The first one shows into which cultural areas the Native Americans are divided, and that they are spread on a very large territory. Into which language areas the Indians are divided is shown on the second map.Both maps clear up how widespread the Natives are in our days.It says that Natives can be found in the whole United States.
22 2/b)Living conditions today A statistic from 1990 tells that about 1, Native Americans live in America and that makes 0.8% of the whole American population.These persons belong to 267 reservations in the country.The Natives are divided into tribes and the largest 3 ones are the Cherokee, the Navajo and the Chippewa.Some of the smaller tribes are for example the Appaches, the Iroquoise and also the Sioux.These days almost 60% of all Natives (see on the next picture), have to live below the poverty line.It is known that the Indians have kept only three per cent of their original land they had before the immigration.The American government has paved laws to improve this situation, but there are still some negative points like that there are 80% of all nuclear activities of the United States near or even on reservations of Native Americans and this is a fact.Unemployment is another problem for the Indians because they don’t want to leave their traditions behind and move into a big city, so there are only a few jobs on a reservation.The result of this conflict between tradition and a new world is that there are nearly 80% unemployed Natives.Most of them depend on support by the state.So the government started special programes like building ready-made and prefabricated houses.
23 That‘s good because so nearly every Indian has a home That‘s good because so nearly every Indian has a home.But there are also negative aspects like the big temperature differences in the USA for which isn’t shown considerence because these houses are standardized and all out of wood.Also the Natives claim that the government doesn’t respect their cultures like their traditional houses. About the reservations it can be said that in a few of them there are bad living conditions.Some Native Americans have to walk 30 or 40 kilometres to fill up their water tank and others have to cover almost 150 kilometres to reach a hospital.So it is imaginable that it is a problem to visit a family member who is ill, with their low material possibilities. Although the state tries to support this part of its population, noone can deny that the Native Americans are still the most disadvantaged ethnic minority in the United States of America.
25 2/c)Politics for Native Americans That’s all about the material aspect but the political situation shouldn’t be forgotten.In comparison to the past, the American government has changed a lot, in a positive way for theNatives.In the earlier years things like taking children from Native families and putting them into ´´normal`` families were allowed, to offer them good education.It was also permitted to sterilize the women of a tribe, what was called „birth-control“.All this had an end in the year 1978 with a new law called the „Indian Child Welfare Act“, which didn’t permit this anymore.A second law fixed roots to save the traditional religion of Natives.It was called „American Indian Religious Freedom Act“.It was made, to let the Natives practise their religion in freedom.Also now they are supported in different areas like education, so that Indian children have the chance to go to school.This should help them for their later lives and to get a normal job.The government wants to give the Native American children a possibility to get into the normal American society, if they want to.But some activists for the rights of each Indian continue to claim that the Natives‘ situation still depends on the goodwill of each US government and that they don’t have true independence yet.
26 2/d)The position of women Now lets turn to the situation inside Indian society.Especially in the time of female emancipation something should be said about the womens‘ situation, too. In the Native American culture women are told, they were born to be a wife.In an Indian marriage the two partners have to fulfil their duty. There is no place for single women in a tribe the chiefs say. Because of that the Indian women were despised for a long time by the ´´Whites``, but these women have always been respected by the men in a tribe and even in our days Native American women attach a lot of importance to marriage, getting children and their traditions.
27 3/a)Still problems to deal with A problem for them is that Indians still want to get real independence from every state, but many of them are still stuck in poverty.Their political rights have changed and are the same as the rights of everyone else but the Natives claim that there has been no big change in material and cultural things. 3/b)How to fight these problems The important point to find solutions for problems is always to have respect for each other and to be tolerant.So the Natives and the state could make compromises to improve the present situations.
28 Sources: -www. indianer. de/indies/heute6. htm -www. indianer Sources: -www.indianer.de/indies/heute6.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/heute.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/widerstand.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/frau.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/Staemme.htm -World and Press special: Native Americans (their place in history and contemporary society) -www.indianer.de/indies/galerie3.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/impress0.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/Indios3.htm -www.indianer.de/indies/Indios1.htm -www.home.snafu.de/matthias.kuhnke/indian/qp.htm
30 By Jenniffer Grabmeister FloridaHistoryGeographyMiscellaneousMap of South FloridaPicturesBy Jenniffer Grabmeister
31 1.History: Florida was the first part of continental America discovered by Europeans. In 1513 it was discovered by the Spanish conqueror Ponce de Leone. Florida owes its name to the day of the discovery, Easter. Ponce de Leone named it " pascua Florida " which means so much as " flowering Easter ". Besides the name of Florida and some estates in St. Augustine, the oldest settlement in the USA, not much has remained of the " old Florida ". The first settlers did not have the means to survive of hurricane, floodings and termites in the long run. Miami and surroundings are a political and economic exile for Cubans, Nicaraguans, El Salvadorians who form more than half of the population of Greater Miami together with French-speaking blacks from Haiti. The Cubans have created a large well-to-do middle class in almost 40 years of exile which spends a lot of money in hope for the Communist regime of Fidel Castro, 300 kilometers to promoting the breakdown of the south of Miami. Most of them don’t think of returning, because today almost all feel as part of a bigger world. Besides, it is the same for them as for the descendants of generations- of immigrants who went ashore in Florida since the 16th century .
32 2.Geography: Florida is the most southern and 27th Federal State of the USA which is surrounded by water on three sites- from the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Moreover, Key West is the most southern point of the USA. The approximately 13 million inhabitants live on about squarekilometres. The capital is not as one would think Miami, but Tallahassee. No place in Florida lies farther than 100kms removed from the sea and if one disregards all islands,the coast line amounts to 3000kms. Florida counts about 350 suns days in the year, therefore, comes also the surname "Sunshine State ". The temperatures sway between 15 degrees in winter and about 30 degrees in summer. However, from August to November must be expected hurricanes.
33 3. Miscellaneous: "The American way of life " is a mix of myths 3.Miscellaneous: "The American way of life " is a mix of myths. Freedom and leisure, sun and sands, optimism and openness, fast money and fast pleasure are connected with Florida. Nowhere else in the United States of America one may nowhere experiences this cheerful and easy-going way of life as in Florida. About 43 million guests come to Florida per year. And it is not only the white beaches which lure many guests there. Nature lovers visit Everglades with their rare animals, divers come for a lot of coral reefs and are fully rewardid. An ideal destination in Florida for families with children is the holiday area which can be founded around Orlando with Walt Disney World as a center of a multiplicity of amusement parks.
34 Key West claims the most beautiful sunset of the world and naturally Miami, the metropolis with Caribbean atmosphere, is also a popular destination. The modern touch one can seen in the apartment houses in Miami and in the powerful bridges which span the Keys and the bays. It can also be found in the computer industry and armaments industry in which many people work. During the last 100 years Florida has become the most prosperous state of the USA. The mood is cosmopolitan. However, the northwest forms an exception. In its "Panhandle" Florida is still conservative and religiously severe. In addition its inhabitants are known as patriots and weapon lovers.
41 Structure I Settlers 1. General 2. Different groups II Immigration 1 Structure I Settlers 1. General 2. Different groups II Immigration 1. Immigrants in the Past 2. Immigrants TodayBy Julia Kreglinger
42 I.Settlers After the discovery of America by Columbus in the year 1492, the Europeans didn’t see the land as a settlement area at once. Only later, after having explored the land thoroughly, the first settlers arrived. In 1539, for example 600 Spaniards landed in Florida. The settlers of different countries of Europe subjected different large parts of the “New World”, and had accordingly more or less influence: The Englishmen, who mainly settled at the Hudson Bay, in Virginia and New England, defended themselves successfully against other occupying powers. In the English colonies everyone was allowed to live, who accepted the English king. That was, because of the distance to the homeland and to the king, very easy to do.
43 At the fertile Mississippi was the second-strongest colonial power, there were Frenchmen. They tried to keep their social structures in America. A lot of succesful businessmen went there, and became wealthy in the ”New World”. In the area around Mexico, Florida and North Carolina there were the Spanish settlers. The only intention of the Dutchmen, living in Manhattan on the Hudson River, was to build a trading base, which the Englishmen bought later. A lot of the settlers employed mainly slaves, who were brought forcibly from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean.
44 II.Immigrants The immigrants, who caused the population growth in the past, can be divided into three temporal groups: PERIOD IMMIGRATION GROUPS 1820 – Germans, Irishmen, Englishmen Poles, Russians, Italians, Hungarians from Asiatics, Latinamericans In the 19th century the number of inhabitants in America grew about twentyfold. Because of this development, the government decided to limit the number of immigrants that were allowed to come to America in the 20ies. They preferred influential persons like the scientist Albert Einstein, because they already had sufficient people employed in industry.
45 All immigrants, irrespective of time and nationality, had the same aim: They all wanted to live freely and independently in the “New World”.
46 To this day the United States of America is still a favourite destination for immigrants from all over the world. Today, most of the immigrants come from Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and African countries, and several follow family and friends, who immigrated years before. The immigration law of 1990 says, that one million immigrants a year can enter the United States of America legally. Including illegal entries to the United States, annual immigration today amounts to about 0.3 percent of the whole population. A good example is New York City: Nearly one of every four residents is foreign-born. The largest group of a single nationality, who have come to this city were the Dominicans.
47 California, Texas and New York are most concerned about immigration California, Texas and New York are most concerned about immigration. Nearly one third of the immigrants arriving in the United States each year land in California. Reasons are the proximity to Latin America and the Pacific Basin, where most of the immigrants come from, the booming economy and so the prospect of jobs. The Hispanics are the fastest growing population segment. Around 22 million Hispanics live in the United States, but about 3 million have no legal status. They immigrated illegally from: Mexico, particularly on the Pacific seabord where the “wetback” loophole remains (that means a possibility for illegal immigration by swimming over the border), Haiti, Cuba and troubled central American countries as Nicaragua and El Salvador.
48 Finally here is a comparison of the percentage of the different population groups in America in the course of 20 years: : % Whites, 8% Blacks, 7% Asians and % Hispanics _____________________________________________________ : % Whites, 8% Blacks, 8%Asians and % Hispanics
49 Sources: -internet (www. lycos. de; www. web Sources: -internet (www.lycos.de; -World and Press ,Special : “IMMIGRATION, the U.S. Melting pot today” -World and Press, Special : “USA Today”
51 National Parks of the USA Important facts of historyAir Quality in the National ParksWildlife in the National ParksSocial science and the National ParksVisiting a National ParkBy Florian Rehsöft
52 1.Important facts of history In 1864 Yosemite Valley became the first state park of America. Eight years later, in 1872, the spectacular Yellowstone country in the Wyoming and Montana territories became “a puplic park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people“. In the 1890s and early 1900s, Congress founded other National Parks, including Sequoia, Mount Rainier, Crater Lake and Glacier. By 1916 there were 14 National Parks in the USA but no organisation that managed them. So the army was asked to do that job in Yellowstone and the California parks. Military engineers and cavalrymen built park roads and buildings and fought against hunting, grazing, timber cutting and vandalism. In the other parks it was done by civilian appointees. In 1916 the Natinal Park Service was created and it was directed “to conserve the scenery and natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.“ Today the National Park Service includes 384 parks.
53 2.Air Quality in the National Parks The Air Resources Division of the National Park Service collects air quality of the National Parks. On the one hand they measure wind direction, wind speed, ambient temperature etc, on the other hand measured pollutant levels(SO2, NOx, Ozone, etc). They put this information on the internet, so if you like to go to a National Park you can look if it is harmful to your health to go. However in most parks the air is very fresh and clean, just sometimes you have problems with the Ozone especially in summer. The parks with the best air you can sea on the map(picture 1). For people with asthma or other illnesses it is very good to visit this places.
54 3.Wildlife in the National Parks In the National Parks you can find a lot of rare species of plants and animals. Some species you can not find anywhere else.(picture 2-9) So one of the interesting activities you can do in National Parks is “watching wildlife“. The National Park Service offers many opportunities to do it. The best time to watch wildlife is the early morning and the evening. But you have to be careful because these wild animals could be dangerous. So keep a respectful distance or take a guide.
56 4.Social science and the National Parks Since the first National Park was founded in 1872, the National Parks have got a special place in “the hearts of Americans“. In 1995 about 269 milion people visited the National Parks. Thus ensuring that the parks will survive in the future means a big challenge. If park managers like to protect plant and animal species they need basic scientific information about their habitats, ranges, life cycles etc. That was the reason why the National Park Service made 1996 a plan in 1996“Usable Knowledge: A Plan for Furthering Social Science and the National Parks. This plan helps managers and rangers to learn about “their“ parks.
57 5.Visiting a National Park If you like to visit a National Park it isn’t a problem. You find descriptions of the parks on the website of the National Park Service: There you also can by a National Parks Pass(picture11-13) which you need to visit the parks. It cost 50$ and you are allowed to visit every National Park of the National Park Service for one year.
61 Sights of New York City Structure: 1) Introduction 2) The Empire State Building 3) The Statue of Liberty 4) Central Park 5) Madison Square Garden 6) Rockefeller Center 7) St. Patrick´s Cathedral 8) The World Trade CenterBy Marja Bange
62 1)Introduction. New York is one of America´s most famous cities 1)Introduction New York is one of America´s most famous cities. Especially during the last weeks everyone talked about the city and the sad and cruel things that happened on 11th September There are still a lot of sights to admire. Here is a little selection of some of them.
63 2) The Empire State Building The Empire State Building is the landmark of Manhattan. It was built from 1929 to With the completion being in the time of the economic crisis in the USA it was difficult to rent the rooms. It had the nickname „The empty State Building„. With 381m the Empire State Building is the highest building in New York(before it´s destruction by terrorists the highest building was the World Trade Center). For its construction tons of steel were needed. 100km of water pipes and 5360km of phone cable were layed. 72 elevators are taking the employees to the offices on 85 floors. Tourists usually visit the 86th and 106th floor. The highest observation point is in the 46m high landing pole for zeppelins. But nowadays it is used for the transmission of radio and television programs. Because of its height the pole is struck by lightenings up to 500 time a year. It works somehow as a lightening conductor. That is the reason why visitors are not allowed to set foot on the observation point when it is thundery. But inside the building it´s not dangerous for the people.
65 3) The Statue of Liberty Without doubt the Statue of Liberty is the classical landmark of New York City. It is a sign for freedom in the whole world. The statue was a present from France to the American people. It was designed by the sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi who worked more than 21 years on his idea to erect a monument to liberty. Finally it was consecrated on 28th October, 1886 on Liberty Island. The statue is 46m high and weighs 225 tons. The star-shaped pedestal is again 47m high. Inside of the pedestal the Museum of Immigration is located. Miss Liberty consits of a steel scafold faced with a copper cover. It wears an seven-jagged crown that is the symbol for the seven seas and continents. In its left hand it holds the Declaration of Independence with the historical date July 4, To „climb up„ the Statue of Liberty you can take the elevator to the little observation point and from there go up 168 steps to reach the crown.
67 4) Central Park The Central Park was built by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux in the years from 1859 to For this purpose swamps had to be drained and rocks had to be blown up. 10 million truckloads of humus and soil were taken there and over trees and bushes were planted. Today the park is about 4 km long. It takes about 340 ha(5% of the ground of Manhattan) and streches from 59th to 110th street. 21 entrances lead into it and its big network(93km) of footpaths and ridingtracks and roads for carriages. At the weekends and sometimes on working days the Central Park is blocked for cars ( there are 4 roads for cars through the park). Besides several possibilities for lesure-time activities(roller- skating and ice-skating rinks, playgrounds,...) you can find a lot of architectural and scenic sights. For example the Strawberry Fields, the Belvedere Castle, the Central Park Zoo, and so on. It is advisable not to go into the park when it is dark because it´s not very peaceful but dangerous there at this time.
69 5) Madison Square Garden 5) Madison Square Garden Today´s building of the Madison Square Garden is already the 4th sports stadion in New York with this name. It was inaugurated in and has room for visitors. Moreover you can find a theater with 5600 seats a forum with 1000 seats, a cinema and a big bowling alley in this building. More than 600 events take place at Madison Square Garden yearly. The event reach from basketball- hockey matches to rockconcerts, tennis matches, boxing matches, antique fairs and dog shows.
71 6) Rockefeller Center The ground on which the Rockefeller Center stands was bought by John D. Rockefeller in 1928 to built an opera house. But because of depressions he decided to build a complex of 14 buildings what was done Between 1947 and more buildings werde added. The Rockefeller Center offers work for more than people and with 21 scysrapers it is the world biggest coherent scyscraper city. Apart from offices there are many restaurants, shops, televison studios and show-rooms. In winter you can even find an ice-skating rink there. The major building is 250 m high General Electric Building with the studios of NBC in it. On the 70th floor there is an observation point that you can only reach if you are a guest of the restaurant „Rainbow Room„ on the 65th floor. In front of the General Electric Building the Rockefeller Plaza is always decorated with flags. With many sculptures of famous artists like the bronzestatue of Prometheus by Paul Manship being in front of or in the buildings of the Rockefeller Center you can call it almost an Art Museum of the 20th century.
73 7) St Patrick's Cathedral. The Roman-Catholic St 7) St Patrick's Cathedral The Roman-Catholic St. Patrick´s Cathedral is the biggest cathedral in the USA. The neogothic church was created in the years from 1858 to The Kölner Dom and Westminster Abbey served as models for it. The two 100m high towers were added between and There is room for up to 2500 churchgoers. The cathedral is decorated richly. The gate is made of bronze and decorated with the saints of New York. White marble pillars separate the major nave fom the side naves. Above the high altar there is a canopy of bronze. Images of saints and prophets adorn the buttresses. Among them there is St. Patrick the patron saint of the Irish.
75 8) The World Trade Center 8) The World Trade Center On 11th September, 2001 the two once 420m high towers of the World Trade Center were destroyed by terrorists. At 8:45 and 9:03 two scheduled planes that were kidnapped by terrorists were directed in a suicide commando into the two towers and made them collapse. The culprit is Osama Bin Laden. More than people worked in 450 companies in the World Trade Center. The building had a ground of 64570m² . The enourmous weight was carried by an inner wirecage. The World Trade Center was built in It had 109. floors and was visited by about people a day. They took the elvator that brought them to the roof in only 58 seconds. From there they had a great view over the whole city. But nothing more than a smoky heap of rubble exists anymore of the once splendid building after this horrible and sad act of terror that costs more than 5000 people their lives.
79 Los Angeles By Iren Patsopoulos, Structure 1.)Facts about the city 2.)People and places 3.)The history 4.)The official flag 5.)Sights-Walk of fame 6.)Shopping in Beverly Hills 7.)Problems By Iren Patsopoulos,
80 1) Los Angeles lies at the southern coast of California 1) Los Angeles lies at the southern coast of California.The distance to the Mexican border amounts to 120 kms and to San Francisco about 640kms. San Francisco is the capital of California but Los Angeles is the biggest city with about 14,5million inhabitants and a surface of 6000km².L.A. is also the second biggest city of the United States of America. Because of the economic increase through the years , L.A. has become such a big city.Now it is the biggest industrial city west of the Mississippi River.
81 2) There live 5million Chicanos,about 1,2million Black people, 2,5 million Asians, more than Indians and about 5million white people. Thus it’s not self-evident that the language is English. Most of them there are Christians.Well known and most important parts of the town are:Venice, Hollywood, Santa Monica, Westwood, Beverly Hills and Downtown. Most important mountain ranges are San Gabriel and Santa Monica.
82 3) In 1769 the Spanish occupation of Los Angeles began 3) In 1769 the Spanish occupation of Los Angeles began.The Spanish camped by a river where fertile soil and availability of water for irrigation impressed them. Father Juan Crespi,who accompanied the group saw the location as having all the conditions for a large settlement.He named the River“El Rio de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula“,which means „The River of Our lady the Queen of the Angels of porciuncula“.In September 1771 the“San Gabriel Mission“ was founded as the center of the first „community“ in an area inhabited by small bands of Gabrielino Indians. The first Angelenos were Spaniards,Mexicans,Indians and Black people. Until 1822 the area was ruled by Spain when Mexico assumed jurisdiction. In 1846 the area came under U.S. control.In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made California a United States territory.Finally the original name of L.A. is Spanish and it is called“El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles“which means „The village of our lady, queen of Angels“ but now you simply call it Los Angeles also known as „City of Angels“.
83 4) L. A. has now also it’s own official flag 4) L.A. has now also it’s own official flag.The blue signifies clear skies.The green border is to keep L.A.beautiful and the gold writing „County of Los Angeles“ stands for the land of opportunity for everyone since gold was discovered in California.The seal is the official seal of the city.The flag was approved on October 17, 1967.
84 5) L. A. is very famous for it’s beautiful and interesting sights 5) L.A. is very famous for it’s beautiful and interesting sights.For example:Disneyland, Hollywood, Universal Studios, Zoo of L.A., Rodeo Drive, Griffith Park and the“ Walk of fame“.The „Walk of fame“ is the world’s most famous sidewalk, which is full of stars. On the stars you see the names of Hollywood stars like: Tom Cruise, Audrey Hepburn, Alfred Hitchcock, Grace Kelly and many more. These sidewalk „stars“ honour not only movie actors,but radio,TV,& stage performers, directors, singers, songwriters and other well-known show-biz personalities.
85 6) The world’s most famous shopping street is the Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills.There you find clothes of famous designers like:Prada, Gucci, Armani and so on. As you walk you recognize the name of every single store, with its sidewalks clean every morning, its glittering walls of glass, polished marble, stainless steel and exotic stone.The boutiques, shops and stores in Beverly Hills fall mainly into 3 categories:fashion, jewelry and art and antiques.
86 Disney Land Walk of fame Shopping by limo Walk of fameShopping by limo
87 7) Like every city L. A. has also problems 7) Like every city L.A. has also problems.The main problems are car traffic, earthquakes and racism. With more motor vehicles on the road, people shut down some motor ways because they thought they could run the whole local traffic by private cars and some busses.They also didn’t want to build an underground.People don’t like living near industrial areas , and finally the commuter services became more dense and the result was –closed freeways.Thus the city built a complicated road system.Because of the industry and the traffic, the air became polluted.That’s why L.A. has a big smog problem. On January 1994 an earthquake killed a lot of people and destroyed the city.To this day earthquakes always to be reckoned with. One of the biggest riots in L.A. was in April 1992, after 4 white policemen had ill-treated the Black Rodney King. Los Angeles stile has a problem of racism among some of its inhabitants .
88 The most famous shopping street Window shoppingThe most famous shopping street
89 Universal StudiosStreets of L.A.A woman shopping
92 The American Frontier – Opening up the West What the American Frontier actually isWhen the frontier was started to be pushed westwardAbout the reasons for the opening up of the WestAbout the problems the movement causedThe effects on the American characterBy Nina Schmieder
93 1. What the American Frontier actually is What was called ‘the American Frontier’ in the 19th century was the border between settled and unsettled land – or like historians describe it as an imaginary line dividing areas with more than two people per square mile from those with fewer people.
94 2. When the frontier was started to be pushed westward It all started in the 16th century when European immigration began with the establishment of Spanish outposts in Florida; in 1607 British settlers founded Jamestown in Virginia and in 1620 the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts. As a result the British soon controlled 13 separate colonies along the east coast. What made people finally stop looking back to Europe and begin to look west, was when in 1776 these British colonies declared their independence from Britain. By this time the opening up of the West began: Settlers moved west along the rivers, crossed the Appalachian Mountains and having crossed the Mississippi River, they finally reached the area today known as the Midwest. With more and more pioneers coming to these territories, new states were created there and became part of the Union. The settlement of the West finally had been completed by about 1890.
95 3. About the reasons for the opening up of the West The main reasons prompting the movement westward were the strong belief in God people had as well as many economic reasons: Thus the Americans of the 19th century thought that America was the ‘Promised Land’ and that they were following God’s will when they cultivated and civilized the whole continent. They saw there task in creating a land of freedom and democracy for future generations of immigrants. Moreover, the West came to be seen as a land of golden opportunities where they were promised cheap land. After all, the immigrants motto was ‘where there is bread there (is my) fatherland’. Besides the opening up of the west was supported by the first transcontinental railway route from Nebraska to California which was completed in This led to the development of new towns growing into wealthy cities along the tracks. Even many of the states joining the Union in the 19th century owed their growth to the railroad because by this way millions of immigrants came to the new territories.
96 4. About the problems the movement caused Nevertheless, the movement westward was not always peaceful. Thus there were many territorial conflicts between whites and the Native Americans who usually had to give up almost all their land and were settled by force. Because of that the original one million Native Americans had been reduced by violence, hunger and disease to about 200,000 by 1900.
97 5. The effects on the American character All in all the frontier experience had a great influence on the American character: While cultivating the land, people were taught to be completely independent of any form of government and they went ahead of it, not behind it. Furthermore, even today, Americans easily move from one part of the country to another because they still remember their forefathers who got up and went somewhere else looking for something better. Thus there are still many people who cruise up and down the continent with the seasons, avoiding the changes and living in a wandering summer. Archibald MacLeish describes it like this: ‘The map of America is a map of endlessness, of opening out, of forever and ever.(…) Change and diversity are the meaning of our world: the American dimension. It is because the season changes, the weather changes, the country changes, that the map goes on and on. What can change will never have an ending.’
99 Railroad Commissioners at State Line, Kansas, from the album Across the Continent on the Union Pacific Railway, E.D
100 Dale Creek Bridge, from above, from the album The Great West Illustrated in a Series of Photographic Views Across the Continent; Taken Along the Line of the Union Pacific Railroad, West from Omaha, Nebraska (Vol. I) 1869
101 Work Crew on the Chicago, Milwaukee, and Saint Paul Railway near Terry, Montana ca. 1907
102 Mining on the American River, near Sacramento ca. 1852
106 THE STATUE OF LIBERTY (STATUE OF LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORLD) the Statue of Liberty:the symbol of freedom worldwidethe history of the Statue of Libertythe structure of the statuethe Statue of Liberty:the symbols and their meaningsEllis Island – a‘‘museum‘‘dedicated to the immigrantsthe words for the Statue of LibertyBy Katharina Thamm
107 1. The Statue of Liberty:the symbol of freedom worldwide The Statue of‘‘Liberty Enlightening the World‘‘ , as she was originally called , is one of the most famous and important sights of the USA and also of the whole world. Since 1886 , the Statue of Liberty has stood as a symbol of freedom in New York harbor.It also commemorates the American Revolution and French-American friendship , for it was given by the people of France.
108 2. The history of the Statue of Liberty Edouard de Laboulaye , French historian and admirer of American political institutions , suggested that the French present a monument to the United States . The latter was to provide the pedestal and the site.It should also commemorate the centennial of US independence.So the French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi( )designed a statue with the intention to honor the idea of liberty.He visualized a colossal one at the entrance of New York harbor , welcoming the people of the world with the torch of liberty. On Washington’s Birthday , Feb.22 , 1877 , Congress approved the use of a site on Bedloe’s Island , suggested by Bartholdi , to build the statue there.(On 3 August 1956 Eisenhower changed the name to Liberty Island).
109 3. The structure of the statue The structure of the statue also is very interesting .The statue weighs 225 tons and the copper sheeting weighs 100 tons.The height amounts to about 93 metres.There are 167 steps from the land level to the top of the pedestal , 168 steps inside the statue to the head and 54 rungs on the ladder leading to the arm that holds the torch.And the iron skeleton , which props up the statue , was designed by Gustav Eiffel , who became later famous because of the‘‘Eiffeltower‘‘. Two years of restoration work was completed before the statue’s centennial celebration on July 4 , 1986.Among other repairs , the multimillion dollar project included for example installing an elevator and replacing the torch of the statue.
110 4. The Statue of Liberty:the symbols and their meanings The Statue of Liberty symbolizes liberty and democracy in the form of a woman wearing flowing robes and a spiked crown of seven spokes(symbolizing the seven oceans and the seven continents).It holds a torch aloft in its right hand and carries in its left the declaration of independence with the historical date‘‘July 4 , 1776‘‘.And the broken chains which lie at its feet , symbolize the overthrow of tyranny.
111 5. Ellis Island – a‘‘museum‘‘dedicated to the immigrants Between 1892 and 1954 , about 12 million hopeful immigrants from many countries stopped at Ellis Island for immigration processing and medical examination prior to entry into the USA.It was closed as an immigration station in 1954.And after 8 years this privately funded $156 million restoration project , Ellis Island, was reopned as a museum in 19.It’s dedicated to the millions of immigrants from all over the world that now make up the bulk of the US population.You also can visit this museum and the Statue of Liberty by taking the Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island ferry from Battery Park at the tip of Manhattan.
112 6. The words for the Statue of Liberty There are the words for the Statue of Liberty dedicated by Emma Lazarus , New York City , 1883: ‘‘Give me your tired , your poor , your huddled masses yearning to breathe free , the wretched refuse of your teeming shore , send these , the homeless , tempest-post to me , I lift my lamp beside the golden door!‘‘ Originally conceived as a gesture of international friendship , the statue has become a global symbol of freedom!!!!!!
113 in different views Some pictures of the Statue of Liberty in different views Some pictures of
117 The U.S. Navy SEALs From the SEA, from the AIR, from the LAND -- the U.S. Navy's SEA,AIR,LAND (SEAL) Teams are the most feared and respected commando force in the U.S. Military - if not the world. They are the most elite and highly trained force in the world - as well as the most flexible. Formed in 1962 by President J. F. Kennedy as a maritime counterpart to the U.S. Army Special Forces (the men that wear "Green Berets"), the SEALs have amassed a remarkable history of successes and "have become legendary in their exploits" - both on and off duty. The Teams have operated in every hellhole known to modern warfare - and come away with many victories, "some bruises and a vast history of achievements." Most SEAL missions are unreported and unknown to the general public - "and due to focus, dedication and training, hugely successful.
118 SEALs are trained to operate in small units - one or two men, up to platoon strength of sixteen. They work best in squads of eight or fewer. "Most missions are clandestine in nature - planned in excruciating detail and executed with precision and swiftness." During peacetime SEALs find themselves with the same rigorous training as during war - the belief being that the more you sweat in peacetime, the less you will bleed in war. And so they go through what is considered by some to be the toughest military training in the world. Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) training is conducted at the Naval Special Warfare Center in Colonrado. "Students encounter obstacles that develop and test their stamina, leadership and ability to work as a team.
119 During Vietnam SEAL Teams One and Two amassed a combined kill ratio of 200:1, with only 46 deaths resulting mostly from accidents and poor intelligence rather than enemy direct fire. "These teams were developed to conduct unconventional warfare, counter-guerilla warfare and clandestine operations in both blue and brown water environments."
120 "The SEALs performed heroically in Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield/Storm in Iraq (200 combat missions without casualty) and most recently in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia." Whenever the Commander in Chief needs a no-nonsense, decisive and lethal solution to a foreign policy problem, the U.S. Navy SEALs are the force of choice. So if the Afghanistan governement will not hand over the radical Taliban-Leader Osama Bin Laden,it could happen that President Bush will give the order to the U.S. Navy that the SEAL Teams should catch Bin Laden and take him to the U.S.A. And the reason, why special forces like the SEALs always will be needed is that there will not be an end to war.
121 October, 7 Actuell happened: The U. S. A October, Actuell happened: The U.S.A. President Bush gave the order to the the U.S. Navy SEAL's that they should fight against Osama Bin Laden and his terrorists. The SEAL Teams had been taken in Afghanistan by planes and ships. Right now the strongest special force of the world is fighting the terrorists at the military bases . I think I will speak for the hole class if I say that we hope their mission will be succsesful and then there will be an end of this war!
128 The Death Penalty By Vesna Bjegac I. History a) Opposition b) Furman vs. Georgiac) Gregg vs. Georgia II. The law todaya) Requirements for death penaltyb) Situation in the different statesc) Execution, from 1977 to 199III. My opinionBy Vesna Bjegac
129 I. The dealth penalty has a long history in the United States of America. In the southern states the death penalty was used more as in other states. Between 1930 and 1967 the northern states carried out 403 executions. At the same time 2307 persons were executed in the southern states. The death penalty was possible, not only for murder also for rape, especially in case of black perpetrators and white victims. For example: Between 1924 and 1964 the State of Georgia executed 82 white persons and 304 black persons.
130 a) But already in the 19th century first groups fought for the abolition of the death penalty. After World War II opposition grew. In the sixties of the last century racial discrimination and prejudiced juries were investigated as far as they were concerned in the death penalty. The support of lawyers and the civil rights movement were responsible that there were no executions after 1967 while a judgment of the US Supreme Court on the death penalty was awaited.
131 b) In 1972 the death penalty was abolished following the lawsuit “ Furman against Georgia”.5 of 4 judges of the US Supreme Court voted, that the death penalty was a “ cruel and unusual punishment” and therefore violated the 8th and 14th Amendment of the constitution.One of the most important reasons for this decision was the “ arbitrary and unpredictable” use of death penalty. After this the single states reworked their respective laws. For example: in some states the death penalty was now confined to special crimes. In other states there was a new yet restricted latitude for judges and juries. Already in states enacted new laws on the death penalty.
132 c) Between 1976 – 1978 there were sentences of the US Supreme Court about reinstating the death penalty. One of the most important was the Case of Gregg against Georgia in In a 7:6 vote the judges of the US Supreme Court ruled, that the new law was constutional.The new law said that after someone had been found guilty, there had to be a second lawsuit which decided whether the person would get a life term in prison or the death penalty. At this time there came the ruling that confining death sentences for special crimes was unconstitutional and after this 21 states had again to rework their laws. These laws are still valid.
133 II. a) Today the death penalty is only possible if we speak about a first degree murder.
134 This is required for the death penalty: Especially gruesome and brutal murder more than one victim Murder together with another crime (robbery, rape, kidnapping) Murder by paymentvictim was a police man or prison guard in the line of duty Offender is a prison inmate and convicted for a capital crime Offender has a violent record Offender instigated someone to kill or killed by assignment
135 b)The death penalty can be carried out by hanging, electrocution, in thegas chambre and by lethal injection, which is the least painful method.
136 States without death penalty States with death penalty and executionStates with death penalty/but without execution
137 III. AGAINST Nobody has the right to play God Death penalty is a barbaric remnant of uncivilized society The poor, males and racial miniorities are overrepresented among those executed The death penalty does not fulfil its task
139 The FBI Origins Famous cases FBI against the Terrorists FBI Today By David Kleber
140 1. OriginsThe FBI originated from a force of Special Agents in 1908 created by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte during the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. He applied that progressive philosophy to the Department of Justice by creating a corps of Special Agents. It had neither a name nor an officially designated leader other than the Attorney General. Yet, these former detectives and Secret Service men were the forerunners of the FBI. in March 1909 the force of 34 agents became a permanent part of the Department of Justice. Over the next few years, the number of Special Agents grew to more than 300, and these individuals were complemented by another 300 Support Employees. Until the 1970s there were many wars in America and the FBI had a lot to do for the domestic security. From 1978 to the very end of the 1980s, international crime increased extremely. In 1988, the FBI employed 9663 Special Agents and Support Employees in 58 Field Offices and 15 Legal Attaches. They still continue the mission of that first small group of Special Agents in 1908 who established a tradition of service that has become the Bureaus´s motto: Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity.
141 2. Famous casesThe Brinks Robbery:In January the 1950, a group of armed, masked men stole, $1,218, in cash and $1,557, in checks. Nearly every police of Massachusetts and Special Agents of the FBI quickly joined in the investigation. These men had just committed the "crime of the century," the perfect crime," the "fabulous Brink's robbery." The end of this case was in There were arrested only eight people. If you want to know more about this case, you have to go on:
142 Alphonse Capone (Al Capone): He was born in Brooklyn, in 1899, and grew up there with street gangs.About 1920 he joined the gang of Johnny Torrio in Chicago. Torrio had become an influential lieutenant in the Colosimo mob. The rackets spawned by enactment of the Prohibition Amendment, illegal brewing, distilling and and distribution of beer and liquor, were viewed as "growth industries." In 1925, Capone became boss of the gang. In 1929 this Gang killed the "Bugs", another gang but not as big as Capones' Gang, with Machine-guns at a garage. After that, the FBI hunted the gang. Capone was arrested very often but it was never for a long time. In 1939 he was released after seven years, because he had big deals and of course good connections. After having visit a psychiatry he died by his woman and his child in Palm Island in January 25, 1947.
144 3.FBI against the Terrorists At the moment, the FBI is today releasing 19 Photographs of individuals beloved to be the hijackers of the four airliners on September the 11th The FBI needs more information. They also need the help of everyone who has ever seen or heard something about the plans of the terrorists. If you know something, please look on these website. http//:www.ifccfbi.gov/complaint/terrorist.asp
145 4.FBI TodayThe most important duties of the FBI today are: background investigations, civil rights, domestic terrorism, national foreign intelligence, organized crime/drug cases, violent crimes and white-collar crimes. The FBI has approximately 11,400 Special Agents and over 16,400 other employees who perform professional, administrative, technical, clerical, craft, trade, or maintenance operations. FBI field offices are located in 56 major cities, 55 in the US and one in Puerto Rico. All over that, there is the director, Robert S. Mueller, the 3rd.
149 Talk about Alaska 1. History. The Russian Time Talk about Alaska 1. History The Russian Time Alaska becomes a part of the USA The Gold Rush Oil was found 2. Geography 3. Economy Oil industry Minerals Fishing industry Tourism 4. AnimalsBy Martin Schrön
150 The Danish sailor Vitus Bering travelled to Russia and discovered Alaska. The Russian founded their first settlement, in They dealed in fur, until they nearly had all sea otters wiped out. Consequently, Alaska wasn’t a profitable colony anymore. The Settlers had to fight against the Natives and against the influence of the British and the USA. As a result of the “Crimean Wars”, Russia didn’t have much money and sold Alaska for 7,2 million Dollars to the USA. This was very controversial in the USA. Alaska was called the “Seward Icebox” or the “Seward Folly”. In 1872, gold was found in Alaska. At first only Natives searched for it, but when in 1897 the outside world heard it, people followed the “Gold Rush”. That gold was found changed the opinion about Alaska and Alaska got one member in the Congress, who wasn’t allowed to vote. In 1957 oil was found. Not least because of this, Alaska became the 49th state of the USA, on the 3rd January 1959.
151 With 1 430 000 km², Alaska is the greatest state of the USA With km², Alaska is the greatest state of the USA. It has about inhabitants. The density of population is 0.25 inhabitants per km². The biggest cities are Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan. Juneau is also the capital of Alaska. Mt. McKinley (6194m) is the highest mountain of Alaska. Alaska is geographically split up into five regions. The Far North, the Interior, the Southwest, the Southcentral and the Inside Passage.
152 On the one hand, the costs of living in Alaska are the highest of the USA, because they have to import everything, but on the other hand the people get 15% more money for their work. The Oil Industry is the most important industry in Alaska, because it’s the most profitable. Alaska has also many mineral resources like copper, iron, lead, zinc and silver. Also very important is the fishing industry, because most people work there. Agriculture isn’t important, because of the bed only 8% of the possibly land is used. Tourism is very important. About people visit Alaska every year. The state gets 1.6 milliard dollars only from tourism.
153 Alaska is the home of many different animals, so about 400 different bird species live there. It’s also the home of the polar bear, who lives in the North at the coasts. It’s the greatest mammal on the continent and it can get 3 meters high and weight up to 800 kg. Also in the North you can find the arctic fox. Minus 50 degrees are no problem for it. In the South of Alaska, the Dall Sheep and the Mountain Goat live. They both eat plants which they find in the mountain, their living space. Their enemies are bears, wolves and the human being.
156 San Francisco By Sabina Zimmerman 1. Sights a) Trans America Pyramid b) Golden Gate Bridgec) Alcatrazd) Twin Peakse) Lombard Streetf) Union Square2. Districtsa) Chinatownb) Financial Districtc) Fisherman’s Wharfd) Mission District3. Historya) Hippie MovementBy Sabina Zimmerman
157 San Francisco is a city with a unique flair San Francisco is a city with a unique flair. Some people say it is a very European city because European influences are everywhere. San Francisco is a peninsula, the city is surrounded by the Pacific.
158 The famous landmarks are the Trans America Pyramid, which was built by William Pereira in When he showed the building plans everybody was shocked because of its shape. The Golden Gate Bridge was build by Joseph B. Sraus from , but the first examinations were already started in The bridge cost 35 Mio.$ and is 10 km long. It connects San Francisco and Marin County. The island of Alcatraz is famous because it was a prison, where for example Al Capone and Robert ‘Birdman’ Stroud were jailed. Nobody is known who broke out successfully, but three men were never found. Perhaps they did. Now it is a tourist attraction and some people intend to build a hotel on it. The Twin Peaks are the highest hills in San Francisco, they are about 300 m high. From there you have the best view over the city. Another landmark is Lombard Street, it is the most crooked street of the whole world. The hill was too steep to build a straight street there. The function of the Cable Car is unique, too. It was impossible for normal trains to run on such steep streets. The most famous place is Union Square, which will be renovated until summer 2002.
159 There are different districts in San Francisco There are different districts in San Francisco. Chinatown is probably the most popular one. It is the biggest Chinatown outside China.Many things may look or smell strangly, but you can see the original Chinese culture. In the Financial District there are almost only skyscrapers, such like the Trans American Pyramid or the Bank of America, which is a black and big building. Fisherman’s Wharf is also a big tourist attraction. From there you can take a boat, go to Alcatraz and join a guided tour. In Mission District one can find the very first building, built by the Spanish in 1776, which is called Mission Delores. Many Latin-Americans live in Mission District. San Francisco has also two famous parks: Presidio and the Golden Gate Park.
160 An important role in San Francisco’s history was played by the big Hippie movement, which started in Haight Ashbury in San Francisco became the capital of this movement. LSD played a central role in the summer of ‘67. But today only a few shops and people remind us that there was the biggest hippie movement ever.
161 You see, in San Francisco there are a lot of very interesting sights, districts and an interesting history, but it is also a university city. Berkeley and Stanford University are both not far away.
164 The political System of the U.S.A. I) Historical backgroundII) The three Branches1) The President2) The Supreme Court3) The Congressa) The Senateb) The House of RepresentativesIII) The Bill of RightsBy Christine Reitmayer
165 1.Historical background In 1776, the thirteen British colonies in America declared, that from now they would be free and independent. The revolutionary war followed (until 1783). They decided that it was their right to choose their own form of government. In Lincoln’s words:“ of the people, by the people, for the people”. The most important thing was to make sure that one branch of government doesn’t become too strong. The United States are organized around three branches: legislative, executive and judicature. All of them is not completely independent of the others. ( system of checks and balances)
166 2.The three branches 2.1) The president ( executive) The president is: - the head of the state - the head of his party - the chief executive - the chief legislator - the chief diplomat - the chief commander of the Army ( but is not allowed to declare a state the war ) - the chief crisis decision maker He/ She must: - be resident of the USA for at least 14 years or a natural born American - must be at least 35 years old - must live by moral standards and must believe in God must not have previous convictions He /She is elected for 4 years and is allowed to run for reelection for one more time (22nd amendment).
167 2.2) Supreme Court (judicature) Its task is to watch the other two branches weather their acts are in accordance with the Constitution The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. The President nominates them but they must also be approved by the Senate, after this they hold office for live ( in special cases Impeachment is possible).
168 2. 3) Congress (legislative) Congress consists of two parts: 2.3) Congress (legislative) Congress consists of two parts: a) The Senate b) The House of Representatives a) The Senate consists of 100 Senators, two from each state b) The House of Representatives includes 435 member, but the number of Representatives from each state depends on its population. Each House of the Congress has the power to introduce legislation, but the other one can also vote against it. Thus legislation can only become law if both houses agree.
169 3.The Bill of Rights (First ten amendments) The were proposed by Congress on September 25, 1789 and ratified on December 15, 1st AMENDMENT Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abriding the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peacceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 2nd AMENDMENT Bearing Arms A well-regulated Milita being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.
170 3rd AMENDMENT Quartering of Troops No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner; nor, in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 4th AMENDMENT Searches and Seizures The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no Warrants shall isssue, but upon probable cause, suppoted by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be seached and the persons or things to be seized.
171 5th AMENDMENT Criminal Proceedings; Due Process; Eminent Domain No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, exept in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual services, in time of War, or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself ; nor be deprived of live, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
172 6th AMENDMENT Criminal Proceedings In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be cinfronted with the wittnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the Assistance of counsel for his defence th AMENDMENT Civil Trials In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
173 8th AMENDMENT Punishment for Crimes Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 9th AMENDMENT Unenumerated Rights The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 10th AMENDMENT Powers Reserved to the State The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. But one of the most important Amendments is the 13th . It was ratified on December 6, 1865 and forbids slavery in the United States.
178 By Kathrin Hechentaler Washington DC1. Location2. Landscape3. Climate4. History5. Washington DC todayAttractionsBy Kathrin Hechentaler
179 Washington DC is more than a city but not quite a state Washington DC is more than a city but not quite a state. It is a "district" created by the Congress of the United States in 1790 as a place to meet and transact their affairs of government. The capital of the USA is the seat of the US government.1. Location:Washington DC is located near the middle of the eastern coast of the USA. It is 230 miles south of New York City, less than an hour's drive from Baltimore and more than two hours from Philadelphia.The city is near the vast Chesepeake Bay about 100 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean.
180 2. Landscape:The surrounding landscape is nearly flat with some gentlyrolling hills and shallow valleys.3. Climate:Summers can get quite warm with temperatures often exceeding 80 degrees F during June through August. Winters can be quite cold with temperatures falling below freezing from December through March. Atlantic storms can bring deluges or large amounts of snow on the area in the winter.
181 4. HistoryWashington DC was originally a ten-square-mile piece of land covering the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland. It was called the District of Columbia and was the new capital city named Washington in honor of the founding father and first president.Washington DC is one of the few cities in the USA that was built according to a plan, which was made by an French engineer named Pierre L’Enfant. In 1790, President Washington hired him from Lafayette’s army to design a glorious capital city similar to Paris. The complete name of the city is Washington, District of Columbia. But most people call it Washington DC or just DC.
182 6. Attractions:There is a lot to see in Washington DC and most of it is free.There are offered many historical and educational attractions and a variety of cultural and entertainment activities.You can tour the US Capitol Building, which is on a slight hill at the eastern end of the Mall. It’s a beautiful white building of Greek design, with a large dome, a big staircase and two wings. The south wing is the US House of Representatives and the north wing is the US Senate.
183 You can visit the White House, since 1800 the offical residence of the President. It’s located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, two blocks north of the Mall near the Washington Monument. The winner of a 1792 competition for its design was the Irish-American architect James Hoban. After the building was burned by the British in 1814, it was reconstructed by Hoban.The Washington Monument is the most prominent feature of the DC skyline, designed in The actual construction began in 1848 and was not completed until It is a 185 meter high, white marble obelisk at the top of a slight rise in the center of the Mall.
184 The Lincoln Memorial was constructed in the style of a classical greek temple. It contains a 6 meter high marble statue of Abraham Lincoln sitting there. Above the statue the words: "In this Temple, as in the hearts of the people, for whom he saved the Union, the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever".The Jefferson Memorial is a beautiful white marble structure. It contains a 6 meter tall bronze statue of President Jefferson.The Smithsonian Institute Museum is one of the finest collections of museums in the world. It is composed of 14 separate museums.
185 Nearly everyone's favorite is the National Air and Space Museum, which shows many original historic aircraft and spacecraft models, instruments and equipment. It is for example part of the Smithsonian Institution.The finest collection of Western European art from the 12th through the 20th century, as well as an impressive collection of American paintings is contained in the National Gallery of Art.
186 Another attraction is the Holocaust Museum presenting a recollection of the terrible effects of in Europe. It memorializes the 6 million Jews and millions of other victims of the Nazism.There are so many things to see and do in Washington DC. Even using the well-planned street system, which is divided into quadrants is an attraction.
189 Seattle 1)A little bit of history 2)Seattle today: 2)Seattle today:3)Some information about our partnerschoolBy Friedrich Bossert
190 1)A litlle bit history Seattle was founded in 1851 by white settlers in the northwest of State of Washington, USA. The city was named for the helpful Indian headman of the Suquamis- and Duwamish-Indians, Chief Seattle(1786 – 1866). In 1861 the University of Washington was founded there.With a few more than 3000 citizens, Seattle in 1880 was the second largest town in Washington Territory -- after Walla Walla. However, a building boom that soon followed increased Seattle's population to more than 230,000 in 30 years. The "Great Fire" of June 6, 1889 reduced the firetrap business district to ruins and destroyed more than 30 city blocks. Following the Great Fire, cable for electricity were extended to Seattle's many new suburbs. In 1919 the city and suburbs were electrified. In 1891 two new universities were opened. The Seattle story owed a good part of its success to its role as homeport for most of Puget Sound's "Mosquito Fleet" steamers. In the 1890's Seattle was the principal outfitter for the thousands of "traveling men" heading for the gold fields on the Klondike. In 1893, the transcontinental Great Northern Railway reached Seattle, but also the great economic panic of that year.
191 Photo of University of Washington 1861 E. M. Sammis photo of Chief Seattle
192 The Smith Tower was dedicated in 1914 and more than doubled the height of the city's skyline. In the same year there was a general strike. It began on February 6 and paralyzed the city for five days. Never before had the nation seen a labour action of this kind. Many in Seattle were even expecting the revolution. In 1916, Bill Boeing personally tested the "B&W," his company's first plane, from a hangar on Lake Union. In 1917, the Port of Seattle was, after New York City, the busiest port in the nation. After the second world war there was a big economic boom. Big companies were built in or near Seattle. For example Microsoft in Redmond. Since the construction in 1962, the 185m high Space Needle has become Seattle's international symbol.
194 2)Seattle today Seattle has been ranked as one of the best US cities in which to make a investment. Key factors are Seattle's skilled work force, manufacturing capability, education and research, quality transportation and infrastructure, access to international and domestic markets, and government accessibility. Other important factors are cultural diversity, an international perspective, and high quality of life. Today the greater Seattle area is a leading center for advanced technology in aerospace, computer software, bioinformatics, genomics, telemedicine, electronics, medical equipment, and environmental engineering. The region's single most important employer is Boeing, which is the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world. Microsoft, the world's leading personal computer software company has its headquarter there, too. And there are many more famous companies like Costco or Amazone.com. But in 1999 Seattle was also a center of anticapitalist protests. On November 29 over 50,000 tried succesfully to disrupt the WTO(World Trade Organisation) meeting in Seattle.
195 Now Seattle has about 530,000 residents Now Seattle has about 530,000 residents. So it is the biggest city in the nothwest of the USA(picture9). In the city there is much traffic because of that. But the city is very interesting, too. Seattle’s mild winters and cool summers enable year-round outdoor activities. High temperatures in July average about 75° F (24° C), while low temperatures in winter drop below freezing an average of only 15 days per year. Average yearly rainfall in Seattle is 36.2 inches (92 cm), compared to 19.5 inches (50 cm) in San Francisco, 34.5 (88 cm) in Chicago, 39 inches (99 cm) in Washington, D.C. and 40.3 inches (102 cm) in New York City. So there are many possibilities to do sports in this city. They even have three very important sportsteams: The Seattle Mariners in Baseball, the Seattle Sonics in Basketball and the Seattle seahawks in American Football. All major religions are represented in the greater Seattle area. In addition to various Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox churches, there are numerous Jewish synagogues and Buddhist temples, as well as two Islamic mosques. There are also very many museums and other cultural or recreational facilities.
196 The education standard in Seattle is very high The education standard in Seattle is very high. There are three universities. The oldest one, the University of Washington has about 35,000 Students, Seattle University has about 5,500 Students and Seattle Pacific University has about 3,500 Students. Seattle is also known for its word-class music and dance, with the Seattle Symphonie, Seattle Opera, and Pacific Nothwest Ballet. That and the fact that there is a very nice natural landscape around Seattle makes me think it could be right what the Fortune(magazine,1996) says: “Best city for work and family“. In a few weeks (beginning of November) Seattle has its 150th birthday, but many people can't be as happy about it as they would be without what happened on September 11 and what is happening now. Paul Schell, Mayor of Seattle: “Our thoughts and prayers are with all of those touched by this unspeakable, horrific tragedy."
197 3)Some information about our partnerschool The FMG(Franz-Marc-Gymnasium) and JFK(John F. Kennedy)-Highschool have been involved in the “German American Partnership Program“(GAPP) for many years. And as I know from teachers and students of our school, the exchanges were very nice and instructive in the last years. I heard that people are very friendly to their guests there. And it must be very exciting to see the Space Needle or to stand below a giant redwood. And if that is not enough, you learn English without having to work too hard.
200 George W. Bush jr.- the 43rd President of the USA 1) The President’s Biography2) Bush’s opinion on foreign politics3) PicturesBy Franziska Schenke
201 Today I will tell you something about George W. Bush jr Today I will tell you something about George W. Bush jr., the 43rd President of the United States. I will start with the President’s Biography, then I will talk about his opinion on foreign politics. After that I will read a part of his “ acceptance speech”, which he held August 4, George W. Bush’s Biography George W. Bush was born July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut, when his father still was a student in Yale. In 1948 the family moved to Texas, and he grew up in Houston and Midland with his brothers and sisters( he also had a sister who died of leukemia). From 1964 to 1968 he went to University and graduated in history. From 1968 to 1973 he served as an F-102 pilot for the Texas Air National Guard, but didn’t have to go to Vietnam.
202 In 1975 he received a Master of Business Administration(MBA) from Harvard Business School. His career in the oil and gas business in Midland started in 1975 and he worked in the energy industry until After working on his father’s successful 1988 presidential campaign, he assembled the group of partners that purchased the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in Until he was elected Governor on November 8, 1994, he served as managing general partner of the Texas Rangers. George jr. started his political activities in 1978, when he lost an election for the GOP with 47% against the Democrat Kent Hance. In 1994 he unexpectedly became Governor of Texas with 53,5%. Four years later he was re-elected with 68,6%. There where 49% of Hispanics and 65% of women voting for him.
203 In 1977 he met Laura Welch and married her three months later In 1977 he met Laura Welch and married her three months later. Laura is a former teacher and librarian who grew up in Midland, too. Laura and George Bush have got 19-year-old twin daughters, Barbara and Jenna. The Bush family also includes their dogs, Spot and Barney, and a cat, India. George Bush is the grandchild of the late Methodist preacher and Republican senator of Connecticut, Prescott Bush and the brother of the Republican Governor of Florida, Jeb Bush.
204 Bush’s opinion on foreign politics George Bush says, that the USA should show commitment in the world, but that that doesn’t mean, that their forces are the answer to every difficult foreign political situation - a substitute for strategy. American Internationalism shouldn’t mean acting without vision, activity without priorities and missions without an end - an action that means the waste of energy and readiness of the American people. The United States need their European allies as much as their friends in other regions, to help them managing security threats, when those arise. For their allies that means the participation at the great chances of Eurasia, but also the sharing of riscs for protecting peace. The support of friends allows the United States to protect their power and their will for the vital interests they have together with their allies.
205 For example he says in his speech of september 20, 2001, that he thanks people all over the world for their support after the attacks on September 11, He also asks every nation to help: “We will ask, and we will need, the help of police forces, intelligence services, and banking systems around the world. The United States is grateful that many nations and many international organizations have already responded – with sympathy and with support. Nations from Latin America, to Asia, to Africa, to Europe, to the Islamic World. Perhaps the NATO Charter reflects best the attitude of the world: An attack on one is an attack on all.”