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Candide, ou l'Optimisme.

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Presentation on theme: "Candide, ou l'Optimisme."— Presentation transcript:

1 Candide, ou l'Optimisme

2 Written by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of the Enlightenment
Published in 1759 under a pseudonym Immediately banned because of the critical views of religion and government Very popular and cause of scandal Adapted in a comical operetta by Leonard Bernstein in 1956

3 Candide is a humorous, adventurous, fast paced philosophical tale that attacks Liebniz’ optimism: “All is for the best in the best of possible worlds.” It is a satire presented in a matter of fact style. It narrates incredible adventures, on the background of real historical events such as the 7 Years War and the earthquake of Lisbon of 1755.

4 Satire - the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc. Sarcasm - A form of wit that is marked by the use of sarcastic language and is intended to make its victim the butt of contempt or ridicule. Irony - a technique of indicating, as through character or plot development, an intention or attitude opposite to that which is stated. Parody - a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing Allegory - a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another.

5 Sarcastic suggests sharp taunting and ridicule that wounds: "a deserved reputation for sarcastic, acerbic and uninhibited polemics" (Burke Marshall). Ironic implies a subtler form of mockery in which an intended meaning is conveyed obliquely: "a man of eccentric charm, ironic humor, and—above all—profound literary genius" (Jonathan Kirsch). Caustic means corrosive and bitingly trenchant: "The caustic jokes ... deal with such diverse matters as political assassination, talk-show hosts, medical ethics" (Frank Rich). Satirical implies exposure, especially of vice or folly, to ridicule: "on the surface a satirical look at commercial radio, but also a study of the misuse of telecommunications" (Richard Harrington). Sardonic is associated with scorn, derision, mockery, and often cynicism: "He was proud, sardonic, harsh to inferiority of every description" (Charlotte Brontë).

6 Characters Candide, naïve, Pangloss Cunegonde Old woman

7 Geographical settings
Westphalia, Germany

8 Institutions attacked by Voltaire

9 Chapters 1-10 in Europe: Germany, Holland, Portugal
Chapters in the Americas: Chapters in Europe and the Ottoman Empire

10 Summary of Candide Chapter 1 - How Candide Was Brought Up in a Magnificent Castle and How He Was Driven Thence Chapter 2 - What Befell Candide among the Bulgarians Chapter 3 - How Candide Escaped from the Bulgarians and What Befell Him Afterward Chapter 4 - How Candide Found His Old Master Pangloss Again and What Happened to Him Chapter 5 - A Tempest, a Shipwreck, an Earthquake, and What Else Befell Dr. Pangloss, Candide, and James, the Anabaptist Chapter 6 - How the Portuguese Made a Superb Auto-De-Fe to Prevent Any Future Earthquakes, and How Candide Underwent Public Flagellation Chapter 7 - How the Old Woman Took Care Of Candide, and How He Found the Object of His Love Chapter 8 - Cunegund's Story Chapter 9 - What Happened to Cunegund, Candide, the Grand Inquisitor, and the Jew Chapter 10 - In What Distress Candide, Cunegund, and the Old Woman Arrive at Cadiz, and Of Their Embarkation

11 Chapter 11 - The History of the Old Woman
Chapter 12 - The Adventures of the Old Woman Continued Chapter 13 - How Candide Was Obliged to Leave the Fair Cunegund and the Old Woman Chapter 14 - The Reception Candide and Cacambo Met with among the Jesuits in Paraguay Chapter 15 - How Candide Killed the Brother of His Dear Cunegund Chapter 16 - What Happened to Our Two Travelers with Two Girls, Two Monkeys, and the Savages, Called Oreillons Chapter 17 - Candide and His Valet Arrive in the Country of El Dorado-What They Saw There Chapter 18 - What They Saw in the Country of El Dorado Chapter 19 - What Happened to Them at Surinam, and How Candide Became Acquainted with Martin

12 Chapter 20 - What Befell Candide and Martin on Their Passage
Chapter 21 - Candide and Martin, While Thus Reasoning with Each Other, Draw Near to the Coast of France Chapter 22 - What Happened to Candide and Martin in France Chapter 23 - Candide and Martin Touch upon the English Coast-What They See There Chapter 24 - Of Pacquette and Friar Giroflee Chapter 25 - Candide and Martin Pay a Visit to Seignor Pococurante, a Noble Venetian Chapter 26 - Candide and Martin Sup with Six Sharpers-Who They Were Chapter 27 - Candide's Voyage to Constantinople Chapter 28 - What Befell Candide, Cunegund, Pangloss, Martin, etc. Chapter 29 - What Manner Candide Found Miss Cunegund and the Old Woman Again Chapter 30 - Conclusion

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