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McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PUNCTUATION u Punctuation Terminology u Fragments u Comma Usage u.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PUNCTUATION u Punctuation Terminology u Fragments u Comma Usage u."— Presentation transcript:

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2 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. PUNCTUATION u Punctuation Terminology u Fragments u Comma Usage u Run-on Sentences

3 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Punctuation Terminology u Clause: a group of words containing a subject and a verb. u Independent Clause (IC): a clause that can stand alone as a sentence. u Dependent Clause (DC): a clause that does not express a complete thought and can not stand alone. u A simple sentence is one independent clause. Example: IC. u A compound sentence is two independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Example: IC, and IC. u A complex sentence is one dependent clause and one independent clause joined together by a subordinating conjunction. Example: IC because DC.

4 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Compound Sentence u ONE sentence with TWO simple sentences joined by a comma (,) and a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, for, nor, yet) –Ilhan is on time today, and he has his books with him.

5 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Coordinating Conjunctions u AND –Joins two sentences that are u BUT –Joins sentences together that show u SO –Joins sentences where the second sentence shows a of the first sentence. u OR –Joins sentences with

6 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Compare comma usage u Compound Sentence (comma) –Ilhan is on time today, and he has his books with him. u Simple Sentence with compound verbs (no comma) –Ilhan is on time today and has his books with him.

7 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Practice u Combine the following independent clauses with the correct punctuation and conjunctions: 1.Ayse likes to drive fast. She is a danger to other drivers. 2.Melike loves Spain. She spent the summer there. 3.His writing is terrible. His spoken English is excellent. 4.Canan loves Kadikoy. The traffic is terrible. 5.Zehra dropped her laptop. It was not damaged. 6.Aydin loves basketball. He is always shooting hoops.

8 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. FRAGMENTS u A ‘sentence’ that is not really a sentence

9 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Identifying a Sentence and a Fragment u A sentence is an independent clause. It contains a subject and verb. –Zeynep laughed. –Zeynep laughed at Ahmet. u It expresses something that makes sense to a reader: a thought, a belief, an opinion, a fact, an observation, etc.

10 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fragment u A sentence that has no subject or verb –Goes to the library everyday. u A sentence has only part of a verb. –Ece working hard in class. NO. –Ece is working hard in class. YES.

11 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fragments….continued u The sentence is a dependent clause. u It doesn’t make sense until it is connected to the main idea. u Fragment: When the singer went to Izmir. u Sentence: The singer went to Izmir.

12 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. It’s missing something… A sentence fragment tries its best to be a sentence, but it just can’t make it. It’s missing something. Often, it’s missing a verb or part of a verb string: John working extra hard on his hook shot lately. Here, for instance, we’re missing an auxiliary — has been, in this case, probably — that would complete the verb string and the sentence.

13 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Avoiding Sentence Fragments Be alert for strings of prepositional phrases that never get around to establishing a subject-verb relationship: Immediately after the founding of the college and during those early years as the predominant educational institution in Istanbul. Again, be careful of sentences which give their share of information but still don’t contain a subject and verb.

14 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Practice Find and fix the fragments: 1. While visiting Bodrum. 2. Rushing to class. 3. When you are dieting. 4. To play in a band. 5. I have already read the book. That I borrowed last week. 6. The CD I bought last week. 7. Because Mustafa was late. 8. Since the quiz is not graded. 9. I lost point for grammar. And punctuation. 10. Amazed by his A. 11. Bored by the class. 12. During the concert at Babylon, which was very loud and crowded with a boisterous crowd of young excited people.

15 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.. All rights reserved. 14 Prepared by Professors Rita Perkins and Paul Harris Camden County College

16 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 ¬ To separate items in a series. ­ To set off introductory material. ® On both sides of words that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence. ¯ Between two complete thoughts connected by and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. ° To set off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence. ± In letter writing and related informal situations.

17 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 u Examples... –We have a vivid picture of the Civil War because almost every soldier sent letters, kept journals, or wrote memoirs. –Young boys managed to enlist in the military during the Civil War because in 1861 people did not have a driver’s license, a school transcript, or a student identification card to prove their age. Use a comma between items in a series:

18 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 u Use a comma after an introductory word, an introductory phrase, or an introductory clause.  An example of an introductory word:  Unfortunately, many boys who were sixteen years old and younger fought as soldiers in the Civil War.  An introductory phrase:  After the war, an army statistician managed to do a study of the ages of the soldiers. Use a comma after introductory material:

19 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18  An introductory clause:  When the war actually broke out, Americans did not seem to realize that the dispute would be devastating. Use a comma after introductory material:

20 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 u Example… –Because the drum beat told the soldiers how and when to maneuver, drummers were important. –COMMA AFTER INTRODUCTION u But: –Drummers were important because the drum beat told the soldiers how and when to maneuver. –NO COMMA BECAUSE NO INTRODUCTION NOTE: If a dependent clause comes at the end of the sentence, there is NO NEED for a comma.

21 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 u Interrupting words are set off by commas. If you remove the words from the sentence and it still makes sense, the words are interrupters. Such nonessential information is set off by commas. –Examples: »Agriculture, especially the growing of cotton, was vital to the South’s economy. »Sometimes American civilians, who actually picnicked in the battle areas to watch the fighting, were trampled by retreating soldiers. Use commas around words interrupting the flow of thought.

22 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 u Examples: –Emotions ran so high that thousands of men rushed to enlist, and young boys were caught up in this movement. –The drum beat was needed to give directions to the men in the Civil War, but the bugle began to take over this role because it was easier to hear. Use a comma between complete thoughts connected by a joining word.

23 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 u There are two distinct uses of the word however with the comma.  When the word however is used as an interrupter, it requires the comma.  Example: The approval of the parents, however, was rare.  When the word however is used between two complete thoughts, both the semicolon and the comma are needed.  Example: The military easily decided on a uniform color and design; however, producing the uniforms for an entire army was more difficult  Example: The military easily decided on a uniform color and design; however, producing the uniforms for an entire army was more difficult.

24 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 u Example: –The students complained, “Reading about these boys in the war is very depressing.”

25 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 u Use commas with dates, addresses, numbers, and with the openings and closings of letters. o The armistice of World War I was November 11, o There were 270,000 letters written. o Dear Elise, o Sincerely,

26 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 è We wrote to our governor and telephoned our senator. è (No comma is needed because there are not two complete sentences.)

27 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Practice Review Exercises Ê Lacrosse __ a game played by two competing teams __ is a sport which involves a ball and a special netted stick Ê Lacrosse __ a game played by two competing teams __ is a sport which involves a ball and a special netted stick.,, (No comma) ËThe game was originally played by the Native Americans as a training for war Native Americans as a training for war __ and was adopted by the __ and was adopted by the French-Canadians. French-Canadians.

28 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Practice Review Exercises Ì The French players called the netted stick la crosse __ because it resembled a bishop’s cross.,, (No comma) ÍToday __ lacrosse players use a stick that has a wooden __ graphite __ or metal handle.,

29 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Practice Review Exercises Î Of course, the goalkeeper uses a crosse __ but he may defend the goal with his hands and body as well., ÏIf teams are tied at the end of sixty minutes ____ they play sudden-death overtime periods.,

30 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Practice Review Exercises Ð The game may seem chaotic ___ however ___ there are rules that must be followed.,, ÑLong throws ___ although allowed ___ are usually not attempted. ;,

31 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Practice Review Exercises Ò If the ball is thrown out of bounds ___ an opposing player is given a free throw.,, ¿The women’s game ___ however___ varies slightly from the men’s game.,

32 31 Run-On Sentences

33 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. There are Two Types of Run-On Sentences Volkan exercises everyday he should be in good condition. Volkan exercises everyday, he should be in good condition. ErrorErrorErrorError Fused Sentences: They are fused or joined together as if they were only one thought. Comma Splices: A comma is used to connect or “ splice ” together the two complete thoughts. A comma alone is NOT ENOUGH to connect two complete sentences.

34 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. How to Correct Run-Ons u There are three common methods of correcting a run-on: –Use a period and a capital letter. –Use a comma plus a joining word (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) to connect the two complete thoughts. –Use a semicolon to connect the two complete thoughts: Note: A fourth method of correcting a run-on is to use subordination.

35 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Correcting Run-On Sentences u One way of correcting a run-on is to use a period and a capital letter between the two complete sentences. Use this method especially if the thoughts are not closely related. –Yonca plays the guitar well she hopes to start her own band. –Revision: Yonca plays the guitar well. She hopes to start her own band.

36 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Correcting Run-On Sentences u Another way of correcting a run-on is to use a comma plus a joining word to connect the two complete thoughts. There are seven joining words (also called conjunctions). –Yonca plays the guitar well, and she hopes to start her own band.

37 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adding a Coordinating Conjunction One way to remember the seven coordinating conjunctions is to put them in this order: And For Nor But OrOrOrOr Yet SoSoSoSo “ FANBOYS ” Emre plays the trumpet well, so he hopes to be selected for the jazz band.

38 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Correcting Run-On Sentences u A third method of correcting a run-on is to use a semicolon to mark the break between two sentences. u A semicolon looks like a period above a comma. u When it is used to correct run-ons, the semicolon can be used alone or with a transitional word. Yonca plays the guitar well; she hopes to start well; she hopes to start her own band. her own band. Also correct: Yonca plays the guitar well; consequently, well; consequently, she hopes to start her own band. her own band.

39 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 1. The temperature dropped below freezing last night. below freezing last night. We had to bring our plants indoors.

40 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 1. The temperature dropped below freezing last night. We had to bring our plants indoors. Correct

41 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 2. The temperature dropped below freezing last night; we had to bring our plants indoors.

42 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 2.The temperature dropped below freezing last night; we had to bring our plants indoors. 2. The temperature dropped below freezing last night; we had to bring our plants indoors. Correct

43 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 3. The temperature dropped below freezing last night, so we had to bring our plants indoors.

44 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 3. The temperature dropped below freezing last night, so we had to bring our plants indoors. Correct

45 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 4. The temperature dropped below freezing last night, we had to bring our plants indoors.

46 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 4. The temperature dropped below freezing last night, we had to bring our plants indoors. Incorrect

47 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 5. Because the temperature dropped below freezing last night, we had to bring our plants indoors.

48 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 5. Because the temperature dropped below freezing last night, we had to bring our plants indoors. Correct

49 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 6. If the temperature drops below freezing tonight, we must remember to bring our plants indoors.

50 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 6. If the temperature drops below freezing tonight, we must remember to bring our plants indoors. Correct

51 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 7.The temperature dropped below freezing last night, therefore, we had to bring our plants indoors.

52 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 7.The temperature dropped below freezing last night, therefore, we had to bring our plants indoors. Therefore ” is not one of the “ Therefore ” is not one of the seven coordinating conjunctions, so it cannot be used with a comma between two independent clauses. independent clauses. Incorrect

53 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 8.The temperature dropped below freezing last night, thus we had to bring our plants indoors.

54 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 8.The temperature dropped below freezing last night, thus we had to bring our plants indoors. Incorrect

55 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 9.The temperature dropped below freezing last night we had to bring our plants indoors.

56 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning to Identify and Correct Comma Splices Practice Review: Identify each entry as correct or incorrect. 9.The temperature dropped below freezing last night we had to bring our plants indoors. we had to bring our plants indoors. It is a fused sentence. Incorrect

57 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Do you have any questions about fragments, run-ons or comma splices?


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