Presentation on theme: "Whose job is it anyway? Once were 4 people named:"— Presentation transcript:
1Whose job is it anyway? Once were 4 people named: Everybody, Somebody, Nobody and Anybody.There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it.
2Whose job is it anyway? Everybody was sure Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did it.Somebody got angry about that, because it was Everybody’s jobEverybody thought Nobody could do it but Nobody realised that Everybody wouldn’t do it.It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could have done!
3Establishing a project’s success and failure criteria
4Accepting a limited amount of failure “A man who makes no mistakes does not usually make anything.”EDWARD JOHN PHELPS, 12 January 1899Crack a few eggs to make an omelette
5Definition of success A unique set of coordinated activities With definite starting and finishing points,Undertaken by an individual or organizationTo meet specific objectives within defined time, cost and performance parameters
6Why Project Management The purpose of modern project management is to conduct a successful projectHistorically, project management responded to the need to create civil and building works of some complexityIn the 1950s project management achieved greater prominence when the planning and control concepts were applied to much more complex projects such as those of the US navy and, subsequently, NASA space projects
7Why Project Management In the last couple of decades, project management has emerged as a business process tool with broad application in the corporate world.It is seen as the management approach of choice for dealing with an ever-shifting business environment, rapid technological changeIn days gone by, the old axiom "On time, on budget" was deemed the mark of success.Yet the literature is rife with examples of projects that were either completed late or finished over budget, and were still considered successful. Less well documented are all those projects that were completed on time and within budgetNHS I.T.ProjectThe programme, run by a government agency called NHS Connecting for Health, is aimed at linking more than 30,000 GPs to nearly 300 hospitals by 2014.The new systems include an online booking system, a centralised medical records system for 50m patients, e-prescriptions and fast computer network links between NHS organisations.The NHS computer project also has grave safety and performance problems.Moving patient records from the hospital or surgery to remote computer centres means that network failures cause havoc.What's more, the NHS computer system is showing all the classic symptoms of turning into a software project disaster, with changing specifications, slipping deadlines and soaring costs.
8Success or failureThe Concorde aircraft programme was budgeted at £175m and came in at £800m;The Channel Tunnel costs more than doubled from £4.8bn to £10.9bnThe Scottish Parliament building costs rose from £40m to £374m.
9Success or failureA review of 1,000 projects by the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC) found that technology was one of the least likely reasons for a project to fail.Programmes fail for management reasons, not technical reasons.
10Success or failure The OGC found the main reasons for failure to be: Lack of leadershipLack of knowledge at the top of the organization about what the technologists are trying to explain - and lack of knowledge among technologists about what business users want.Poor risk management - not in terms of whether program code is accurate but rather in terms of whether, for example, unions will accept the proposed changesUnderestimation of the complexity of business process change and human change
11Success Factors So what is needed to make change projects successful? In complex projects the management must come from the very top, because such programmes threaten the entire organization.So those involved must have the attention of the chief executive, or the government minister.
12Success FactorsClear leadership from the top is especially important if some of the stakeholders are less than enthusiastic. Stakeholders must be kept engaged throughout, especially the customers or business users.The need for hybrid managers who can build communication bridges between technologists and top management was articulated many years ago and is still best advice.The stakeholders who are going to benefit financially must be committed, and there must be a contract of some sort with them, otherwise it will just be seen as an IT project - and you should forget it.
13Success or failure criteria Success means (gaining) advantage, superiority, victory, accomplishment, achievement, added value.But all of these are perceptions, so how can they be related to project work?.If a project is to be perceived as successful, then its stakeholders must be satisfiedSince this encompasses a wide range of people, they may not all be equally satisfied but at least they should be satisfied in some degree, or in the majority.
14Success or failure criteria There are three main elements to consider regarding a project’s success or failure criteria:Is it well managed from a “Project management” view pointHow successful was the project team in meeting its schedule objectives?How successful was the project team in meeting its budget objectives?How successful was the project team in managing any other resource constraints
15Success or failure criteria Are the “Specialist products” being delivered on time, within budget, and to the required qualityDid the product meet its specified requirements of functional performance WhatDoes the customer actually use the product, and are they satisfied with it?Does the project's product fulfill the customer's needs, and/or solve the problem?
16Success or failure criteria Will the “Specialist Products” provide the expected “Business or organisational” benefits
17Success or failure criteria Projects are launched for a variety of reasons: to construct buildings or infra-structure, to establish manufacturing processes, to upgrade existing products, or to build defence related systems for example.No matter what the motivation for the project, the question of project success is strongly linked to the organization’s effectiveness and its well-being in the long run.Yet, there is still no generally agreed framework with which project success is being measured and assessed.
18Start with the business case The initial “Business case” is a good starting point for establishing if a project is a success or failure.The business case will go through many updates during the life of the project.THE REASON FOR THESE CHANGES, SUPPORTED BY A CHANGE CONTROL MECHANISM, MUST BE DOCUMENTED TO PROVIDE AN AUDIT TRAIL.
19When to review success or failure The analysing of the success or failure of a project must be an ongoing process throughout the project “Life cycle”.A lot of time, effort, resources, and money can be wasted if a detailed analysis of the project’s success or failure criteria is only undertaken during the “Project Closure” phase.The use of “Project Management” stages is one method for formalising the ongoing monitoring of a project’s “Success/failure” criteria
20When to review success or failure Projects are best managed as a series of structured phases.“Phase” management provides a logical flow for project execution, providing for periodic review and reflection.To take full advantage of these potential benefits, each phase must include checkpoints for management control, also known as stage gates or exits.Checkpoints provide a basis for analysis and evaluation, to determine whether the project is proceeding as planned, and to take corrective action as needed.
21When to review success or failure Does the project have a control system?Do we check planned time and cost against actual duration and expenditure?Are checks carried out early enough to detect problems and correct them?Do we feedback progress to the team?Do we check that action on feedback is effective?
22When to review success or failure You will need progress reports from project team members.You should record variations between the actual and planned cost, schedule and scope.You can adjust the plan in many ways to get the project back on track but you will always end up juggling cost, scope and schedule.
23When to review success or failure If the project manager changes one of these, then one or both of the other elements will inevitably need changing. It is juggling these three elements - known as the project triangleThis typically causes a project manager the most headaches!
24Success/failure criteria Is the project:Meeting the required timescalesWithin budgetGoing to meet the operational/business objectivesMeeting the quality requirementsStill needed by the customer
25Success/failure criteria Is the project:Avoiding ill-defined “Scope creep”The inching forward of scope to introduce more requirements that are not included in the initial planning of the projectwhilst maintaining the same time frame for project deliveryThis can occur when the scope of a project is not properly defined, documented, or controlled
26Scope creep Scope creep is a risk in most projects. Typically, the scope increase consists of either new products or new features of already approved products. Hence, the project team drifts away from its original purpose.Scope creep can also result in a project team overrunning its original budget and scheduleScope creep is a risk in most projects.By managing changes, the project manager can make decisions about whether or not to incorporate the changes immediately or in the future, or to reject them.This increases the chances of project success because the project manager controls how the changes are incorporated, can allocate resources accordingly and can plan when and how the changes are made. Not managing changes effectively is often a reason why projects fail.
27Change managementStakeholders often change their mind about what must be delivered.Sometimes the business environment changes after the project starts, so assumptions made at the beginning of the project may no longer be valid.This often means the scope or deliverables of the project need changing. If a project manager accepted all changes into the project, the project would inevitably go over budget, be late and might never be completed
28Change managementBy managing changes, the project manager can make decisions about whether or not to incorporate the changes immediately or in the future, or to reject them.This increases the chances of project success because the project manager controls how the changes are incorporated, can allocate resources accordingly and can plan when and how the changes are made. Not managing changes effectively is often a reason why projects fail.
29Success/failure criteria Is the project:Management “Proactive” concerning the management of risk rather then “Reactive”Estimates for cost, time and resources realistic or should they start “Once upon a time”Change control mechanism providing a true reflection of events
30Project Triangle Is there the correct balance between: Moneyscopetime“The definitive guide to project management” Nokes and Greenwood
31Project TriangleIf time, money, or what your project accomplished were unlimited, you wouldn't need to do project management. Unfortunately, most projects have a specific time limit & budget and riskWe refer to this as the project triangle and It is a combination of these elementsIf you adjust any one element (side of the triangle), the other two sides are affected.
32Project TriangleFor example, if you decide to adjust the project plan to Bring forward the scheduled finish date you might end up with increased costs and decreased scope.Moneyscopetime“The definitive guide to project management” Nokes and Greenwood
33Project TriangleOr Increase scope, your project might take more time and cost more money in the form ofscopeMoneytime“The definitive guide to project management” Nokes and Greenwood
34Success/failure criteria Team performanceCommitment to team workIndividual participation and leadershipOral and written communication, within and on behalf of the teamCollaboration
35Success/failure criteria Team performanceConflict resolutionWilling to change and take risksIndividual and team learningPlanning and goal settingDecision making
36Success/failure criteria Team performanceProblem solvingCredibility and trustAdherence to agreed proceduresBuilding and sustaining interpersonal relationships"
37Success/failure criteria It is especially important today that organizations have formal processes in place to select team members.Project teams are often thrown together in a disorganized fashion,Organizations need to put some thought and planning into the selection process because the success of project teams and their ability to work well together can improve an organization’s bottom line.
38Success/failure criteria Factors enhancing communication, relationships and controlAuthority and responsibility matched by reliability and accountabilityConsistent sense of purpose and directionOpen cross-functional communicationsOpen access to process informationGroup decision-making by consentVisibility and recognition of accomplishments
39Success/failure criteria Major influences on team performance includeStimulating and interesting workOpportunity for experience and growthSolid team leadership and technical directionGood communication and interpersonal relationshipsQualified and high-energy team colleaguesRecognition of accomplishments
40Success/failure criteria Major influences on team performance includeConvincing and committed project goalsShared team objectives, values, and ownershipDistributed leadership based on expertise and respectOpen information sharingParticipation in project development, definition and planningSelf-managed team and work effortFlexible working conditionsMinimal "ceremony" and "politics
41Success/failure criteria Use of performance metricsMeasured goals and objectivesMeasured performance and recording of resultsAcceptance of innovative and creative solutionsEmphasis on quality of performanceEmphasis on quality in the productTracking and containment of cost and schedule
42Success/failure criteria Is being involved with the project very similar to working in a mushroom farm?Everyone is constantly kept in the dark and fed a load of RubbishThis could be a very good indication that the project has not followed the “Project’s Communication Plan” or such a plan never existed
43Success/failure criteria Correct selection of the “Project approach”Bought off the shelfMade to measureDeveloped “In House”Contracted to a third partyBased on existing products“Built from scratch”Based on a specific technology
44Success/failure criteria Correct selection of the “Project approach”Common failure causes being;The “Not invented here” syndromeWhat matters is who makes a decent product that does what it claims to doNot getting independent verification of supplier’s products or servicesProjects driven by a “technology interest”not a business requirementBeing too tied to a limited number of suppliersThree quotes systemThrow new technology at it to make it workBespoke products have a limited suppliers…….specialist products etcNot invented here syndrome (NIHS) is a slightly tongue-in-cheek name for the tendency of both individual developers and entire organizations to reject suitable external solutions to software development problems in favor of internally developed solutions. Closely related to the "let's re-invent the wheel" syndromeThe truth is that it doesn't matter one iota who invented the concept, the term, or the implementation. The English invented cricket, and they're not very good at it. IBM invented the PC, and never made any money off it. Invention bragging rights are an irrelevance.What matters is who makes a decent product that does what it claims to do.
45"Success is how high you bounce when you hit bottom "Success is how high you bounce when you hit bottom.“ 'gen george patton'Continued next week