2Introduction to ALARP Content slide Description ALARP = As Low As Reasonably PracticableThe ALARP principle is that the residual risk shall be as low as reasonably practicableIntolerableTolerable if ALARPContent slideBroadly acceptableContent slide
3Risk reducing measure (risk reduction) Introduction to ALARPRisk reducing measure (risk reduction)Description ALARP = As Low As Reasonably PracticableThe ALARP principle is that the residual risk shall be as low as reasonably practicableOriginal riskResidual riskContent slideContent slide
4Introduction to ALARP Usually talking about: - Tolerable (acceptable - green) - Intolerable (unacceptable - red)And then…- ALARP (control to ALARP/acceptable if ALARP - yellow)What is ALARP?
5Introduction to ALARP Content slide, two columns with image When is a risk tolerable (acceptable)?What is a risk intolerable (unacceptable)?How much risk reduction is possible?How safe is safe enough?Content slide, two columns with imageContent slide, two columns with image. Image size: 8,46 cm x 10,76 cm or 320 x 407 pixels
6Intolerable riskIn the intolerable risk region the risk cannot be accepted and it is thus necessary to reduce the risk and make it tolerable through implementation of risk reducing measures (RRMs) or re-design.
7Tolerable if ALARPIn the tolerable risk region (often referred to as the ALARP region) attempts should be made to reduce risk. Risk in this region can only be accepted if it can be demonstrated that risk is ALARP, i.e. that all reasonably practicable measures have been implemented to reduce risk.
8Broadly acceptableIn the broadly acceptable region the risk is acceptable and no further risk reduction is required. It should be noted that in some countries there is no lower limit defining acceptable risk. Consequently, risks below the intolerable limit shall be demonstrated to be ALARP.According to the ALARP principle risks that are in the tolerable region must be reduced further if not disproportionally costly, compared to the risk reduction. The ALARP principle is applicable both in relation to qualitative risk acceptance criteria (e.g. a risk matrix) and quantitative acceptance criteria (used e.g. in QRAs).
14Introduction to alarpOrigin from the U.K. where it is a legal requirementDifferent approaches through the worldIn Denmark offshore Health and Safety Cases need to present ALARP justificationFor a risk to be ALARP it must be possible to demonstrate that the cost involved in reducing the risk further would be grossly disproportionate to the benefit gained. The ALARP principle arises from the fact that infinite time, effort and money could be spent on the attempt of reducing a risk to zero.
15Introduction to ALARPIn the great majority of cases, we can achieve ALARP by referring to existing ‘good practice’.For high hazards and complex situations, we build on “good practice”, using more formal decision making techniques, including cost-benefit analysis, to present ALARP.
16Introduction to ALARPIn essence, making sure a risk has been reduced ALARP is about weighing the risk against the cost (or effort or time or technical difficulties) needed to further reduce it. The decision is weighted in favour of health and safety because the presumption is that the stakeholder should implement the risk reduction measure.The majority of risks we face are already at this ALARP level and we accept them relatively unconsciously. For most of us in our everyday lives, the risk of being pick-pocketed is so low, that we don’t feel the need to carry cash in separate pockets or hidden money belts. We similarly manage slightly higher risks, such as crossing the road, by routine procedures that we were taught as children.
18Introduction to ALARPIn the end, two conflicting objectives need to be balanced: We have a desire to do everything physically possible to remove all risks. The reality is that we have limited resources and that it is nearly always not practical (nor physically possible) to remove all risk.The question is then: How much risk do we remove before we stop? How do we balance the two objectives?The level where we stop is defined by an acceptance criterion OR the ALARP principle!