3Before Martin Luther In Medieval Times Fear of Authority and Fear of GodCatholic Church was the only church in Western EuropeThe Bible was only to be read by priests or Bishops
4Before Martin LutherIf you died with a dirty soul you would either go straight to hell or to PurgatoryYou had to go to church to get your soul cleanIf you died with a clean soul you would go to heaven
5On the eve of the Reformation.... Church and Religion on the Eve of the ReformationBelief that the clergy was corrupt and incompetent.Focus on finances.Church offices purchased by wealthySale of indulgences.Poor quality of parish priests
6Before Martin Luther On the eve of the Reformation.... Pope(s) seemed more concerned with politics rather than spiritualityJulius II, the “warrior pope” in Italy even led armies against his enemies
7Things were changing....People, not just priests, were learning to readPeople started reading the Bible on their ownPeople stared to think on their own, and not listen to the priestsPeople started reading the ancient non-Christian Greeks – Homer, Aristotle, and Plato – once againNew ideas of science and mathematics from the Muslim intellectuals were being readNew scientific ideas by Copernicus and others questioned the thinking of the Church
8Things were changing....Humanists turned their back on medieval scholasticism which they believed was composed of irrelevant theological debates.Scholastics celebrated the authority of the Church texts and revered the saint, the monk, and the knight.Petrarch mocked the scholastics remarking they can tell you...”how many hairs there are in the loin’s mane...with how many arms the squid binds the shipwrecked sailor...What is the use, I pray you, of knowing the nature of beasts, birds, fishes, and serpents, and not knowing or spurning the nature of man...?”
9Things were changing....Erasmus and other thinkers were quietly pushing the church for reformThe new printing press rapidly spread revolutionary ideasThe rulers and priests in Germany were angry at seeing money earned in their states being sent to Rome to build rich palaces and churches.The Muslims now controlled the Byzantine Empire and cut of Italy from the spices and silks of India and ChinaThe Portuguese now sailed directly to India around Africa, bypassing the Italian middlemen and thereby offering cheaper prices for spices and silk
10Before Martin Luther On the eve of the Reformation.... People (Hus, Wycliff, Erasmus) were calling for reform because of the corruption within the Catholic ChurchPeople like Thomas More wanted a better society here on earth (not in heaven) - a Utopia
12He also called the popes as anti-Christs. That did not help his cause...
13Erasmus commented“ The world is coming to is senses as if awakening out of a deep Sleep”
14Erasmus Most influential of the Christian humanists. Wrote In Praise of Folly—Criticized the Catholic Clergy and their corrupt ways using humorHe attacked those who believed in the curing powers of relics saying it denigrated the dignity of the individual - a very Renaissance ideaDid he want to divide the church?How did he feel about Luther?no- just a reformed churchthought Luther was too radical
16In principle, the pope governed the Church in all of Western Christendom but in reality, the emergence of the monarchical states of France, England, and the kingdom of Spain eroded the papal authority Gradually those rulers assumed more prerogatives over the Church in their states. This expansion provided the impetus to the development of churches that take on a more national character as monarchs 1. bargained for authority over religious appointments 2. worked to bring ecclesiastical property under their fiscal control by imposing taxation
17Of course the papal condoned corruption didn’t help Nor did the Great Schism with its multiple popes
19The Roots of Reformation So who was Martin Luther?
20What Martin Luther DidLuther was a German monk who wanted to reform (not break away) from the Catholic ChurchWhilst comparing the Latin Catholic Bible with the original Greek & Hebrew he found that certain parts were incorrectly translated.Let’s face it; he was a geek/nerd.Luther hung his 95 theses (complaints) from his research on the local Church door in Wittenburg in 1517.He disagreed with the Pope and began the Protestant religion.
21What Martin Luther DidHe was wracked with his own sense of personal unworthiness. Was he not a sinner?He had been saved from a storm but would he be saved from damnation on Judgement Day?Was there any connection b/w good works effected on earth and salvation?If mankind was so corrupted by sin, who could charity, fasting, or self-flagellation earn one entry into heaven?
22What Martin Luther Did“I tried hard...to be contrite, and make a list of my sins. I confessed them again and again. I scrupulously carried out he penances that were allotted to me. And yet my conscience kept telling me: ‘You fell short there. You were not sorry enough there. You left that sin off your list.’I was trying to cure the doubts and scruples of the conscience with human remedies.... The more I tried these remedies, the more troubled and uneasy my conscience grew”
23What Martin Luther Did “The just shall live by faith.” Such a conclusion broke with the teachings of the Catholic Church as defined by medieval scholasticism.
24What Martin Luther Believed You don’t have to go to Church to get your soul into heaven.. This is “Justification of Faith” - his belief that salvation is personal and not linked to the rituals of the Catholic Church. The basis of Luther’s beliefs can be found in The Bible,in Romans, Chapter 10.Read the Bible in your own language and not Latin.Its wrong to make an image of God.The Church is too rich.
25What Martin Luther Did “The just shall live by faith.” But for Luther is wasn’t just about faith, he was also troubled by the abuse of the ecclesiastical sale of indulgences
26What Martin Luther Did So what were Martin Luther’s complaints? Well, one was about the selling of indulgences. He felt the Bible translated to the church granting indulgences.He thought the Pope didn’t know what his minions were doing by selling the indulgences. He thought he was doing the Pope a favor by snitching on those selling indulgences.He was so naive. The pope knew all about it. He had gotten a loan from a powerful family in exchange for giving that family an important church position to their son. Now he had to pay back the loan. He was selling indulgences to pay back the loan and to finance his new grand cathedral.n
27What Martin Luther DidAngered by corrupt church practices, in 1517 Luther sent a list of Ninety-five Theses to his church superiors.They attacked abuses in selling indulgences.Thousands of copies were printed. Thanks to the new invention of a printing press
28What Martin Luther DidIn 1518, Pope Leo X demanded that Luther’s monastic superior order him to cease his small crusade.Luther refused, citing his right as a professor of theology to formally dispute the charges now leveled against him.He found a protector in Frederick III, elector of Saxony.
301. Faith alone can bring salvation, that good works follow faith but do not in themselves save the soul. Nor does the absence of good works condemn a man to eternal damnation.Erasmus, read this and said, “the breach is irreparable....”
312. “Freedom of a Christian” His goal was to free German communities from the strictures of religious beliefs which increasingly seemed foreign to their beliefs.He called on the Princes to reform the church within their own states
323. He rejected the “unnatural” demands of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
34So What Happened to Martin Luther? In 1520, Luther called for the German princes to overthrow the papacy (pope power) and establish a reformed German church.The Church excommunicated Luther in 1521.He was summoned to appear before the imperial Diet (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire in the city of Worms.The emperor Charles V thought he could get Luther to change his ideas.Luther refused, which outraged the emperor.
35So What Happened to Martin Luther? The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw in the empire.His books were to be burned and Luther delivered to the emperor.Luther’s local ruler, however, protected him.
37Why is this a big deal?By declaring Luther an outlaw and forbidding any changes in religion in the Holy Roman Empire (HRE), the Edict of Worms made religious reform an issue of the state.
38Why is this a big deal?Because this radically different idea of faith will lead to:massive change in the all-powerful Catholic Churchnew forms of state sovereigntynew ideas about individualismyears of bloody wars fought in the name of religions
39And then what happened?Luther’s religious movement soon became a revolution.It gained support from many German rulers, who took control of Catholic churches and formed state churches supervised by the government.Luther set up new services to replace the Mass, featuring Bible readings, preaching the word of God, and song.His doctrine became known as Lutheranism, the first Protestant faith.
40What about the politics of this religion? From the beginning Luther’s movement was tied to politics.He believed the state was called by God to maintain the peace and order necessary to spread the gospel.The Holy Roman Emperor (not the Pope but leader of this geographical area of Germany) Charles V ruled an empire consisting of Spain, the Austrian lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, Naples, and Spanish territories in the New World.Luther’s preachings threatened his power!