3IntroductionAs the demand of energy is increasing day by day, with the increase in the population, the whole world including our country will face possible energy crises and environmental problems in the next few decades. This would also affect economies and our lives. We need to conserve energy and try to promote alternative sources of energy..
4Our missionWe have performed testing procedures to prove the burning effects of fossil fuels.As the team of experts we have made a plan and gave recommendations how to conserve energy.We will also persuade government to promote alternative sources of energy.
5What are fossil fuels?Coal, oil and natural gas, are non-renewable sources of energy.They are called fossil fuels because they are formed from plants and animals that have lived up to 300 million years ago.Energy is essential to modern society as we know it. Over 85% of our energy demands are met by the combustion of fossil fuels.
9BURNING EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUELS What's the problem?BURNING EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUELS
10Air pollutants Physical properties Sources Harmful effects Carbon dioxideColourless,odorless and poisonous gasPower stations which burn coal and oilGlobal warmingSulphurdioxideUnpleasent colourless gasPower stations and industries which burn coal and oilAcid rain,health problemsOxides of nitrogenPoisonous gasBurning of coal and oil in industries and vehiclesLead compounds and ash particlesPoisonous solid particlesExhaust fumes from the combustion of leaded petrol in vehicles,dieselLead poisoning,brain damage,respiratoryDiseases.Carbon monoxideColourless,poisonous gasIncomplete combustion of carbon compoundsHealth problems
11About 45% of green house gases are released by the developed countries
12ACID RAINThe most common causes of acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from combustion of oils and coals with high sulfur content and exhaust from gasoline engines.
14Acidic rain has disastrous effects Forests all over the world are dying, fishes are dying.Lakes and rivers may become too acidic.14,000 lakes has been reported acidic in eastern Canada.It destroys trees.It eats the stone work of buildings and corrodes metals.
16Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere and oceans in recent decades.
17Burning of fossil fuels is one of the major cause of increasing global temperature. Undesirable results of global warming include drastic changes in climate and rising in sea levels due to the expansion of sea waters and the melting of the ice caps.Some kinds of plants and animals will become extinct.
18HEALTH IMPACTSThe by-products that form from the burning of fossil fuels are very dangerous.These small particles can exist in the air for indefinite periods of time, up to several weeks and can travel for miles.Particles can enter the blood stream, irritating the lungs and carry with them toxic substances and pollutants.Migraines is caused by the smoke that comes out from vehicles
20Testing of rain water We collected rain water from different areas. We checked their acidity by using pH scale.We compared their values with pure water and normal rain water.pH value of pure water is 7.pH of normal rain water is 5.6.
21How can we measure acidity of rain? We used strips impregnated with a chemical indicator to test the water’s pH.
22Results Results has shown : Samples of rain water pH of rain water pH of normal rainA (Garden)5.35.6B (M.A Jinnah)4.8C (Sadder)5Results has shown :that pH of rain water is less than that of normal rain water .that rain water is acidic due to the presence of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen.
23We have proved that earth’s temperature is rising We placed a small amount of soil on two plastic plates.We cut around the top of the bottle to remove the neck. We placed the open end of the bottle upside down over one of the plates.We recorded initial temperatures of soil from both the plates.
24We put both plates outside in the sunlight and left for at least 30 minutes. We placed one thermometer in our plastic bottle mini greenhouse, and placed the other thermometer on the open plate of soil .We recorded the temperature reading from both plates after 5 minutes.
25RESULTS Temp. of soil in the air Temp. of soil inside the bottle 26 oC Initial temp26 oC28 oCFinal temp36 oC42 oCTemp. of soil inside the bottle has increased because bottle trapped sunlight as carbon dioxide traps heat of sunlight in the atmosphere.The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide.
26The only solution of the problem is to reduce emissions and Save energy
27Why is there need to conserve energy? It is necessary to conserve energy because:The energy resources on earth are limited.It may end up after years.We need to limit the effects of the use of energy on the environment.
28When Do we Send Greenhouse Gases into the Air? Whenever we use…
31What should we do: Change a Light, Change the World. CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switch. will save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.Keep your car tuned up Regular maintenance helps improve fuel efficiency and reduces emissions. When just 1% of car owners properly maintain their cars, nearly a billion pounds of carbon dioxide are kept out of the atmosphere.
32Plant a tree A single tree will absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime. Remember your three Rs!Reduce, reuse, recycle.Be sure you’re recycling at home You can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide a year by recycling half of the waste of your household generates.
33When it is hot wear cold and when it is cold wear hot. Encourage your school or business to reduce emissions.When it is hot wear cold and when it is cold wear hot.Don't leave lights on when no one is in the room.Wasting water wastes electricity.
34What should governments do: Promote alternative sources of energy.Instructions should be written on notice boards in offices to turn off lights when leaving.NGO’s should arrange workshops to aware people how to save energy.KYOTO PROTOCOL agreement should be signed by every government.
35CONCLUSIONWe need energy to do things like drive car, fly a plane,make things in a factory,use electricity.But we need to use energy wisely if we want to survive in future and to help to slow global warming and reduce acid rain.