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HOW CAN ENERGY BE TRANSFERRED? 1. CONDUCTION: 2. CONVECTION: 3. ADVECTION: 4. RADIATION:

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Presentation on theme: "HOW CAN ENERGY BE TRANSFERRED? 1. CONDUCTION: 2. CONVECTION: 3. ADVECTION: 4. RADIATION:"— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW CAN ENERGY BE TRANSFERRED? 1. CONDUCTION: 2. CONVECTION: 3. ADVECTION: 4. RADIATION:

2 CONDUCTION

3 CONVECTION

4 ADVECTION

5 RADIATION

6 1. Be able to list the 4 means of energy transfer, and identify the one which transfers all energy into and out of the Earth’s climate system. 2. Be able to describe the means by which energy is transferred in each. 3. Be able to reproduce, with explanation, four concept sketches of the energy transfer mechanisms. Before you leave this section

7 What controls the quantity and type of energy the Earth System receives? 1.How much? 2.What type?

8 STEFAN-BOLZMAN E= T = d =

9 WEIN W max = T =

10

11 SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun Earth

12

13

14 1. Name the laws and understand the physical concepts behind the control that the surface temperature of an object exerts on the quantity and dominant wavelength of Electromagnetic Radiation that it emits. 2. Understand why these two properties of Electromagnetic Radiation are related in the opposite fashion to the temperature of the object. 3. Be aware of what the term “temperature” of an object actually means in terms of energy and the various scales that we use to measure it. Before you leave this section

15 PLANCK’S LAW Sun

16 Sun and Earth

17 ELECTRO-MAGNETIC RADIATION SPECTRUM

18 1. Graph the types and quantities of radiation being emitted by the Sun and Earth. 2. Know the relative ordering of the various components of the Electro-magnetic Radiation spectrum based on wavelength, including the colors of the visible portions of that spectrum. Before you leave this section

19 SOLAR CONSTANT

20

21 1. Be able to describe conceptually the derivation of the Solar Constant. 2. Know the numerical value of the Solar Constant and be able to provide a verbal definition. 3. Explain why the Solar Constant may not actually be a true “constant”, but vary periodically with a frequency of about 11 years Before you leave this section

22 WHAT IS THE ZENITH ANGLE AND WHY SHOULD WE CARE?

23

24 1. Be able to define the zenith angle. 2. Know what the zenith angle will be at sunrise and sunset and when it will at its minimum. 3. Explain how the zenith angle controls the proportion of the Solar Constant falling on a unit area (square meter) of the Earth’s surface. Before you leave this section

25 Why are some places hot and others cold? Why are some times of the year warmer than others? A. SPATIAL B. TEMPORAL 1. Annual 2. Seasonal 3. Daily

26 CAN WE QUANTIFY THE EFFECT OF THE ZENITH ANGLE AND LATITUDE AT NOON? SUNSUN Equator Center of Earth N S

27 CAN WE QUANTIFY THE EFFECT OF THE ZENITH ANGLE AND LATITUDE AT NOON? SUNSUN Equator Center of Earth N S

28 CAN WE QUANTIFY THE EFFECT OF THE ZENITH ANGLE AND LATITUDE AT NOON? SUNSUN Equator Center of Earth N S

29 CAN WE QUANTIFY THE EFFECT OF THE ZENITH ANGLE AND LATITUDE AT NOON? SUNSUN Equator Center of Earth N S

30 SUNSUN Ten parallel rays representing the solar constant (345Wm -2 )

31 SUNSUN

32 1. Be able to sketch the relationship between the latitude of a locations and the zenith angle at noon on March and September Be able to explain why the outside of the Earth’s atmosphere at various latitudes will receive varying portions of the solar constant at noon on these days. 3. Understand the trigonometric way in which the zenith angle controls the proportion of the solar constant intercepted. 4. Understand this trigonometric function sufficiently well to be able to explain why large/small zenith angles are associated with varying proportions of the solar constant. Before you leave this section

33 HOW DOES THE EARTH’S ORBIT AROUND THE SUN AFFECT INSOLATION? BYLTS

34 1. Be able to identify the dates of the Aphelion and Perihelion. 2. Know approximate Earth-Sun distances at these times, and the average Earth-Sun distance. 3. Understand how to make the appropriate adjustment to the value of the solar constant based upon actual Earth-Sun distance, and be aware of the potential magnitude of this impact. Before you leave this section

35 N s Sun on horizon z = 90° June 21 SUNSUN Sun overhead z = 0° Equator Cancer Antarctic S U N

36 N s Sun on horizon z = 90° December 22 Sun overhead z = 0° Equator Capricorn Arctic SUNSUN S U N Z = >0° = = 23.5° WHERE IS THE SUN OVERHEAD AT NOON? 23.5°S

37 BOTTOM LINE March and September: Summer (Jun. in N, Dec. in S): Winter (Dec. in N, Jun. in S):

38 1. Given the latitude of a location and the time of the year, be able to estimate the zenith angle at noon. 2. Know at which latitude the sun will be directly overhead at the varying times of year. 3. Know the latitudes beyond which the sun is never directly overhead. 4. Know the latitudes beyond which there is at least one day of total darkness (and one of light) and the seasons in which these occur. Before you leave this section

39 SUN March 21 December 21 June 21 September 21 Why do the lengths of Day and Night vary with the seasons?

40 Latitude Degrees North June Solstice Hours of Daylight March/September Equinox Hours of Daylight December Solstice Hours of Daylight 906 months12hr0 hr 804 months12hr0 hr 702 months12hr0 hr hr12hr0 hr 5016 hr12hr8 hr 4015 hr12hr9 hr 3014 hr12hr10 hr 2013 hr12hr11 hr hr12hr11.5 hr 012hr N s N s Equator Antarctic C. Cancer Arctic C. Capricorn N s

41 THE BOTTOM LINE

42 1. Be able to sketch the orientation of the Earth’s axis of rotation with respect to the Sun during the course of the Earth’s annual revolution around the Sun, and identify the Circle of Illumination. 2. Given key times of year and/or key geographic latitudes be able to estimate the length of daylight. 3. Understand the 4 “bottom line” items with regard to controls on the seasonal and spatial variations in the length of daylight. Before you leave this section

43 SEASONAL CHANGES IN INSOLATION WITH LATITUDE

44

45 GEOGRAPHY MATTERS!

46 Seasonal Changes in Daily Insolation 0° 10°N 30°N 50°N 70°N 90°N

47 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

48 GLOBAL RADIATION REGIMES

49 1. Be able to integrate information concerning spatial and temporal scales of variability of insolation. 2. Explain the significance of the Equator, Tropics and Arctic and Antarctic circles in terms of patterns of insolation. 3. Sketch the temporal and spatial variability of insolation at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere, and therefore the basic input to the Earth’s climate system. Before you leave this section

50 ALL ATMOSPHERE TRACE GASES WHAT MAKES OUR ATMOSPHERE DISTINCT FROM SPACE? Atmospheric Composition.

51 WHAT MAKES OUR ATMOSPHERE DISTINCT FROM SPACE? 1. Density of Gases.

52 TORRICELLI

53 1. Know the major chemical constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere and the trace gases which will be important in later discussions. 2. Understand the vertical distribution of gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. 3. Understand the concept of Atmospheric Pressure and how this varies vertically in the atmosphere. 4. Know how Atmospheric Pressure is measured. Before you leave this section

54 CHARLES’ LAW THE GAS LAWS

55 BOYLE’S LAW

56 “ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE”

57 THE EQUATION OF STATE FOR AN IDEAL GAS. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER! P = R. ρ. T P = R = ρ = T =

58 P = R. ρ. T PRACTICAL APPLICATION Normal Lapse Rate:

59 1. Name and understand the law relating the temperature of a gas and the volume that the gas occupies (at a fixed pressure). 2. Name and understand the law relating the pressure on a gas and the volume that the gas occupies (at a fixed temperature). 3. Be able to follow the linkages by which differences in the supply of insolation ultimately impact atmospheric pressures and movements within the atmosphere. 4. Know the equation of state for an ideal gas and show how it encompasses both Charles’ and Boyle’s Law. 5. Show how this determines the rate at which air cools and warms as it rises and falls respectively. Before you leave this section

60

61 1. Label in the correct vertical sequence, the four thermal layers within the atmosphere, and the boundaries that separate them. 2. Identify those zones which display normal and reverse temperature gradients. 3. Explain why those reverse gradients exist and the gases that are responsible for them. 4. Be able to explain what is believed to cause the “hole in the ozone layer”, and why it might be of environmental concern. Before you leave this section

62 WHERE DOES THE INSOLATION GO TO? – SHORTWAVE RADIATION BUDGET

63 1. Understand what is meant by scattering and its impact upon insolation. 2. Identify the means by which energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. 3. Understand the concept of albedo. 4. Delineate the quantities of insolation effected by each atmospheric process. 5. Determine the global average percentages of insolation returned to space, and those stored in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. Before you leave this section

64 Albedo: A Geographic Variable?

65

66 1. Have an understanding of the albedo of various naturally occurring surfaces. 2. Explain the Pole – Equator differences in albedo. 3. Explain differences in albedo of the Arctic and Antarctic. 4. Identify global zones of rainforest and deserts by their albedo. Before you leave this section

67 1. Sensible Heat Flux. 2. Ground Heat Flux. 3. Latent Heat Flux. THREE SINKS OF INSOLATION

68

69

70 1. Identify the three major sinks to which insolation gets sent in the Earth system, noting the major global ocean-atmosphere features to which these are linked. 2. Understand why the same chemical compound (water) can occur in three very different natural states, and what it is about the behavior of that compound which determines the state. 3. Understand the concept of Latent Heat and how it is stored/released from water in its three natural states without changing the temperature of the water. 4. Know the quantities of energy required/released when water changes states between solid and liquid and liquid and gas – the latent heat of fusion and the latent heat of vaporization. Before you leave this section

71 GREENHOUSE EFFECT

72

73

74 EARTH WITH GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERE EARTH WITHOUT ATMOSPHERE SUN What Would Temperatures be Without Greenhouse Gases?

75 DO OTHER PLANETS HAVE GREENHOUSE EFFECTS? Just how smart are we in this class? PlanetSolar Constant, Wm -2 Planetary Albedo, % Effective Radiating Temperature K Observed Surface Temperature K Greenhouse Warming K Mars (-56°C, - 94°F) 220 (-53°C, -87°F) 3 (7°F) Earth (-18°C, - 9°F 288 (15°C, 66°F) 33 (73°F Venus (-41°C, -60°F) 700 (427°C, 929°F) 468 (989°F)

76 1. Understand how greenhouse gases permit shortwave radiation to enter, but prevent long wave radiation from leaving, the atmosphere. 2. Be aware the increases in some greenhouses in the atmosphere and the potential they may have for increasing the amount of energy stored in the Earth’s system, partly manifested by global temperatures. 3. Be able to show the extent of the “Greenhouse Effect” naturally on Earth. Before you leave this section

77 Space Atmosphere Surface LONGWAVE RADIATION BUDGET

78 1. Understand how energy is lost from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere. 2. Be able to explain why the atmosphere itself emits longwave radiation back to the surface of the Earth and to space. 3. Explain why a change in the quantity of greenhouse gases (natural or anthropogenic) in the atmosphere will impact the quantities of direct outgoing longwave radiation and the temperature of the atmosphere before a new equilibrium between incoming and outgoing radiation to the Earth system can be established. Before you leave this section

79 ~35° 0°90° Latitude NORTHERN HEMISPHERE MERIDIONAL RADIATION BALANCE AND TRANSFER

80 1. Describe and explain the meridional (latitudinal) distribution of annual insolation. 2. Describe and explain the meridional (latitudinal) distribution of annual outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Define global zones of surplus and deficit energy balance, and the approximate location of the boundary between the two. 4. Derive the distribution of cumulative net poleward (meridional) transfer of energy across the surface of the globe required to balance out surplus and deficits. Before you leave this section

81 North Pole South Pole Tropopause P = R. ρ. T How is Energy Moved?

82 North Pole South Pole Tropopause Sir Edmund forgot The rotation of the Earth

83 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S WINDS

84 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S SURFACE PRESSURES

85 1. Describe the dominant three dimensional pattern of air circulation within the Earth’s atmosphere. 2. Locate and account for the dominant patterns of surface atmospheric pressure belts on the globe. 3. Identify the global pattern of surface pressure gradients down which the surface winds of the world will flow. Before you leave this section

86 0° 40077km1670 km.hr -1 10° 39548km1648 km.hr -1 20° 37771km1574 km.hr -1 30° 34797km1450 km.hr -1 40° 30819km1284 km.hr -1 50° 25876km1078 km.hr -1 60° 20121km 838 km.hr -1 70° 13749km 573 km.hr -1 80° 6990km 291 km.hr -1 Lat. Circum.Velocity All latitudes rotate with the same ANGULAR VELOCITY (360°/24hrs) 15°.hr -1. However LINEAR VELOCITIES change with latitude. CORIOLIS EFFECT Earth Rotating in anti-clockwise direction Lat. Circum.Velocity

87 Earth Rotating in anti-clockwise direction VIEWED FROM ABOVE NORTH POLE

88 Trees are fixed frame of reference Merry-go-round is moving frame of reference

89 CORIOLIS EFFECT Ferrel’s Law 1. 2.

90 °N, San José 20°N, Guantanamo 30°N, Gainesville 40°N, Philadelphia 50°N, Southampton 60°N, Reykjavik 70°N 90°N 80°N CORIOLIS AS GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLE Rate of Change of Linear Velocity of Rotation 0°, Quito, Equator

91 1. 2. CORIOLIS AS GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLE

92 t = 0 Time Distance Time Change in Velocity Distance per unit time Acceleration Change in Velocity per unit time CORIOLIS GOES TRUCKING IN A FIXED FRAME OF REFERENCE, 104!

93 t = Time Distance Time Change in Velocity + Distance per unit time Acceleration Change in Velocity per unit time CORIOLIS (CB) IN A MOVING FRAME OF REFERENCE!

94 t = Time Distance Time Change in Velocity + Distance per unit time Acceleration Change in Velocity per unit time CORIOLIS PUTS THE PEDAL TO THE METAL IN A MOVING FRAME OF REFERENCE!

95 Coriolis Effect proportional to: -2Ω. V. Sin (φ). where: Ω = V = Φ = CORIOLIS EFFECT Quantitative Expression

96 1. Know Ferrel’s Law and the apparent direction in which moving objects are deflected from their intended paths in each hemisphere. 2. Understand how (and why) the Coriolis effect varies as a function of latitude. 3. Understand the relationship between the Coriolis effect and the linear velocity of the moving object. Before you leave this section

97 LOW HIGH ~0° ~30°S ~30°N ~45-60°S ~45-60°N ~90°S ~90°N Polar Ferrel Hadley GLOBAL SURFACE WIND DIRECTIONS

98 LOW HIGH ~0° ~30°S ~30°N ~45-60°S ~45-60°N ~90°S ~90°N Polar Ferrel Hadley PLUS BONUS CORIOLIS!

99 1. Be able to construct a diagram of global surface pressures and winds. 2. Be able to designate the correct name to each set of planetary surface winds. 3. Be able to explain why the degree of deflection from the pressure gradient force is greater in some regions of the world than others (and hence the slight variation in nomenclature procedure). Before you leave this section

100 CYCLONE (LOWN)ANTI-CYCLONE NORTHERN SOUTHERN 1) Pressure Gradient2) Coriolis Effect L L H H CYCLONIC AND ANTICYCLONIC FLOWS Trust me I am a Doctor!

101 1. Be able to construct predicted air flows around low pressure (cyclones) and high pressure cells (anticyclones) in either hemisphere based simply upon considerations of pressure gradient and Coriolis effect. Before you leave this section

102 Differences in Specific Heat. Differences in Latent Heat Flux. Differences in the Penetration of Radiation. Differences in Mixing. DIFFERENCES IN OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL THERMAL PROPERTIES

103 SPECIFIC HEAT

104 LATENT HEAT OceansContinents

105 PENETRATION OF RADIATION OceansContinents Temperature CONTINENTOCEAN Depth

106 MIXING

107 1. Be able to explain the concept of Specific Heat and why Oceans and Continents possess such different values. 2. Be able to explain why the partitioning of insolation over continents and oceans is different and the impact that this is likely to have on temperatures. 3. Discuss the impact that varying depths to which insolation can penetrate soil/rock and water will impact the surface temperatures of both global surfaces. 4. Explain the various mechanisms of mixing of surface ocean waters which may act to redistribute energy away from the ocean surface. Before you leave this section

108 CAN WE BRING THIS ALL TOGETHER TO EXPLAIN PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE? Our tool kit:

109 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S SURPLUS/ DEFICIT

110 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S SURFACE PRESSURE BELTS

111 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S OCEAN\ CONTINENT CONTRAST

112 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S OCEAN\ CONTINENT CONTRAST

113 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S PRESSURE CELLS

114 Pressure Gradient

115 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S SURFACE WINDS

116 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 45° - 60°S 90°N 90°S LOW SURFACE OCEAN CURRENTS

117 REALITY

118 THE SOUTHERN OCEANS 0° 30°S 45° - 60°S 90°S

119 1. Be able to combine the elements of the class thus far to define annual average pressure belts and cells over the major ocean basins and continents of the world using a simple two- continent, one ocean models. 2. Through the use of sketches be able to define the location and nature of major ocean currents (cold and warm) using the same simple model. 3. Identify the major global exceptions to these generalizations, and be able to explain why and how they differ. Before you leave this section

120 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 90°N June 21 Boreal Summer 23.5°N 23.5°S

121 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 90°N June 21 Boreal Summer 23.5°N 23.5°S

122 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 90°N Dec. 21 Boreal winter 23.5°N 23.5°S

123 0° 30°S 30°N 45° - 60°N 90°N Dec. 21 Boreal Wnter 23.5°N 23.5°S

124 GLOBAL SURFACE PRESSURES JULY 2010

125 GLOBAL SURFACE PRESSURES JANUARY 2010

126 1. With the aid of the simple concept sketches, describe and explain the physical reasoning for the shifts in boreal pressure belts and wind directions in the northern hemisphere summer. 2. With the aid of the simple concept sketches, describe and explain the physical reasoning for the shifts in boreal pressure belts and wind directions in the northern hemisphere winter. Before you leave this section

127 SINKS OF INSOLATION REVISITED

128 ENERGY TRANSFER REVISITED

129 TRANSFER OF LATENT HEAT

130 HOW TO EXTRACT LATENT HEAT FROM WATER VAPOR.

131 HOT FLORIDA AND AIR CONDITIONER!

132 ENGLAND!

133 TOO COLD TO SNOW?

134 PUT ON THE FURNACE!

135 GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS??? Q. A.

136 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH

137 INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE

138

139 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH

140

141 GLOBAL FURNACES??? Q. A.

142 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH

143

144 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH

145

146 MORE GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS??? Q. A.

147 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! OceanContinent

148 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic

149

150 CALIFORNIA North Pacific

151

152 With the aid of the simple concept sketches, be able to describe and explain the physical reasoning for the following: 1. The distribution of global precipitation, specifically the equatorial and mid-latitude precipitation belts. 2. The role of topography in modifying global precipitation patterns. 3. The distribution of global deserts. 4. The role of surface ocean currents in modifying the global distribution of precipitation and deserts. Before you leave this section


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