2 ObjectivesExplain the impact of Henry Ford and the automobile.Analyze the consumer revolution and the bull market of the 1920s.Compare the different effects of the economic boom on urban and rural America.
3 Terms and PeopleHenry Ford – applied mass production techniques to manufacture automobilesmass production – the rapid, large-scale manufacture of identical productsModel T – automobile manufactured by Henry Ford to be affordable on the mass marketscientific management – analysis of a manufacturing process to improve speed and efficiency
4 Terms and People (continued) assembly line – manufacturing technique in which products move past workers, each of whom adds one componentconsumer revolution – flood of new, affordable goods in the decades after World War Iinstallment buying – buying on credit by making an initial down payment and then paying the balance over timebull market – a period of rising prices in the stock marketbuying on margin – buying stock on credit by paying a percentage up front and borrowing the rest of the cost of the stock4
5 THE ROARING 20S WW I ENDS SUDDENLY-troops come home. (DEMOBILIZATION) ECONOMY BOOMS- Jobs, the rise of income and new products make people want to spend $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$2/3 OF HOMES HAVE ELECTRICITY….Instead of hiring domestics women begin to do their own housework.
6 Much of this boom can be traced to the automobile. The 1920s were a time of rapid economic growth in the United States.Inflation Post - WWIMuch of this boom can be traced to the automobile.
7 Land of the Automobile THE AUTOMOBILE CHANGES HOW AMERICAN’S LIVED: Assembly line technology cuts time and price in half!FOR EXAMPLE:In 1909 the cost of a car was $ and there were approximately 8 million on the road.By 1924 a car cost $ and there were 26 millioncars on the roads.
8 Before 1920, only wealthy people could afford cars. By applying innovative manufacturing techniques, Henry Ford changed that.His affordable Model T became a car for the people.8
9 Ford made the Model T affordable by applying mass production techniques to making cars. A moving assembly line brought cars to workers, who each added one part.Ford consulted scientific management experts to make his manufacturing process more efficient.The time to assemble a Model T dropped from 12 hours to just 90 minutes.9
10 RELATED INDUSTRIES BOOMED Over 1 million people are employed in related industries that help make cars… AUTO TOURISM becomes popular… THE TIN LIZZIE
11 AUTO TOURISM CONTRIBUTES TO….. 400,000 MILES OF ROAD LAIDBILLBOARDSFILLING STATIONSTOURIST CABINSLINKED RURAL TO URBANDEPOPULATED CITIESCAMPINGSIGHTSEEINGDRIVE INSSOCIAL LIFE OF TEENS APART FROM FAMILIESCREATED CONSUMER MARKETING
12 NEW PRODUCTS ELECTRIC APPLIANCES: WASHING MACHINES RADIO SEWING MACHINES
13 The 1920s also saw a consumer revolution. Using installmentbuying, people could buy more.New productsflooded the market.Advertisingcreateddemand.13
15 Targeting the Consumer INSTALLMENT PLANS ( Buying something you couldn’t otherwise afford…paying for it over time)PLANNED OBSOLESCENCE…CHANGING THE STYLE OF SOMETHING SO PEOPLE WANT NEW ONES. People would go into debt to stay in style.Advertising on radio and billboardsGrocery stores replaced the traditional market (A&P)
16 20.2 - Government and Foreign Affairs in the 1920s
17 ObjectivesAnalyze how the policies of Presidents Harding and Coolidge favored business growth.Discuss the most significant scandals during Harding’s presidency.Explain the role that the United States played in the world during the 1920s.
18 Terms and PeopleAndrew Mellon – Secretary of the Treasury under President Harding; favored low taxes, a balanced budget, and less business regulationHerbert Hoover – Secretary of Commerce; favored voluntary cooperation between businesses and workersTeapot Dome scandal – scandal during the Harding administration in which the Secretary of the Interior leased government oil reserves to private oilmen in return for bribes
19 Terms and People (continued) Calvin Coolidge – quiet, frugal, and honest President who took office when Harding diedWashington Naval Disarmament Conference – meeting held in 1921 and 1922 in which nations agreed to limit construction of large warshipsKellogg-Briand Pact – 1928 agreement to outlaw war as an instrument of national policyDawes Plan – loan program to help Germany make reparations to England and France so that those countries could repay wartime loans to the United States19
20 In 1920, Warren G. Harding was elected President, promising a “return to normalcy.” Unlike Progressives, Harding favored business interests and reduced federal regulations.His Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, was for low taxes and efficiency in government.Mellon cut the federal budget from a wartime high of $18 billion to $3 billion.
21 Harding was a popular, fun-loving president who trusted others to make decisions for him. Some advisors, such as Mellon and Hoover, were honest, capable, and trustworthy.Others, including a group known as the Ohio Gang, were not so civic-minded.21
22 Some Scandals of Harding’s Administration Charles Forbes, head of the Veterans’ Administration, wasted hundreds of millions of dollars. For example, he bought overpriced, unneeded supplies.Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted money from criminals.Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall took bribes in return for federal oil reserve leases.22
23 The Teapot Dome scandal was the biggest scandal of Harding’s administration. In 1921, Fall took control of federal oil reserves intended for the navy.He then leased those reserves to private oil companies.Fall was sent to prison.President Harding did not live to hear all of the scandal’s details. He died in 1923.23
24 Coolidge was a quiet, honest, frugal Vermonter. After Harding’s death in August 1923, Vice President Calvin Coolidge became President.Coolidge was a quiet, honest, frugal Vermonter.As President, he admired productive business leaders.24
25 There was general prosperity, especially for urban Americans. Coolidge believed that “the chief business of the American people is business.”Coolidge continued Mellon’s policies to reduce the national debt, trim the budget, and lower taxes.The country saw huge industrial profits and spectacular growth in the stock market.There was general prosperity, especially for urban Americans.25
26 Not everyone shared in the era’s prosperity. Farmers struggled as agricultural prices fell.Labor unions fought for higher pay and better working conditions.African Americans and Mexican Americans faced severe discrimination.Coolidge ignored such issues, believing it was not the federal government’s job to legislate social change.26
27 Under Harding and Coolidge, the United States played an increasingly important role as a world leader.The Washington Naval Disarmament Conference limited construction of large warships.The Kellogg-Briand Pact, signed by 62 countries, outlawed war.Much of U.S. foreign policy was a response to the devastation of World War I.But the United States refused to join the World Court.
28 During this period, the United States also became a world economic leader. To protect American businesses, Harding raised tariffs on imported goods by 25 percent.European nations retaliated, creating a tariff war.The Dawes Plan loaned money to Germany so it could pay reparations to Britain and France; in turn, those countries could repay the U.S. for wartime loans. This program damaged the reputation of the United States.
29 20. 3 - Social Change and Prohibition in the 1920s
30 ObjectivesCompare economic and cultural life in rural America to that in urban America.Discuss changes in U.S. immigration policy in the 1920s.Analyze the goals and motives of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s.Discuss the successes and failures of the Eighteenth Amendment.
31 Terms and Peoplemodernism – trend that emphasized science and secular values over traditional religious ideasfundamentalism – movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principlesScopes Trial – 1925 trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolutionClarence Darrow – defense attorney in the Scopes Trial
32 Terms and People (continued) quota system – a formula to determine how many immigrants could enter the United States annually from a given countryKu Klux Klan – a group violently opposed to African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and immigrantsProhibition – a ban on the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcoholEighteenth Amendment – a 1919 Constitutional amendment that established Prohibition32
33 Terms and People (continued) Volstead Act – a law that gave the government power to enforce the Eighteenth Amendmentbootlegger – someone who sold illegal alcohol during Prohibition33
34 PROHIBITION…….. COMBATS CRIME, FAMILY VIOLENCE, POVERTY AND VIOLENCE 18TH AMENDMENT OUTLAWS SALE,COMSUMPTION AND MFG. OF ALCOHOL.18TH AMENDMENT IS UNPOPULAR AND INGNORED
36 21ST AMENDMENT REPEALS THE 18TH ALCOHOLISM AND DEATH RATE DECLINE.BUT THE 18TH AMENDMENT MAKES AVERAGE CITIZENS CRIMINALS.THE 18TH AMENDMENT CANNOT BE ENFORCED BECAUSE PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO BREAK THE LAW.
37 “Wets” opposed Prohibition, claiming that it did not stop drinking. Wets argued that Prohibition encouraged hypocrisy and illegal activity.Increased organized crimeRebellious Youth – Flappers and the “new women”“Drys” favored Prohibition, hailing the law as a “noble experiment.”Drys believed that Prohibition was good for society.Decrease Alcoholism and Immoral Behaviors
38 CRIME RISES BOOTLEGGING BECOMES PROFITABLE. SPEAKEASIES Illegal, private clubs with secret entrances and passwords spring up.GANGSTERS RIVAL FOR ILLEGAL BUSINESS.AL CAPONE MOST FAMOUS MOB BOSS.ELLIOT NESS AND HIS GROUP OF GOVERNMENT AGENTS CALLED THE UNTOUCHABLES FINALLY GET CAPONE ON TAX EVASION.
40 RELIGION REVIVALISM- REVIVAL OF RELIGION CHANGING MORALS IS TROUBLESOME FOR CHURCH,FAMILY AND NEIGHBORHOODSREVIVALISM- REVIVAL OF RELIGIONDENOUNCES ENTERTAINMENT AS EVIL. To get followers some religious leaders use a Hollywood styles to gain attentionAIMEE SEMPLE MCPHERSON
41 SCIENCE VS. RELIGION MODERNISM TRADITIONALISM Many people in the citiesBelief in science over the Bible. The Bible can be interpreted in difference ways, not word for word.TRADITIONALISMMostly people in the countryside who are not exposed to new ideasBelief in the Bible as it is written word for word
42 High School Biology teacher Scopes “Monkey” TrialEvolution vs. CreationismScience vs. ReligionClarence DarrowDayton, TennesseeJohn ScopesHigh School Biology teacher
43 SCOPES TRIAL Science vs. Religion THE SCOPES TRIAL Tested traditional values (religious) VS. Modernism (science).Tennessee OUTLAWED the teaching of evolution. John Scopes tested the law and was tried for teaching Darwinism.Who won? Although he was found guilty, Scopes was given a small fine.
44 In 1924, the National Origins Act set up a quota system for immigrants. For each nationality, the quota allowed up to 2 percent of 1890’s total population of that nationality living in the U.S. This limited the ability of many immigrants, such as Italian and Asian people, to enter the country.
45 Beginning in 1915, there was a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan. Trends such as urbanization, modernism, and increasing diversity made some people lash out against change.Beginning in 1915, there was a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.The Klan promoted hatred of African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.At its height, the Klan had between 4 and 5 million members.45
46 The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) continued… *Used terrorism to intimidate African AmericansKidnappings, beatings, lynchingSecretive organization—wear masksWhy?*Targeted African Americans, Catholics, immigrants, Jews, and suspected radicalsRed Scare boosts membership—Why?After the Red Scare membership declines rapidly—Why?
48 ObjectivesTrace the reasons that leisure time increased during the 1920s.Analyze how the development of popular culture united Americans and created new activities and heroes.Discuss the advancements of women in the 1920s.Analyze the concept of modernism and its impact on writers and painters in the 1920s.
49 Terms and PeopleCharlie Chaplin – popular silent film starThe Jazz Singer – the first movie with sound synchronized to the actionBabe Ruth – baseball star known for his record of most home runs in a seasonCharles Lindbergh – the first person to fly solo and nonstop across the Atlantic Oceanflapper – a young woman of the 1920s who rejected traditional values and dress
50 Terms and People (continued) Sigmund Freud – psychologist who suggested that people are driven by unconscious desires“Lost Generation” – writers who rejected Victorian values after World War I and searched for new truthsF. Scott Fitzgerald – author of The Great Gatsby and other novels, who questioned the idea of the American dreamErnest Hemingway – author of A Farewell to Arms and other works who also questioned the American dream and developed his own writing style to reflect his views50
51 In the 1920s, urban dwellers saw an increase in leisure time In the 1920s, urban dwellers saw an increase in leisure time. Life in the city and in the country became increasingly different.In cities and suburbs, people earned more money and had more time for fun. They looked for new kinds of entertainment.Farmers worked from dawn to dusk and had little time for recreation.
53 TALKIES MOVIES WITH SOUND BECOME POPULAR THE SHEIK STARRING ROUDOUPH VALINTINEO BECOMES A CLASSIC.WOMEN SWOON FOR THIS NEW SEX SYMBOLMOVIES ARE VIEWED AS CORRUPTING THE MORALS OF AMERICANS………
54 Movies were affordable and widely available. The democratic, universal appeal of movies created stars known the world over.Charlie Chaplin became the most popular silent film star by playing the Little Tramp.In 1927, Al Jolson appeared in The Jazz Singer, the first “talkie,” ending the era of silent films.
55 ENTERTAINMENTRADIO…A SHARED CULTURAL EXPERIENCE. Everyone knew the same jokes, music and ads.SPORTS-THE FIGHTS AND BASEBALLHEROES IN SPORTS INCLUDED BABE RUTH, JIM THORPECHARLES LINDBERGH WAS THE FIRST MAN TO FLY HIS PLANE The Spirit of St. Louis across the Atlantic from NY to Paris.
56 Women’s roles also changed in the 1920s. Women married later, had fewer children, and generally lived longer, healthier lives.Labor-saving appliances, such as electric irons and vacuum cleaners, allowed time for book clubs, charitable work, and new personal interests.Such changes benefited urban women more than rural women.56
57 THE NEW WOMEN THE FLAPPER STYLISH…SHORT DRESSES AND BOBBED HAIR ADVENTURESOMEINDEPENDENT AND CAREER MINDED
58 The decade saw many “firsts” for women. More women entered the workforce.They moved into new fields such as banking, aviation, journalism, and medicine.Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming became the first female governor.Other “firsts” included the first woman judge and the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate.58
59 Writers of the 1920s were called the “Lost Generation” because they’d lost faith in Victorian cultural values.F. Scott Fitzgerald explored the idea of the American dream, writing that his generation had found “all faiths in man shaken.”Ernest Hemingway questioned concepts of personal sacrifice, glory, honor, and war and created a new style of writing.Playwright Eugene O’Neill explored the subconscious mind in his plays.
65 ObjectivesAnalyze the racial and economic philosophies of Marcus Garvey.Trace the development and impact of jazz.Discuss the themes explored by writers of the Harlem Renaissance.
66 Terms and PeopleMarcus Garvey – founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the “Back to Africa” movement who promoted black pridejazz – American musical art form based on improvisation that came to represent the Roaring TwentiesLouis Armstrong – trumpet player who influenced the development of jazzBessie Smith – blues singer known as the “Empress of the Blues”
67 Terms and People (continued) Harlem Renaissance – the flowering of African American arts and literature in 1920s New YorkClaude McKay – Harlem Renaissance writer who showed the struggles of ordinary African AmericansLangston Hughes – prolific writer who celebrated African American culture and lifeZora Neale Hurston – folklorist and author of Their Eyes Were Watching God67
68 Many African Americans were attracted to northern cities by dreams of a better life. They hoped to escape the poverty and racism of the South.The North offered higher wages and a middle class of African American ministers, physicians, and teachers.Discrimination did exist in the North, however, and African Americans faced low pay, poor housing, and the threat of race riots.
69 Harlem, in New York City, was the cultural focal point of the northern migration. In Harlem, 200,000 African Americans mixed with immigrants from Caribbean islands, such as Jamaica.
70 The 1920s was known as the “Jazz Age.” Jazz was a kind of music based on improvisation that grew out of African American blues and ragtime.It began in southern and southwestern cities, such as New Orleans.Jazz crossed racial lines to become a uniquely American art form.
71 New Orleans trumpet player Louis Armstrong was the unofficial ambassador of jazz. Armstrong played in New Orleans, Chicago, and New York.His expert playing made him a legend and influenced the development of jazz.
72 Spread by radio and phonograph records, jazz gained worldwide popularity. Duke Ellington was a popular band leader who wrote or arranged more than 2,000 pieces of music and earned international honors.Jazz bands featured solo vocalists such as Bessie Smith, the “Empress of the Blues.”White composers such as Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, and George Gershwin found inspiration in jazz.
73 Jazz and the blues were part of the Harlem Renaissance, a flowering of African American arts and literature.Novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture and explored questions of race in America.Jean Toomer’s Cane showed the richness of African American life and folk culture.The writings of Claude McKay emphasized the dignity of African Americans and called for social and political change.
74 Langston Hughes, the most celebrated Harlem Renaissance writer, captured the diversity of everyday African American life in his poetry, journalism, and criticism.Zora Neale Hurston published folk tales from her native Florida. Her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God speaks of women’s longing for independence.74
75 As the Great Depression began, the Harlem Renaissance came to an end. This artistic movement had a lasting effect on the self-image of African Americans.It created a sense of group identity and solidarity among African Americans. It later became the cultural bedrock upon which the Civil Rights movement would be built.75