6 Autonomic Nervous System Efferent Cardiac Muscle, Smooth Muscle, and Glands SympatheticHomeostasis: CalmingSelf-Maintenance ActivitiesBalance the Sympathetic responseDecrease HR, RR, BPIncrease blood flowDigestive systemAdrenals stop releasing AdrenalineRelease of glycogenStimulates liver to store BSParasympathetic:Fight or FlightIncreaseHR, RR, BP, BSDecrease blood flowdigestiveAdrenaline (Stress Hormone)released for the Adrenal glandsPupils DilateIncrease Blood Flow to MusclesSenses HeightenRelease of glucagonstimulates liver to release glucose increase BS
7 Autonomic Nervous system Fight or Flight: SympatheticHomeostasis: Parasympathetic
9 Cerebrum Largest part of the brain Divided into hemispheres Each hemisphere has four lobes (F,T,P,O)Connected by the CORPUS CALLOSUM
10 Corpus Callosum Thick band of nerve fibres connect the brain cells in one hemisphere to those in the other hemisphereallows for constant communicationAids motor coordination of left and right sideExample : You read a geometry problem in a textbook. The words are seen and the visual forms translated into meaning by the language center in the left hemisphere. To solve the problem you have to imagine a cone shaped object. This is accomplished by centers in the right hemisphere. The solution is written down using language generated by the left hemisphere.What would happen in cases like this if the callosum was damaged ?
11 Left and Right Side of the Brain Left : Logicalwordslogicnumbersanalysislistslinearity and sequenceRight: Creativecreative brainrhythmspatial awarenesscolourimaginationdaydreamingholistic awareness and dimension
14 Frontal Lobes: anterior aspect of cerebrum planningorganizingproblem solvingpersonalityreasoningIntuition or perceptionbehavior and emotions
15 Occipital Lobes: located posterior cerebrum and superior to cerebellum visual processingcolor recognitionvision recognitionOccipital Lobe
16 Parietal Lobes: located superior to temporal lobes of the cerebrum cognition (acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or perception)information processingpain and touch sensationspatial orientationspeech and visual perception.Parietal Lobe
17 Temporal Lobe: Medial to ears, superior to Occipital lobes emotional responseshearingspeech.differentiate smells and soundsMemory (Hippocampus & Amygdala)information sorting short and long term memory.right lobe visual memoryleft verbal memoryTemporal lobeHippocampus
18 Sensory Cortex: Sensory Imput Motor Cortex: Motor Response
19 Meninges: membranes that protect Brain & Spinal Cord 3 LayersDura Mater-toughest and outermost layerArachnoid Mater (resembles a spider web) middle layerPia Mater-inner layer and most delicate sits directly on top of the brain and spinal cordSpace between Arachnoidand Pia Mater hascerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
20 Layers of the MeningesWhat is inflammation of the Meningies called? Why is it serious? What covers the Brain and the Spinal Cord? What will this swelling cause? In the Brain? In the Spinal Cord?
21 Ventricles: Cavities with CSF Cavities within the center of the brain filled with CSFThis fluid is found in the space around the Meningies and the central canal of the spinal cordFluid protects and cushions the CNS
23 Cerebellum Inferior to the Occipital lobes Posterior to the Pons and Medulla OblongataCo-ordinates complex skeletal muscle contractions and relaxation necessary for body movement and balanceConnects the brain to the brain stemCerebellumThalamusHypothalamusPituitary gland
24 Medulla Oblongata Inferior part of brain stem Contains the vital reflexesCardiovascular center: force and rate of the heart rate and changes in smooth muscle of the arteries to regulate Blood PressureRespiratory centers: controls diaphragmVomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, coughing, sneezingMedulla Oblongata
25 Pons Bulging brain stem region Bridge between the cerebellum and the cerebrumWorks with the medulla oblongata to control breathing (respiration)Pons
26 MidbrainForm important connections between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem and spinal cord to control sensory processes such as vision and movement.Midbrain
27 Nerves: bundles of Neurons Electrical impulses (messages) travel back & forth between from the PNS to the CNS and then back to the PNS through bundles of neurons which are called nerves
28 Neurons: Five main parts 1 Dendrites:Extends out from the cell body picks up message from synaptic terminal of adjoining neuron2 Cell Body:Directs all activity of the neuron
29 Neurons: parts 3 & 4 3 Axon: 4 Synaptic terminals or axon terminals: long single fiber that transmits electrical impulse from cell body to the synaptic terminals4 Synaptic terminals or axon terminals:Release neurotransmitters that allows electrical message to travel to the next neuron’s Dendrites or gland or muscle cells
30 Neurons: part five 5 myelin sheath covers most neurons insulates the axon and helps nerve signals travel faster and farther.
31 Movement ofneurotransmitters from synaptic terminal of one neuron:to the dendrites of another neuronMuscle cell : cardiac, skeletal, smoothglandFor a synapse to occur you need to have aPre-synaptic cellPost-synaptic cellSynapse
37 Reflex Arc occurs in the Spinal cord or brain stem Reflex Arc requires:Sensory neuron to provide afferent input (stimuli) (Dorsal root)Interneuron to process (Gray matter)Motor neuron to send efferent output (response) (Ventral Root)
40 Spinal CordNerve messages are sent through the spinal cord to the brain to be processedLink between brain and rest of body (PNS)31 pairs of spinal nervesReflexes processed directly by spinal cordReflex – quick, automatic, involuntary responsesResult of reflex arcs – shortest nerve pathways
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