Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Brain Spinal cord Spinal Cord Sensory Nerves: Afferent Motor Nerves: Efferent Afferent: stimuli both internal and external Internal: Stretch Receptors.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Brain Spinal cord Spinal Cord Sensory Nerves: Afferent Motor Nerves: Efferent Afferent: stimuli both internal and external Internal: Stretch Receptors."— Presentation transcript:


2 Brain Spinal cord

3 Spinal Cord

4 Sensory Nerves: Afferent Motor Nerves: Efferent Afferent: stimuli both internal and external Internal: Stretch Receptors External: Integumentary receptors Messiner corpusle: touch Pacinian corpusle: pressure Nociceptor: pain Thermoreceptor: heat Efferent: Response to effectors Two functional divisions Somatic: Skeletal muscle Autonomic: Cardiac & Smooth muscles Glands


6 Sympathetic Parasympathetic : Fight or Flight Increase HR, RR, BP, BS Decrease blood flow digestive Adrenaline (Stress Hormone) released for the Adrenal glands Pupils Dilate Increase Blood Flow to Muscles Senses Heighten Release of glucagon stimulates liver to release glucose increase BS Homeostasis: Calming Self-Maintenance Activities Balance the Sympathetic response Decrease HR, RR, BP Increase blood flow Digestive system Adrenals stop releasing Adrenaline Release of glycogen Stimulates liver to store BS

7 Fight or Flight: Sympathetic Homeostasis: Parasympathetic

8 Cerebrum Cerebellum Meningies Ventricles Medulla Oblongata Corpus Callosum Pons Midbrain Spinal cord

9 Largest part of the brain Divided into hemispheres Each hemisphere has four lobes (F,T,P,O) Connected by the CORPUS CALLOSUM

10 Thick band of nerve fibres connect the brain cells in one hemisphere to those in the other hemisphere allows for constant communication Aids motor coordination of left and right side

11 Left : Logical words logic numbers analysis lists linearity and sequence Right: Creative creative brain rhythm spatial awareness colour imagination daydreaming holistic awareness and dimension



14 planning organizing problem solving personality reasoning Intuition or perception behavior and emotions Frontal lobe

15 visual processing color recognition vision recognition Occipital Lobe

16 cognition (acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or perception) information processing pain and touch sensation spatial orientation speech and visual perception. Parietal Lobe

17 emotional responses hearing speech. differentiate smells and sounds Memory (Hippocampus & Amygdala) information sorting short and long term memory. right lobe visual memory left verbal memory Temporal lobe Hippocampus

18 MotorSensory

19 3 Layers Dura Mater-toughest and outermost layer Arachnoid Mater (resembles a spider web) middle layer Pia Mater-inner layer and most delicate sits directly on top of the brain and spinal cord Space between Arachnoid and Pia Mater has cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

20 What is inflammation of the Meningies called? Why is it serious ? What covers the Brain and the Spinal Cord? What will this swelling cause? In the Brain? In the Spinal Cord?

21 Cavities within the center of the brain filled with CSF This fluid is found in the space around the Meningies and the central canal of the spinal cord Fluid protects and cushions the CNS

22 Pituitary Gland: Master Gland ThalamusHypothalamus: Homeostasis Cerebrum Corpus Callosum Ventricles Cerebellum Spinal Cord: sensory impulses up Motor impulses down

23 Inferior to the Occipital lobes Posterior to the Pons and Medulla Oblongata Co-ordinates complex skeletal muscle contractions and relaxation necessary for body movement and balance Connects the brain to the brain stem Pituitary gland Cerebellum Hypothalamus Thalamus

24 Inferior part of brain stem Contains the vital reflexes Cardiovascular center: force and rate of the heart rate and changes in smooth muscle of the arteries to regulate Blood Pressure Respiratory centers: controls diaphragm Vomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing Medulla Oblongata

25 Bulging brain stem region Bridge between the cerebellum and the cerebrum Works with the medulla oblongata to control breathing (respiration) Pons

26 Form important connections between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem and spinal cord to control sensory processes such as vision and movement. Midbrain

27 Electrical impulses (messages) travel back & forth between from the PNS to the CNS and then back to the PNS through bundles of neurons which are called nerves

28 1 Dendrites: Extends out from the cell body picks up message from synaptic terminal of adjoining neuron 2 Cell Body: Directs all activity of the neuron

29 3 Axon: long single fiber that transmits electrical impulse from cell body to the synaptic terminals 4 Synaptic terminals or axon terminals: Release neurotransmitters that allows electrical message to travel to the next neurons Dendrites or gland or muscle cells

30 5 myelin sheath covers most neurons insulates the axon and helps nerve signals travel faster and farther.

31 Movement of neurotransmitters from synaptic terminal of one neuron: to the dendrites of another neuron Muscle cell : cardiac, skeletal, smooth gland For a synapse to occur you need to have a 1. Pre-synaptic cell 2. Post-synaptic cell

32 Acetylcholine – stimulates muscle contraction Monoamines - Norepinephrine & Dopamine sense of feeling good, low levels = depression Serotonin Sleepiness Depression Endorphins reduce pain by inhibit receptors

33 Neurons in the CNS Brain Spinal cord White matter: Cell Body Gray Matter: Axons


35 Spinal nerve Central canalGray matter White matter Meninges Spinal nerve Meningies

36 Sensory: afferent stimuli DORAL ROOT Motor: efferent response VENRAL ROOT

37 Reflex Arc requires: 1. Sensory neuron to provide afferent input (stimuli) (Dorsal root) 2. Interneuron to process (Gray matter) 3. Motor neuron to send efferent output (response) (Ventral Root)



40 Nerve messages are sent through the spinal cord to the brain to be processed Link between brain and rest of body (PNS) 31 pairs of spinal nerves Reflexes processed directly by spinal cord Reflex – quick, automatic, involuntary responses Result of reflex arcs – shortest nerve pathways

Download ppt "Brain Spinal cord Spinal Cord Sensory Nerves: Afferent Motor Nerves: Efferent Afferent: stimuli both internal and external Internal: Stretch Receptors."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google