Presentation on theme: "…remember the ladies… - Abigail Adams, 1776 14 th Amendment, Section One All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction."— Presentation transcript:
…remember the ladies… - Abigail Adams, 1776
14 th Amendment, Section One All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
MINOR VS. HAPPERSETT Supreme Court of the United States 88 U.S. 162; 21 Wall. 162 October 1874, Term [Unanimous decision of the Supreme Court holding that the Constitution of the United States does not guarantee to women the right to vote in federal elections.] Constitution of the U.S. All persons born or naturalized in the U.S., & subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the U.S., etc… Constitution of the State of Missouri Every male citizen of the United States shall be entitled to vote
…It is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess the status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the status is endowed. There is no universal principle that determines what those rights and duties shall be, but societies in which citizenship is a developing institution create an image of an ideal citizenship against which achievement can be measured and towards which aspiration can be directed. -T.H. Marshall p. 102
The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) Organized May 15, 1869 in New York City Founders: – Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Worked to secure womens enfranchisement (give the right to vote) through a federal constitutional amendment Radical Opinions: – Womens right to vote – Equal Education – Equal Work Opportunities – Change of laws on divorce Held conventions Waged state-by-state campaigns Distributed literature to win support for their cause American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) Organized in November 1869 in Boston Founders: – Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe Worked to secure womens enfranchisement on a state level Founded its own magazine, Womans Journal – 1870 – Featured articles and cartoons by members Produced journals – The Women Voter (New York City) – Maryland Suffrage News (Baltimore) – Western Woman Voter (Seattle) Held conventions Waged voting campaigns Distributed literature in support of womens voting rights Both organizations merged to create: The National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1890 (NAWSA)
19 th Amendment The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United states or by any state on account of sex.
equal pay discrimination
I was like a wife nursing a nagging suspicion that her husbands having an affair.
Each person has an equal right to a fully adequate scheme of basic rights and liberties, which scheme is compatible with a similar scheme for all. -Rawls
Definition of glass ceiling: "Those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management-level positions." -The Glass Ceiling Commission ( )
Women face no limits whatsoever. There is not a glass ceiling. -Carly Fiorana, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard
PATERNITY LEAVE MATERNITY LEAVE
the individual must leave his household altogether behind, maintained by the labor of his slaves and women, but playing no further part in his concerns". -Pocock
A democratic public, however that is constituted, should provide mechanisms for the effective representation and recognition of the distinct voices and perspectives of those of its constituent groups that are opposed or disadvantaged within it. -Young
Group representation is the best means to promote just outcomes. -Young
the basic impulse underlying representation rights is integration not separation. -Kymlicka
Self-government rights…are the most complete case of differentiated citizenship. -Brubaker
The bourgeois world instituted a moral division of labor Extolling a public realm of manly virtue and citizenship as independence, generality, and dispassionate reason entailed creating the private sphere of the family as the place to which emotion, sentiment, and bodily needs must be confined. The generality of the public thus depends on excluding women, who are responsible for tending to that private realm, and who lack the dispassionate rationality and independence required of good citizens. -Young, 267
Rousseau excluded women from the public realm of citizenship because they are the caretakers of affectivity, desire, and the body. If we allowed appeals to desires and bodily needs to move public debates, we would undermine public deliberation by fragmenting its unity. Even within the domestic realm, moreover, women must be dominated -Young, 267
A general perspective does not exist which all persons can adopt and from which all experiences and perspectives can be understood and taken into account -Young
No one can claim to speak in the general interest, because no one of the groups can speak for another, and certainly no one can speak for them all. Thus the only way to have all group experience and social perspectives voiced, heard, and taken account of is to have them specifically represented in the public -Young
Each person has an equal claim to a fully adequate scheme of basic rights and liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme for all; and in this scheme the equal political liberties, and only those liberties, are to be guaranteed their fair value. Second, he states, Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first, they are to be attached to positions and offices open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second, they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged members of society. -Rawls
(1) the benefits of their work or energy go to others without those others reciprocally benefiting them (exploitation); (3) they live and work under the authority of others, and have little work autonomy and authority over others themselves (powerlessness); (4) as a group they are stereotyped at the same time that their experience and situation is invisible in the society in general, and they have little opportunity and little audience for the expression of their experience and perspective on social events (cultural imperialism)
as a group they are stereotyped at the same time that their experience and situation is invisible in the society in general, and they have little opportunity and little audience for the expression of their experience and perspective on social events (cultural imperialism)
The principles call for specific representation only for oppressed or disadvantaged groups, because privileged groups already are represented. Thus the principle would not apply in a society entirely without oppression. I do not regard the principle as merely provisional, or instrumental, however, because I believe that group difference in modern complex societies is both inevitable and desirable, and that wherever there is group difference, disadvantage or oppression always looms as a possibility. Thus a society should always be committed to representation for oppressed or disadvantaged groups and ready to implement such representation when it appears. These considerations are rather academic in our own context, however, since we live in a society with deep group oppressions the complete elimination of which is only a remote possibility.