Announcements 2/14/11 Electronic submission of essay to turnitin.com BY MIDNIGHT. No lecture 2/21/11 Submit hard copy of essay in class (must attach article) Lecture on Contraception Last day to submit extra credit* (*to make up for the missed lecture, you may submit two extra credit assignments on 2/7/11 -OR- 2/21/11.)
Disclaimer This lecture as well as preceding and proceeding ones are to enhance your knowledge on Reproductive Health NOT to promote self diagnosis. If conditions, pictures, etc sound or look familiar, please do not diagnose yourself or loved ones. The only way to know if you have a condition discussed in class is to seek medical treatment and be diagnosed by a medical professional. –Fredua, E.
What is Sexuality?
What factors influence Sexuality? Source:http://www.engenderhealth.org/res/onc/sexuality/introduction/index.html
The Senses and Sexuality Touch Smell Sound Sight
Smell Odors play a role in sexual arousal Pheremones Perfumes Colognes Debate about its existence i.e. menstrual synchrony Not all odors are conducive to sexual arousal Offensive odors
Sound Auditory stimuli Your partners voice Romantic or sexy music Love-making sounds Not all sounds are conducive to sexual arousal
Sight Allows us to experience many images that can trigger feelings of sexual arousal Viewing an attractive person Subject to social and cultural influences Erotic images Sometimes even parts of ones genitals Sight
Which sense is this? Do not appear to play a significant role in sexual arousal
Female Ejaculation Does it exist?
Terms to know Erogenous zones Kegel Exercises Aphrodisiacs Pheremones
Definition Erogenous Zones Kegel Exercise
Definition Aphrodisiacs Pheromones
Sex Hormone Testosterone Male hormone Found in small amounts in women Affects sexual response in men and women Men – produced by the seminiferous tubules Women - produced by the ovaries Increase energy, sex drive (libido), aggression, appetite, muscle mass Increases libido in both men and women
A persons emotional and mental states also help determine whether that person experiences arousal FACT
Sexual Response Cycle
Models of Human Sexual Response Masters and Johnson Proposed their four-stage model of human sexual response cycle Stage I - Excitement Stage II - Plateau Stage III - Orgasm Stage IV - Resolution
PLATEAU – 2 ND STAGE FEMALEMALE Orgasmic Platform Tenting Effect Seminal Pool Erection is maintained ( if there is enough stimulation ) Cowpers Gland secretes fluid
ORGASM – 3 RD STAGE FEMALEMALE Muscle spasms Involuntary Collection of semen in the urethral bulb Ejaculatory Invariability -bulbocavernosus muscle Expulsion of semen
RESOLUTION – 4 TH STAGE FEMALEMALE Return to non-aroused state Refractory Period
Comparing male and female sexual response Key difference Male has a refractory period Theres a potential for multiple orgasms in women Controversies in understanding the female orgasm Freud vaginal orgasm is true orgasm Masters and Johnson only one kind no matter how achieved
Recurrent or persistent sexual problems that interfere with normal performance and cause distress Nine types of sexual disorders Four categories Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorders Orgasmic Disorders Sexual Pain Disorders
Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Persistent deficit in sexual fantasies and desire for sex Sexual aversion disorder Extreme aversion to any form of sexual contact with a partner
Sexual Arousal Disorders Female sexual arousal disorder Difficulties becoming sexually aroused Deficient vaginal lubrication Male erectile disorder Recurrent problems in achieving or sustaining penile erection in a sexual situation Aka Impotence
Orgasmic Disorders Female orgasmic disorder (anorgasmia) Recurrent problem with reaching orgasm despite adequate erotic stimulation Male orgasmic disorder Delay or inability to reach orgasm during sexual activity Premature ejaculation Persistent or recurrent ejaculation following minimal stimulation and before the person wishes it
Sexual Pain Disorders Dyspareunia Recurrent genital pain during sexual intercourse Vaginismus Persistent involuntary spasms of vaginal muscles, which interfere with sexual intercourse
Sexual Dysfunctions - Differences in Men and Women FemaleMale Sexual Aversion Disorder Dyspareunia Dyspareunia (rare in men) VaginismusPremature Ejaculation Female Orgasmic DisorderMale Orgasmic Disorder Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Male Erectile Disorder
General Causes Physiological/Biological Psychological/Emotional Interpersonal/Social Environmental
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions Medical treatment of sexual dysfunctions Sex therapy
Medical Treatment Viagra FDA approval in March 1998 Prescription only Lasts about four hours Side effects Short duration
Sex Therapy Principles of sex therapy Mutual responsibility is emphasized Information and education are integral components Attitudes, expectations, and sexual scripts usually must be modified
Sexual orientation Erotic and romantic attraction to one or both sexes Asexual No erotic or romantic interest
Sexual Orientation Homosexual Same sex Heterosexual Opposite sex Bisexual Both sexes
Defining Terms Sex Gender Gender Roles
Rape Drugs What is a Rape Drug? A rape drug is one that is used in a drug facilitated sexual assault.
Rape Drugs (cont) The most common rape drugs: Rohypnol GHB Other common rape drugs Ecstasy Ketamine Odorless, colorless Easily dissolved into drinks
Effects of Rape Drugs Drowsiness Disorientation Disinhibition Amnesia
Is alcohol a rape drug?
What Is Sexual Harassment? Sexual harassment Sexual advances that are unwelcome and/or other sexually related behaviors that are hostile, offensive, or degrading
Two types of Sexual Harassment Quid pro quo harassment Employee is expected to exchange sexual favors in return for keeping job or getting promotion Hostile environment harassment Unwanted behavior of a sexual nature creates a hostile or offensive work atmosphere
Sexual Harassment can occur at……..
Examples of Harassment Uninvited or deliberate touching Uninvited sexually suggestive looks or gestures Cornering or pinching Unwelcome sexual advances Demands for sexual favors Degrading sexual remarks Groups of one sex making jokes about the opposite sex Persons in positions of leadership taking advantage of their position with sexual threats Inquiries about sexuality
What to do if you feel you are being sexually harassed At work: 1. Let the person know that their behavior is inappropriate and ask them to stop 2. Keep a written record of events 3. Notify your supervisor immediately 4. Follow the complaint process/policy At school/on campus: - 1 & 2 above - Notify appropriate individuals on campus - Contact the public safety office on campus - - (323) Other resources
Infertility Definition: number of couples who have unprotected intercourse for one year and do not experience a pregnancy 10-15% of American couples are infertile
Causes of infertility Both men and women contribute to infertility 90% of cases, cause will be known Each gender contributes 40% Both contribute 10% Remaining 10% of cases, cause remains unknown Males Usually due to sperm defect Females More complex
Risk Factors Some common risk factors Age Weight Lifestyle Occupational and Environmental risks Stress and Emotional factors Genetic conditions??
Age and Infertility Females As a woman gets older, her chances of fertility declines Menopause Higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities that occur in her eggs More likely to have health problems that may interfere with fertility However, if fertilization occurs, can carry to full term High risk of miscarriage Males Not very clear on its impact of age and fertility in men Age does not appear to impact fertility in males as it does in females. More likely to have health problems that may interfere with fertility
Chances of Pregnancy by Age AgeFertility % Up until 3490% By age 40Declining to 67% By age 45Declining to 15%
Causes of Female Infertility Common causes Blocked Fallopian Tubes Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Endometriosis Ovulation disorders Others
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, or PID, is the major cause of infertility worldwide. It is an infection of a woman's pelvic organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries). Infection of one or both fallopian tubes is known as Salpingitis Symptoms Mostly asymptomatic Fever, chills, pelvic pain (indicating inflammation of the entire pelvic area).
PID (cont) Causes of PID Untreated/uncured bacterial infection Most common chlamydia (about 75% of cases) Second most common cause is gonorrhea. Other Causes Non-sterile abortions Cervicitis (usually from genital herpes infection) Other vaginal infections (bacterial vaginosis, trich) Ruptured appendix Childbirth
Endometriosis Lining of the uterus, instead of being expelled into the vagina, is expelled out into the fallopian tubes and implanted in other areas of the pelvis. These implants respond to hormonal changes, slowly increasing in number and size with each menstrual cycle Eventually causes scarring and inflammation Symptoms Often causes no symptoms Painful periods, painful sex, painful bowel movements Cause is unknown Possible defects in immune system
Endometriosis and infertility Endometrial cysts in the fallopian tubes may cause blockage Scar tissue between uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes Poor egg implantation
Female Infertility- Other possible causes Ovulation Disorders Hormone Disorders Hypothalamic-Pituitary Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Disease/Syndrome Thyroid Other Ovarian Cysts Benign Uterine Fibroids Ectopic pregnancies, medical conditions, medications
Male Infertility Over 90% of cases are due to: Low sperm count Poor sperm quality Motility Morphology Both % of cases have an unknown cause
What affects sperm count and quality? Environmental and Biologic Factors Lifestyle - Emotional-Smoking -Sexual Issues/Infection-Malnutrition -Substance Abuse-Obesity -Testicular Exposure to overheating Genetic Factors Varicocele
Varicose vein in the cord that connects to the testicle. Found in 10-15% of all men Found in 25% - 40% of infertile men Only varicoceles large enough to be felt are reported to affect fertility
Other causes of sperm defect Testosterone Deficiencies Autoantibodies Retrograde Ejaculation Physical and Structural abnormalities Cancer and its treatments Infections Other medical conditions Medications
Testing for Infertility – females Ovulation Assessment Body temperature Cervical mucus assessment Hormone Analysis Laparascopy Check vagina for naturally occurring sperm antibodies
Infertility Treatment Artificial Insemination Drug therapy Clomid In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Infertility Treatment Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) Both egg and sperm inserted into Fallopian tube Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) Fertilized outside body and inserted into Fallopian tube Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Direct injection of sperm into egg in lab