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Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 CHAPTER 11 WESTWARD EXPANSION The American Nation: A History of the United States, 13th edition Carnes/Garraty.

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Presentation on theme: "Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 CHAPTER 11 WESTWARD EXPANSION The American Nation: A History of the United States, 13th edition Carnes/Garraty."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 CHAPTER 11 WESTWARD EXPANSION The American Nation: A History of the United States, 13th edition Carnes/Garraty

2 THE LOG CABIN CAMPAIGN (1840) In 1840 Whigs decided to follow Jacksonian strategy and nominated General William Henry Harrison, Hero of Tippecanoe, as their candidate for president – Chose John Tyler of Virginia as vice president Ignoring the realities of Harrisons financial situation and upbringing, Whigs used log cabin and cider barrel as their symbols Democrats were as organized as the Whigs but did not have much heart for the fight

3 William H. Harrison becomes President (but not for long…) Four-fifths of the eligible voters turned out and gave the election to Harrison with 234 electoral votes to 60 Less than a month after his inauguration, Harrison fell ill and died on April 4 - John Tyler became president

4 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 TYLERS TROUBLES When Tyler became president after Harrisons death, he kept all of Harrisons Cabinet Did not get along with Henry Clay who considered himself the true head of the Whig party Tried to enact a new Bank of the U.S. bill, which Tyler vetoed, causing his Cabinet, except for Secretary of State Daniel Webster, to resign Tyler, abandoned by the Whigs, tried and failed to form his own party

5 THE WEBSTER-ASHBURTON TREATY a.k.a. The Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842 Dispute over border between Maine and New Brunswick Settled by Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton, since British needed only a small part of the territory to build a military road connecting Halifax and Quebec Webster placated Maine and Massachusetts with a phony map Ashburton made concessions elsewhere on Canadian and American border British dependence on foreign foodstuffs was increasing American need for British capital was rising

6 Manifest Destiny Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way (mural study, U.S. Capitol) 1861, oil on canvas Smithsonian American Art Museum, Bequest of Sara Carr Upton

7 Manifest Destiny Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way , stereochrome, United States House of Representatives

8 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 What were the Push and Pull Factors for going West?

9 Push and Pull Factors to Go West! PUSHPULL

10 What (or who) are the obstacles toward achieving Manifest Destiny?

11 Manifest Destiny OR Westward Ho! Issues w/ MEXICO: TEXAS: The Lone Star Republic or the Lone Star State? The Mexican War: May I Please have Cali OR should I just take it? Issues w/ GREAT BRITAIN: - OREGON: OR Not another war with them Limey Brits!?!

12 TEXAS 1821: Americans led by Stephen Austin began to settle the area At same time Mexico declared independence from Spain Cotton flourished and Mexican authorities offered free land and something approaching local autonomy to American settlers By 1830 some 20,000 white Americans in Texas, 2,000 slaves, and only a few thousand Mexicans Purchase offers John Quincy Adams had offered $1 million and Jackson tried $5 mill. By the 1820s, flood of American settlers was giving the Mexican government problems: Most American settlers were Protestant When Mexico abolished slavery in 1829, Texans freed slaves then signed them to lifetime contracts as indentured servants 1830: Mexico tried to prohibit further immigration into Texas by Americans 1835: series of skirmishes became full fledged rebellion

13 Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna marched north with 6,000 soldiers to subdue the rebels, reaching San Antonio in late February 1836 General Houstons strategy was to retreat and use defense in depth. His line of supply from the United States was shortened as Santa Annas lengthened. The Mexicans were forced to bring up supplies by land because the Texas navy controlled the sea. This force consisted of only four small ships, but it was big enough to do the job. William B. Travis and 187 men walled up in the Alamo held off Santa Anna for 10 days until the Mexicans breached the walls on 6 March They killed everyone inside The Texas Revolution, 1836

14 Texas The Lone Star …? Republic or U.S. State? That is the real question! March 2, 1836: Texas declared its independence Sam Houston was placed in charge of the army which routed the Mexicans on April 21, 1836 October: Houston was elected President November: plebiscite revealed Texans favored annexation to U.S. Andrew Jackson recognized Texas but nothing more Tyler decided to annex it Senate rejected treaty 35 to 16-Why??

15 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 THE ELECTION OF 1844 Whigs nominated Clay, ignored Texas in platform Democrats: Van Buren wanted to keep Texas out of campaign but Calhoun wanted to make it an issue Winner was dark horse candidate James K. Polk Opposed high tariffs, did not want another bank, wanted to take Texas and believed generally in expansion Platform called for reannexation of Texas and reoccupation of Oregon

16 THE ELECTION OF 1844 Decisive factor was Liberty party, an antislavery splinter group organized in 1840 Only 62,000 voters supported party candidate 16,000 were in western part of New York and helped throw the state to Polk Polks victory was seen as a mandate for expansion Tyler called on Congress to annex Texas through a joint resolution which was done and Texas was annexed as a territory in December 1845

17 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 POLK AS PRESIDENT Persuaded Congress to lower Tariff of 1842 and restore an independent treasury Opposed federal internal improvements Committed himself to obtaining Texas, Oregon, and the great Southwest

18 OREGON Oregon: campaign had demanded all Oregon Territory but Polk told British minister Pakenham would accept 49 th parallel Pakenham rejected Polk asked Congress for one year notice to abrogate 1818 treaty of joint occupation Notified British in May 1846 British decided to compromise 5,000 Americans in Willamette Valley No more than 750 British subjects British now agreed to earlier proposal though Vancouver Island remained British and both could use the Strait of San Juan de Fuca Approved by Senate in June 1846

19 What were the causes of the Mexican War?

20 See PDF:09 Mexican-American War Read only Sources C, E, G and I Identify who the authors are and why they supported or opposed …..the war

21 Other opponents of the War William Lloyd Garrison expressed open support for the Mexican people. Henry Clay declared This is no war of defense, but one of unnecessary offensive aggression. Abraham Lincoln (freshman Congressman from Illinois) called the war immoral, proslavery, and proposed the so-called Spot Resolutions. Henry David Thoreau in an act of civil disobedience was jailed for his refusal to pay the poll tax as a protest against the countrys involvement in the Mexican War.

22 Congressman Abraham Lincoln opposed the Mexican War as an unjust war of aggression against Americas neighbor Do you think President Polk provoked Mexico into an unnecessary or unjust war? Why or why not? Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008

23 TO THE HALLS OF MONTEZUMA Polk had threepart strategy: 1.Clear Mexicans from Texas and occupy the northern provinces of Mexico 2.Take possession of California and New Mexico 3.March on Mexico City June 1846: American settlers in Sacramento Valley seized Sonoma and raised the Bear Flag of the Republic of California Joined by John C. Frémont of American exploring party and naval squadron under Commodore John D. Sloat By February 1847: U.S. had won control of nearly all of Mexico north of capital March 9, 1847: Scott and U.S. army laid siege to Vera Cruz which they took three weeks later then moved on to Mexico City which took on September 14

24 War News from Mexico, by Richard Caton Woodville The new telegraph kept the nation closely informed of events in far-off Mexico.

25 THE TREATY OF GUADELUPE- HIDALGO Polk sent Nicholas P. Trist to act as peace commissioner and he met with Scotts army in May 1847and with peace commissioners in January 1848 Originally authorized to pay $30 million for New Mexico, Upper and Lower California, and right of transit across the isthmus of Tehuantepec Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo Mexico accepted Rio Grande as Texas border Ceded New Mexico and upper California U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take on $3.25 million in American citizens claims vs. Mexico Senate ratified treaty by a vote of 38 to 14

26 What were the effects or consequences of the Mexican War? It increased size of the country by a third. At the same time, it created deep political divisions that threatened the countrys future. It reignited the question of slavery in the western territories. Many Northerners were convinced that slave owners had precipitated the war to add new slave states. Emerson predicted that the U.S. would conquer Mexico … but it will be as the man who swallows arsenic…Mexico will poison us.

27 SLAVERY: Storm Clouds Gather Northern Democrats increasingly uneasy with slavery August 8, 1846: Congressman David Wilmot introduced an amendment banning slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico Passed House but failed in Senate In response to Wilmot Proviso, Calhoun proposed that Congress could not legislate regarding slavery in territories since area belonged to all states, slave and free Seemed merely a step away from demanding Congress guarantee the right of slave owners to bring slaves into the territories and establish slave codes in the territories Two potential compromises Extend Missouri Compromise line to Pacific Allowed territories in without mention of slavery, leaving it to local legislatures to decide (popular sovereignty) August 1848: Congress barred slavery from the Oregon Territory

28 Election of 1848 Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, offered no platform Democrats nominated Lewis Cass, father of popular sovereignty, but did not endorse particular scheme for territories Barnburners (dissatisfied Democrats) joined with Liberty Party to form Free Soil Party which nominated Van Buren Polled nearly 300,000 votes, about 10 percent of total

29 THE GOLD RUSH January 1848: James W. Marshall was building a sawmill on the American River in Sacramento Valley east of San Francisco when he noticed flecks that turned out to be GOLD! Created international sensation $200 million was extracted in next 4 years By summer of 1848 San Francisco had become a virtual ghost town and two-thirds of the adult males in Oregon had headed to the California gold fields During 1849, 25,000 Americans made their way from the east to California by ship 55,000 crossed the continent by overland routes 8,000 Mexicans, 5,000 South Americans and a number of Europeans joined the rush Between 1849 and 1860 about 200,000 people (nearly all males) crossed the Rockies to California and thousands more came by ship

30 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008 THE GOLD RUSH Newcomers referred to those of Latin American origin as greasers and sought by law and violence to keep them from digging for gold Local Californians were also discriminated against Free blacks were treated no better Indian population was almost wiped out: population of 150,000 in mid-1840s but only 35,000 in 1860

31 Compare and contrast the views of Clay, Calhoun, Taylor, and Cass on the issue of slavery in the territories. Taylor recommended that California be admitted as a state with popular sovereignty while rest of Mexican cession should be made into another state; no need to trouble Congress Henry Clay proposed compromise plan on January 29, 1850: California should be allowed in as a free state Rest of southwest should be organized as a territory without mention of slavery; southerners would retain the right to bring slaves there though unlikely they would do so Empty lands in dispute along Texas border should be assigned to New Mexico Territory and in exchange U.S. should take over pre-annexation debts of Texas Slave trade, but not slavery itself, should be abolished in Washington DC Effective federal slave law should be enacted and enforced in the North Calhoun, too weak to deliver his speech, watched while Senator James Mason explained that while the plan might save the Union, Calhoun believed that the North should yield on every issue and if it failed to do so the South should secede Daniel Webster argued in favor of Clays proposal due to geography the Wilmot Proviso was unnecessary North had a constitutional obligation to turn over escaped slaves

32 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman © 2008


34 THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 July 9, 1850: President Taylor died and Vice President Millard Fillmore took over Even then the compromise only passed when it was broken up and voted on in several parts California became the 31 st state Remainder of Mexican cession divided into New Mexico and Utah Territories Texas received $10 million to pay debts in exchange for giving up land claims Slave trade abolished in DC effective January 1, 1851

35 THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 ( continued…) Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was amended to provide for the appointment of federal commissioners with authority to issue warrants, summon posses, and compel citizens under pain of fine or imprisonment to assist in capture of fugitive slaves If commissioner decided accused was a runaway, received larger fee than if they declared person free Bills only passed due to shifting coalitions What does this mean?

36 So….. Describe or explain the connection between the Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Wilmot Proviso, and the great debate on slavery in the territories that led to the Compromise of Explain why many thought that the Compromise of 1850 was the final solution to the slavery issue in the U.S.?

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