Presentation on theme: "Survivor: Who Will Be the Best Competitor? How environmental change affects competition."— Presentation transcript:
Survivor: Who Will Be the Best Competitor? How environmental change affects competition
Competition Organisms require resources from their environment to grow, survive and reproduce Plants in the rainforest require sunlight, water and nutrients Different species of plants compete for these resources
Competition Examples http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d26AhcKeEbE&feature=related Within Species Competition Video Clover sprouts compete above and below ground. Between Species Competition Video Damselfish defend territories to compete with other fish. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YR7VfsR5iA&feature=related
Why is it important to understand competition? Predict if species can coexist Predict what will happen if – species are lost (extinction) – species are introduced Invasive species Biological controls
Environmental Change = Competition Change If global warming decreased rainfall, how would that affect plant competition? Sea lamprey are an invasive species that attack fish and suck their blood. If sea lamprey, invade Lake Michigan how would that affect fish competition?
Species Loss in Stickleback Fish Historically 2 species that differ in – Color, size, shape, behavior – Feeding & mating habitats One species mates in the open; the other species mates in the vegetation
Invasive Species Changed Mating Habitats Recent crayfish introduction Historical Conditions Current Conditions Ecological changes: - Vegetation loss - Increased turbidity - Water color
Loss of habitat increased species competition Bigger males compete better Bigger males = more aggression = gain a territory Need a territory to build a nest and attract females
Competition: The Game Species A vs. Species BEnvironment 1 Species A = Red-filtered vision Species B = Blue-filtered vision species Multiple types of available food items 60 seconds to collect as many food items as you can You need 5 units of food to survive until tomorrow You must – Pick up one food item at a time and return it to your stomach (cup) – Walk carefully – Not physically interfere with other organisms
Competition: The Game Use your worksheet to record food items eaten by each member of your species
Competition: The Game Species A vs. Species B Environment 2 A disease has drastically reduced the number of one of the prey items. You must forage for food in this new environment.
Competition: The Game Use your worksheet to record food items eaten by each member of your species in Environment 2. Graph total # of food items of each color eaten by all members of your species. How do results compare between environments? (Groups prepare to report out)
Competition: The Game How do results for each species compare?
Competition: The Game What other changes to the game environment can you imagine? Small groups develop ideas Entire group votes on one question to test Make predictions Test question and interpret results
Competing takes energy and time Poor competitors get less of the resources (food, territory) This leads to lower survival and reproduction Competition is Costly How can organisms reduce this cost?
Reduce competition by specializing Eats detritus (dead material on pond bottom) Eats shrimp that swim in pond
Reduce competition by specializing Eats invertebrates in the sediment of the lake bottom Eats plankton that swim in open water of the lake = Niche differentiation
Competition in Bioenergy Plots How might competition be important in bioenergy plots?