Course Website Syllabus Reading Assignments Quarter Schedule Evaluation Methods Lecture Notes Print out or download on to laptop May be taken down at anytime so it is your responsibility to print or download before each lecture
Important Dates Mid-term: February 7, 2011 Essay Due: February 14, 2011 Electronically [Turnitin] Hard Copy + Article [In Class] Extra Credit Due: February 21, 2011 Final Exam: March 7, 2011
Not a synonym for adolescence Defined as the biological state when reproduction becomes possible Refers to physical changes that occur during adolescence
Puberty (cont) Pubertal changes in girls begin between ages 9 and 14. Pubertal changes in boys generally begin about 2 years later than in girls.
Physical occurrences from puberty Growth Spurt The primary sex characteristics develop The secondary sex characteristics develop
Growth Spurt 1. Limbs 2. Bodys trunk 3. Shoulders and chest Bones become harder and more dense Muscle and fat contribute to an adolescent increase in weight
Body Composition Girls Develop Breast Acquire Hips Higher fat to muscle ratio Boys Wider shoulders More muscular neck Lose fat during adolescence
Primary Sex Characteristics Differences in male and female anatomy which are present at birth –ovaries and testes Defined as the change necessary to prepare girls and boys bodies to produce children Marker events Girls Menarche Boys Spermarche As the primary sex organs mature, the secondary sex characteristics distinguish males from females
Secondary Sex Characteristics Defined as changes that make boys and girls look like mature men and women Girls -Breast Development-Body Odor -Body fat-Body Hair Boys -Voice Deepens-Body Odor -Shoulders broaden-Body Hair
Tanner Classification of Sexual Maturity Puberty is divided into five stages, called Tanner Stages (numbered 1-5). Each stage represents the extent of breast, pubic and genital hair growth.
Usual Age Range Earliest Age Latest AgeApproximate Average Age 1. Beginning of breast development 8 – ¾ years13 – ¼ years11 years 2. Appearance of pubic hair 9 years13 ½ years11 years 3. Beginning of most rapid growth 10 ½ years14 ½ years12 years 4. Menarche 2-3 years after 1 st signs of puberty 10 ¾ years15 ½ years12 ½ years Phases of Development - girls
Phases of Development - boys Usual Age Range Earliest Age Latest AgeApproximate Average Age 1. Beginning of enlargement of testes 9 ½ years13 ½ years12 years 2. Growth of the penis 10 years14 years12 ¼ years 3. Appearance of pubic hair 9 ½ years14 years12 ½ years 4. Beginning of most rapid growth in height 11 ½ years16 years14 years
Nocturnal Emissions Aka Wet Dreams Involuntary Orgasm An ejaculation of semen experienced during sleep
Hormones Estrogen Responsible for many changes that occur during puberty. Cause the breasts, uterus, and vagina to mature and the body to take feminine proportions Contribute to regulation of the menstrual cycle Testosterone Responsible for changes of male puberty Leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristics Contributes to gains in body size
Sexual Anatomy & Physiology
Female Sex Organs: All embryos appear as female at first. Genetic and hormonal signals trigger the development of male organs in those embryos destined to be male. Sex organs serve a reproductive purpose, but they perform other functions also: giving pleasure, attracting sex partners, and bonding in relationships.
Vulva The external female genitals are known collectively as the vulva. It includes: Mons pubis Clitoris Clitoral Hood (or Prepuce) Labia Majora Labia Minora Urethral Opening Anus
Vulva (cont) mons pubis is a pad of fatty tissue that covers the area of the pubic bone. clitoris is the center of sexual arousal in the female. labia majora (outer lips) are two folds of spongy flesh extending from the mons pubis and enclosing the other external genitals. labia minora (inner lips) are smooth, hairless folds within the labia majora that meet above the clitoris.
Diagram of the Female Reproductive System (external view)
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) aka Female Circumcision What is it? Types Areas where it is practiced
What is FGM?
Types of FGM Type I excision of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris Type II excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora
Types of FGM (cont) Type III Aka infibulation; the most extreme excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching/narrowing of the vaginal opening Type IV pricking, piercing or incising of the clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the clitoris and/or labia; cauterization by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue
Where is FGM practiced?
Why is FGM practiced?
Internal Organs The internal female sexual structures and reproductive organs include: Vagina Uterus Cervix Ovaries Fallopian tubes
The Vagina A flexible muscular organ, approximately 3-4 inches long (in unaroused state) that has the vaginal opening at one end and the cervix at the other. Purpose of the vagina: Menstruation Childbirth Intercourse
The Vagina (cont) Introitus or Vaginal Os The opening of the vagina Hymen a thin, perforated membrane, that covers the introitus prior to first intercourse or other intrusion. a Greek word meaning "virginal membrane" or "thin skin".
Cervix Located between the vagina and the uterus Cervical Os Opening to the vagina Allows menstrual blood to flow out of the uterus into the vagina
Uterus Also known as the womb A pear-shaped organ located between the bladder and the lower intestine Consists of three parts Body of the uterus (about the size of a fist in a non-pregnant female) Cervix Fundus Endometrium Lining of the uterus is built up and then shed and expelled through the cervical os (opening) during menstruation.
Ovaries Egg-producing organs Hold between 200,000 and 400,000 follicles (sacks) Found on each side of the uterus
Fallopian Tube Also known as the Uterine Tube or Oviduct Two leading off each side of the uterus Site of fertilization
Diagram of the Female Reproductive System (internal view)
Female Reproductive System Use handout from course pack to identify: Page 13 Anus Rectum Bladder Urethra Cervix Uterus Fallopian tubeVagina/Vaginal Ovary Opening
G-Spot Controversial research has posited the existence of an erotically sensitive area, the Grafenberg spot (G-spot), on the front wall of the vagina midway between the introitus and the cervix.
Female Sexual Physiology At birth, the human females ovaries contain 400, ,000 female gametes (sex cells). During puberty hormones trigger the completion of oogenesis, the production of oocytes, commonly called eggs or ova.
The Menstrual Cycle Follicular (Proliferative) phase Days 1 through 6 Beginning of menstrual flow to end of blood flow Days 7 – 13 endometrium thickens Luteal (Secretory) phase aka premenstrual phase Days 15 to 28 The endometrium thickens to prepare the egg for implantation These two phases are separated by: Ovulation Day 14
Ovulation The process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and releases an ovum (also known as an egg or an oocyte) The released egg, unless fertilized, only lasts 12 to 24 hours.
Menstrual Cycle Order of the Menstrual Cycle: Menstrual Proliferative Secretory The menstrual cycle is divided into 3 phases. 1. Menstruation 2. Proliferative Phase: Endometrial tissue builds up during this phase 3. Secretory Phase: Produces nutrients to sustain an embryo
Menstrual PhasesTypical No. of DaysHormonal Actions Follicular (Proliferative) Phase Also known as Pre-ovulatory phase Cycle Days 1 through 6 Beginning of menstruation to end of blood flow Estrogen and progesterone start out at their lowest levels FSH levels rise to stimulate maturity of follicles. Ovaries start producing estrogen and levels rise, while progesterone levels remain low. Cycle Days 7 -13: The endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus) thickens to prepare for the egg implantation Ovulation Cycle Day 14Surge in LH. Largest follicle bursts and releases egg into fallopian Luteal (Secretory) Phase Also known as Premenstrual phase Cycle Days 15 – 28Depends on whether fertilization occurs or not.
Corpus Luteum A mound of yellow tissue Develops as a result of the ruptured follicle During pregnancy, it serves to produce estrogen and progesterone
If fertilization occurs, Fertilized egg attaches to blanket of blood vessels which supplies nutrients for the developing placenta. Corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone. If fertilization does NOT occur: Corpus luteum deteriorates. Estrogen and progesterone levels drop. The blood vessel lining sloughs off and menstruation begins.
Hormones Hormones are chemical substances that serve as messengers, traveling through the bloodstream.
The Path of the Egg R e l e a s e d f r o m f o l l i c l e S w e p t i n t o f a l l o p i a n t u b e M o v e s s l o w l y t o w a r d u t e r u s R e a c h e s u t e r u s i n a b o u t 4 d a y s Reaches uterus about 2-4 days after ovulation Moves slowly toward uterus Swept into fallopian tube Released from follicle The egg, unless fertilized, only survives hours.
The Menstrual Cycle
PMS Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle
PMS Physical and emotional disorder Caused by hormonal changes Widely recognized as a medical condition 85% of menstruating women have at least one symptom 5-10% debilitating symptoms Symptoms present two weeks before menstruation
Remedies: Dietary Recommendations Low fat High fiber 3 meals a day and 3 snacks containing starchy foods Drink plenty of water Avoid caffeine Low salt High calcium
Menstrual Conditions Two types Amenorrhea Dysmenorrhea Amenorrhea Primary failure to start having a period by the age of 16 Secondary temporary or permanent ending of periods in a woman who has menstruated normally in the past
Menstrual Disorders (Cont) Dysmenorrhea - Painful menstrual periods (aka cramps) Primary no physical abnormality and usually begins within three years after you begin menstruating Secondary involves an underlying physical cause, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids