Presentation on theme: "To Fit In Or Not: Integrating Social & Emotional Communication Interventions & Software, NF, HRV, & Alpha-stim to Improve Behavioral Outcomes North Carolina."— Presentation transcript:
To Fit In Or Not: Integrating Social & Emotional Communication Interventions & Software, NF, HRV, & Alpha-stim to Improve Behavioral Outcomes North Carolina Biofeedback Society, 2011 Presented by: Emily Stevens, Ph.D., LPC, BCN firstname.lastname@example.org
Neuro-Cognitive Enhancement Model for Success (NEMS)...Defined as utilizing different techniques and technology as an adjunct to treatment to help an individual develop the skills needed to perform successfully and effectively. Interactive brain-based model for treatment. Includes a combination of software based interactive programs, neurofeedback, and non-invasive stimulation based technology combined with therapy.
To Fit in or Not…. Social Competence Increased numbers of children showing behavioral and social issues…. Increased numbers of children being diagnosed… –Autism/Asperger Spectrum –Severe Mood Dysregulation (Bipolar) –Anxiety –Socially awkward, insecure Social Anxiety is key to long-term development of emotional issues and addiction. Goal: Intervention & Prevention
We have been using brain-based treatment to improve symptoms associated with ADHD, anxiety, depression, OCD etc… but we have not spent a lot of time focusing on what brain research is teaching us about social communication and how to train it and/or improve it. Research has continued to teach us about the development of emotional communication starting at birth and what is happening in the brain when we interact with others.
What is causing the behaviors that we are observing? Neurological, Social, Genetic, Environmental? Or are we all simply a disorder? Westernized medicine & mental health has attempted to simplify this idea with the current psychopharmacological approach to treatment.
Ex: Childhood Bipolar? Severe Mood Dysregulation, Temper dysregulation disorder, behavioral disorders –Sleep –Inability to self-sooth by 18 months of age –Chronic irritability –Carb craving –Temperature dysregulation –Anxiety, separation anxiety –Chronic fight or flight –Poor emotion and social recognition/ communication What is causing the behaviors we are seeing?
Systems….. –Dysregulation of arousal –Immature nervous system –Fight of flight – dysregulated stress response system
Tips for Emotional and Social Communication Limbic – Amygdala Support What have we learned about the amygdala? Emotion Recognition?
Amygdala The Amygdala is also known as the Hub of Fear Poes Heart and The Mountain Climber
The Effects of Nurture impact... The Early Emotional Recording Starting at birth… from 0-2 years of age… Depressed preschoolers are more tuned in to negative facial expressions. Sadness, Shame and Fear were the ones they responded to most. –FACE: Facial Affect Comprehension Evaluation Test Depressed teenagers and adults tend to interpret happy facial expressions as neutral and neutral expressions as sad. »NIMH 5 year study, Washington Univ., 2000
More Research… Violent and aggressive teenage girls fail to spot anger or disgust in faces compared to normal peers. –Anti-social behavior tends to show in girls in their teen years and not when they are younger and is on the increase in females 14-18. –Boys w child onset of CD also have difficulties recognizing anger and disgust but adolescent males do not according to other studies. –Biological Psychiatry, 2010
Fearless 3-4 year olds who demonstrate fearless behavior have less empathy and more aggression toward peers which is correlated with genetic/parental influence. –They do not recognize facial expressions of fear or distress in a classmate or initiate helping the distressed peer. –They are described as generally aggressive, take advantage of friends, emotionally shallow and lack regret or guilt –The heart rate in children with fearless behavior was slower to start compared to peers. –University of Haifa, Faculty of Education, Israel, Nov 13, 2010
Teenagers antisocial conduct and judgements about aggressive behaviors influences each other at early, middle and late adolescence. Social decision making and behavior continue to influence each other over time. Efforts to change these behaviors are more effective if interventions address how adolescents make decisions about acting aggressively. Awareness of what is driving their behavior… –J. Child Development, Mar/Apr 2008
Face Test, The Eyes Test www.autismresearchcentre.com DANVA : Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy http://www.psychology.emory.edu/clinical/interpersonal/danva.htm http://www.creducation.org/resources/nonverbal_communication/as sessment_with_danva.html Assessment
Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Social Phobia & Anxiety Inventory Feelings, Attitudes & Behavior Scale for Children Jeannie & Jeffrey Illustrated Interview for Children –(online @ www.jbrf.org) www.schoolpsychiatry.org Table of Screening tools & rating scales
Social & Emotional Development Social Development: What are your natural tendencies? »shy, awkward, defensive, explosive, negative How often do you see happy/angry/sad faces? What do children observe in the media? Do you feel like you belong? Do you have a sense of belonging?
Social exclusion changes brain function and can lead to poor decision making and diminished learning ability. »Journal of Social Neuroscience, Nov., 2006 Students who feel disconnected from their school environments are at higher risk for poor and unsafe behavior. Key areas identified: –I feel close to people at school –I feel like I am part of this school –I am happy to be at this school –The teachers at this school treat people fairly –I feel safe in my school »J. Pediatrics, 2000, Nov.
Emotion Recognition Interventions What do emotions and feelings look like? Posters, pictures, magazines, movie clips Scrap book Observation Exercises Mood Adjustment Exercises: Changing mood with facial expression and thoughts.
Re-record the Limbic Step 1: What do they look like? Emotion Recognition Exercises Step 2: What do they sound like? Hearing and Expressing Emotions Appropriate Emotional Expression Developing a Full Range of Emotional Expression Step 3: How do I act? Body Language and Physical Expression of Emotions
Emotional Communication cont. Thoughts, Feelings & Actions Graph Behavior/Situation, My thoughts, My feelings, My actions Anger Buttons/ Pushing My Buttons Drawing Make a list of emotions Make the face, Describe a time when I felt… Sad, rejected, excited, insecure, silly, hopeful… How Would You Feel Activity: Provide a list of scenarios and have the child describe how they would feel or react Draw a picture of a body: Where do I feel my feelings?
Social Communication Effective conflict resolution is built on strong communication skills. Keys to support effective social communication and conflict resolution. –Have the child describe & discuss their feelings. –Teach mirroring: listening & paraphrasing. –Teach empathy, connection/relate to thoughts and feelings of others, understanding others leads to the ability to compromise. –Teach compromise. »What is negotiable and what is non-negotiable. »How does it relate to your personal values. –Teach basic rules of conduct: no name calling, the past is the past… –Teach active listening, restate, paraphrase, summarize
Social Competence The ability to achieve personal goals in social interaction while at the same time maintaining positive relationships with others over time and across situations.
Social Skills Software Social Skill & Emotion Recognition Software –www.socialskillbuilder.com (4-18 years) Teach social cues Teach appropriate responses Teach physical boundaries www.autismcoach.com »Fun with Feelings (6-11 yrs) »Smart Alex (5-15 yrs) »MindReading (5 – adult) FaceSay Social Skill Program »www.facesay.com (school age)
Studies to Support the use of Software: Social Skill Software: School Rules & My School Day –Pilot Study 2004 Virginia Public Schools: On average, students who used My School Day software gained 10 percent in every category of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, compared to a 3 percent gain when using traditional methods alone.My School Day –Areas of Improvement w Technology Based Intervention: –Daily Living Skills –Socialization: –Adaptive Behavior –Communication
For Example: School Rules Complex peer relationships Subtle social cues Appropriate Social Interactions Cognitive age: 8-18 Over 350 Video Scenarios
Percent of Test Sample Demonstrating Positive Gains in VABS Subtests
Social skills are the basis for all of our relationships throughout life…it impacts school, work, family and all our social interactions. Charts & tools for monitoring social and behavioral progress: –Book: Skills Training for Children w/ Behavior Disorders by: M. Blookquist
Managing the Stress Response System Role in Emotion Recognition and Social Communication CES & HRV biofeedback
Altered Pituitary- Adrenal Axis (Heim et al., 2001) Early adverse life situations – induce persistent changes in corticotropin-releasing factor – Multiple studies - Progressive sensitization to stress in children as well as early maternal stress sensitizes infants causing a stress- response system (HPA) that breaks down. (J. Psychiatry, 2002; Biological Psychiatry, 2002)
Penza et al., 2003 –Neurobiological effects of childhood abuse: Early life traumatic events appear to permanently render neuroendocrine stress response systems supersensitive. Childhood abuse increases vulnerability to depression and anxiety especially in females.
Conclusions… There are no conflicts of interest to report Trauma creates a stress hormone response that impacts the endocrine system and has a long term impact on the pituitary and normal hormone functioning when not treated properly.
New hope for anxiety, depression & aggression? Cranial Electrostimulation (CES) Electrotherapy, Electromedicine & Alpha-Stim Technology
Cranial Electro-Stimulation (CES) Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is the application of low-level, pulsed electrical currents (usually not exceeding one milliampere), applied to the head for medical and/or psychological purposes. It is primarily used to treat both state (situational) and trait (chronic) anxiety, depression, insomnia, stress related and drug addiction disorders, but it is also proving indispensable for treating pain patients. (Lichtbroun, Raicer & Smith, 2001; Kirsch & Smith, 2000; Thuile & Kirsch, 2000)
How do you use it? Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a simple treatment that can easily be administered at any time. –The current is applied by easy-to-use clip electrodes that attach on the ear lobes, or by stethoscope-type electrodes placed behind the ears. Patients experience the effects immediately and experience continued improvement overtime. –The ideal treatment time is 20 to 60 minutes, but some patients may achieve the full benefits of a CES treatment within 10 minutes. Following CES, most people feel better, less distressed, and more focused on mental tasks. They generally sleep better and report improved concentration, increased learning abilities, enhanced recall, and a heightened state of well-being. The Alpha-Stim unit is FDA approved for anxiety & depression. www.alpha-stim.com
Studies At present, there are over 100 research studies on CES in humans and 20 experimental animal studies (Kirsch, 1999). CES reduces aggression in violent in-patient population. »J. Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 17:4, Fall, 2005. 3 month course of CES –59% decrease in aggressive episodes from baseline –72% decrease in seclusions –58% decrease in restraints –53% decrease in PRNs CES reduces aggression in violent neuropsychiatric patients. »Primary Psychiatry. March 2007. 3 month course of CES (48 patients: 83% responded positively to CES) –41% decrease in violent episodes, 48% decrease in patients w/ sudden assault syndrome. –40% reduction in restraints –42% reduction in PRNs
Alpha-Stim Data: Pre and Post 20 sessions over 4-5 weeks Test: Childrens Inventory of Anger
Alpha-Stim Data Cont. 29 Residents Ages: 6-18 years
Total number of incidents decreased using Alpha-stim technology
Heartmath HRV Training HRV = Heart Rate Variability Training Stress & Anxiety Management Anxiety, aggression Focus Techniques – –The Zone EM Wave PC www.heartmath.com
4. Auditory Visual Stimulation (AVS) Also called Auditory Visual Entrainment (AVE)
Auditory Visual Stimulation AVS allows the brain to be entrained at specific brainwave frequencies during the session. It has been described as exercising the brain Research has shown that: –Decreases stress-related chemicals –Reduces muscle tension, blood pressure and heart rate, psychological symptoms. –Increases, IQ, performance, memory, attention
AVS... AVS has been used to treat: Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder Headaches and Migraines PMS, Hypertension ADHD, LD and poor performance Stress What are other reported effects of AVS? Improved reading and achievement
AVS Clinical Overview LD/ADHD: Russell and Carter, 1993, conducted a study on a group of learning disabled boys between 8 and 12 years of age. The boys were given 40 sessions of AVE stimulation at 10 Hz and 18 Hz and showed an average IQ increase of 8 points on the Raven IQ test and significant improvement (<. 01) in memory, reading and spelling. PMS:76% experienced a greater than 50% reduction in their PMS symptoms (Anderson, Medical College, London)
New Visions School Project New Visions School NeuroTechnology Replication Project 2000 - 2001, Michael Joyce –This hallmark study is the largest, most convincing study showing the effectiveness of the DAVID Paradise driving a multiple system to treat children with attentional disorders. The data generated in the Neuro- Technology (NT) replication project are the result of the efforts of seven Minnesota public schools (five elementary, one middle and one K-12). –Data was gathered for a total of 204 students from seven different school districts that participated in the NeuroTechnology Program statewide. The average student completed nearly 30 twenty-minute sessions over a period of three months, and gained eight months in grade-equivalent oral reading scores.
Initial results of : The effects of 14hz AVE on symptoms of depression and relative frontal alpha Brain Response, Brain Changes or Placebo? Study: Phase I QEEG Correlates of Auditory Visual Entrainment Efficacy in Treatment Resistant Depression Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 13, April 2009 Cantor & Stevens
Key Components Cognitive Software: –Working Memory, Attention, Focus, Following Directions, Impulse Control, and Staying w/ Task Captains Log: Next Generation & Working Memory Happy Neuron Earobics –Emotion Recognition and Social Skill Training Smart Alex Fun w/ Feelings School Rules Neurofeedback (Cz & F3) HRV AVS Alpha-Stim CES
Producing Measurable Outcomes… Case Review 1: 14 yr Male 11 Neuro, 4 AVS, 2 Earobics (A little goes a long way) IVA Continuous Performance Test ( 85 and above are w/in normal limits)
Case Review 2: 11 Yr Female 11 Neuro, 6 Captains Log IVA Continuous Performance Test ( 85 and above are w/in normal limits)
Case Review 3: 16 Yr Male 8 Neuro, 1 Captains Log IVA CPT
Case Review 4: 13 Yr Male 16 Neuro, 11 Captains Log More Sessions = More Improvement IVA CPT Plus: Depression Score on TSCC Pre: 71 and Post: 61
Case Review 5: 13 Yr Male 24 Neuro, 6 Captains Log, 3 Earobics IVA CPT
Case Review 6: 13 yr Male 21 Neuro, 10 Captains Log, 6 AVS IVA CPT
Case Review 6 cont. Solid Line (*) = Full Scale Dashed Line (+) = Auditory Dotted Line (X) = Visual
Areas of Improvement: Attention, Impulse Control, Consistency, Speed of Processing 85 and above is within normal range 5794
Lab Case Reviews Support: Measurable Outcomes in using NEMS Areas of Improvement: Attention, Impulse Control, Consistency, Stamina (staying with the task) Other areas of Improvement Include: Anxiety, Depression, Thought Problems, Social Problems, Internalization, and Externalization (Achenbach Self-Report) Anxiety, Depression, Anger, PTSD, and Dissociation (TSCC – Trauma Symptom Checklist)
Conclusion of Technology Review: Mental Health becomes Cutting-Edge There are many tools available to include in the mental health tool box of treatment. It is time for mental health to reference the current research and implement effective change in treatment approach!