3Course Website Syllabus Reading Assignments Quarter Schedule Evaluation MethodsLecture NotesPrint out or download on to laptopMay be taken down at anytime so it is your responsibility to print or download before each lecture
4Important Dates Mid-term: February 7, 2011 Essay Due: February 14, 2011Electronically [Turnitin]Hard Copy + Article [In Class]Extra Credit Due: February 21, 2011Final Exam: March 7, 2011
6Puberty Not a synonym for adolescence Defined as the biological state when reproduction becomes possibleRefers to physical changes that occur during adolescence
7Puberty (cont) Pubertal changes in girls begin between ages 9 and 14. Pubertal changes in boys generally begin about 2 years later than in girls.
8Physical occurrences from puberty Growth SpurtThe primary sex characteristics developThe secondary sex characteristics develop
9Growth Spurt 1. Limbs 2. Body’s trunk 3. Shoulders and chest Bones become harder and more denseMuscle and fat contribute to an adolescent increase in weight
10Body Composition Boys Girls Wider shoulders Develop Breast More muscular neckLose fat during adolescenceGirlsDevelop BreastAcquire HipsHigher fat to muscle ratio
11Primary Sex Characteristics Differences in male and female anatomy which are present at birth–ovaries and testesDefined as the change necessary to prepare girls’ and boys’ bodies to produce childrenMarker eventsGirlsMenarcheBoysSpermarcheAs the primary sex organs mature, the secondary sex characteristics distinguish males from females
12Secondary Sex Characteristics Defined as changes that make boys and girls look like mature men and womenGirls-Breast Development -Body Odor-Body fat -Body HairBoys-Voice Deepens -Body Odor-Shoulders broaden -Body Hair
13Tanner Classification of Sexual Maturity Puberty is divided into five stages, called Tanner Stages (numbered 1-5). Each stage represents the extent of breast, pubic and genital hair growth.
14Phases of Development - girls Usual Age Range Earliest AgeLatest AgeApproximate Average Age1. Beginning of breast development8 – ¾ years13 – ¼ years11 years2. Appearance of pubic hair9 years13 ½ years3. Beginning of most rapid growth10 ½ years14 ½ years12 years4. Menarche2-3 years after1st signs of puberty10 ¾ years15 ½ years12 ½ years
15Phases of Development - boys Usual Age Range Earliest AgeLatest AgeApproximate Average Age1. Beginning of enlargement of testes9 ½ years13 ½ years12 years2. Growth of the penis10 years14 years12 ¼ years3. Appearance of pubic hair12 ½ years4. Beginning of most rapid growth in height11 ½ years16 years
16Nocturnal Emissions Aka Wet DreamsInvoluntary OrgasmAn ejaculation of semen experienced during sleep
18Hormones Estrogen Testosterone Responsible for many changes that occur during puberty.Cause the breasts, uterus, and vagina to mature and the body to take feminine proportionsContribute to regulation of the menstrual cycleTestosteroneResponsible for changes of male pubertyLeads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristicsContributes to gains in body size
20Female Sex Organs:All embryos appear as female at first. Genetic and hormonal signals trigger the development of male organs in those embryos destined to be male.Sex organs serve a reproductive purpose, but they perform other functions also: giving pleasure, attracting sex partners, and bonding in relationships.
21VulvaThe external female genitals are known collectively as the vulva. It includes:Mons pubisClitorisClitoral Hood (or Prepuce)Labia MajoraLabia MinoraUrethral OpeningAnus
22Vulva (cont)mons pubis is a pad of fatty tissue that covers the area of the pubic bone.clitoris is the center of sexual arousal in the female.labia majora (outer lips) are two folds of spongy flesh extending from the mons pubis and enclosing the other external genitals.labia minora (inner lips) are smooth, hairless folds within the labia majora that meet above the clitoris.
23Diagram of the Female Reproductive System (external view)
24Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) aka Female CircumcisionWhat is it?TypesAreas where it is practiced
26Types of FGM Type I Type II excision of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or all of the clitorisType IIexcision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora
27Types of FGM (cont) Type III Type IV Aka infibulation; the most extremeexcision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching/narrowing of the vaginal openingType IVpricking, piercing or incising of the clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the clitoris and/or labia; cauterization by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue
30Internal Organs The internal female sexual structures and reproductive organs include:VaginaUterusCervixOvariesFallopian tubes
31The VaginaA flexible muscular organ, approximately 3-4 inches long (in unaroused state) that has the vaginal opening at one end and the cervix at the other.Purpose of the vagina:MenstruationChildbirthIntercourse
32The Vagina (cont) Introitus or Vaginal Os Hymen The opening of the vaginaHymena thin, perforated membrane, that covers the introitus prior to first intercourse or other intrusion.a Greek word meaning "virginal membrane" or "thin skin".
33Cervix Located between the vagina and the uterus Cervical Os Opening to the vaginaAllows menstrual blood to flow out of the uterus into the vagina
34Uterus Also known as the womb A pear-shaped organ located between the bladder and the lower intestineConsists of three partsBody of the uterus (about the size of a fist in a non-pregnant female)CervixFundusEndometriumLining of the uterusis built up and then shed and expelled through the cervical os (opening) during menstruation.
35Ovaries Egg-producing organs Hold between 200,000 and 400,000 follicles (sacks)Found on each side of the uterus
36Fallopian Tube Also known as the Uterine Tube or Oviduct Two leading off each side of the uterusSite of fertilization
37Diagram of the Female Reproductive System (internal view)
38Female Reproductive System Use handout from course pack to identify:Page 13Anus RectumBladder UrethraCervix UterusFallopian tube Vagina/VaginalOvary Opening
39G-SpotControversial research has posited the existence of an erotically sensitive area, the Grafenberg spot (G-spot), on the front wall of the vagina midway between the introitus and the cervix.
40Female Sexual Physiology At birth, the human female’s ovaries contain400, ,000 female gametes (sex cells).During puberty hormones trigger the completion of oogenesis, the production of oocytes, commonly called eggs or ova.
41The Menstrual Cycle Follicular (Proliferative) phase Days 1 through 6Beginning of menstrual flow to end of blood flowDays 7 – 13 endometrium thickensLuteal (Secretory) phaseaka premenstrual phaseDays 15 to 28The endometrium thickens to prepare the egg for implantationThese two phases are separated by:OvulationDay 14
42OvulationThe process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and releases an ovum (also known as an egg or an oocyte)The released egg, unless fertilized, only lasts 12 to 24 hours.
43Menstrual Cycle Order of the Menstrual Cycle: Menstrual → Proliferative → SecretoryThe menstrual cycle is divided into 3 phases.1. Menstruation2. Proliferative Phase: Endometrial tissue builds up during this phase3. Secretory Phase: Produces nutrients to sustain an embryo
44Follicular (Proliferative) Phase Also known as Pre-ovulatory phase Menstrual PhasesTypical No. of DaysHormonal ActionsFollicular (Proliferative)PhaseAlso known asPre-ovulatory phaseCycle Days 1 through 6Beginning of menstruation to endof blood flowEstrogen and progesterone startout at their lowest levelsFSH levels rise to stimulatematurity of follicles. Ovaries startproducing estrogen and levelsrise, while progesterone levelsremain low.Cycle Days 7 -13: Theendometrium (the inner lining ofthe uterus) thickens to prepare forthe egg implantationOvulationCycle Day 14Surge in LH. Largest folliclebursts and releases egg intofallopianLuteal (Secretory)Premenstrual phaseCycle Days 15 – 28Depends on whether fertilizationoccurs or not.
45Corpus Luteum A mound of yellow tissue Develops as a result of the ruptured follicleDuring pregnancy, it serves to produce estrogen and progesterone
47If fertilization occurs, Fertilized egg attaches to blanket of blood vessels which supplies nutrients for the developing placenta. Corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone.If fertilization does NOT occur:Corpus luteum deteriorates. Estrogen and progesterone levels drop. The blood vessel lining sloughs off and menstruation begins.
48HormonesHormones are chemical substances that serve as messengers, traveling through the bloodstream.
50The egg, unless fertilized, only survives 12-24 hours. The Path of the EggReaches uterus about 2-4 days after ovulationReleased from follicleSwept into fallopian tubeMoves slowly toward uterusReaches uterus in about 4 daysMoves slowly toward uterusSwept into fallopian tubeReleased from follicleThe egg, unless fertilized, only survives hours.
52PMSPremenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle
53PMS Physical and emotional disorder Caused by hormonal changes Widely recognized as a medical condition85% of menstruating women have at least one symptom5-10% debilitating symptomsSymptoms present two weeks before menstruation
54Remedies: Dietary Recommendations Low fatHigh fiber3 meals a day and 3 snacks containing starchy foodsDrink plenty of waterAvoid caffeineLow saltHigh calcium
55Menstrual Conditions Two types Amenorrhea Dysmenorrhea Primary failure to start having a period by the age of 16Secondarytemporary or permanent ending of periods in a woman who has menstruated normally in the past
56Menstrual Disorders (Cont) Dysmenorrhea - Painful menstrual periods (aka cramps)Primaryno physical abnormality and usually begins within three years after you begin menstruatingSecondaryinvolves an underlying physical cause, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids