2THE LOG CABIN CAMPAIGN (1840) In 1840 Whigs decided to follow Jacksonian strategy and nominated General William Henry Harrison, “Hero of Tippecanoe,” as their candidate for presidentChose John Tyler of Virginia as vice presidentIgnoring the realities of Harrison’s financial situation and upbringing, Whigs used log cabin and cider barrel as their symbolsDemocrats were as organized as the Whigs but did not have much heart for the fight
3William H. Harrison becomes President (but not for long…) Four-fifths of the eligible voters turned out and gave the election to Harrison with 234 electoral votes to 60Less than a month after his inauguration, Harrison fell ill and died on April 4 - John Tyler became president
5THE WEBSTER-ASHBURTON TREATY a. k. a THE WEBSTER-ASHBURTON TREATY a.k.a. The Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842Dispute over border between Maine and New BrunswickSettled by Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton, since British needed only a small part of the territory to build a military road connecting Halifax and QuebecWebster placated Maine and Massachusetts with a phony mapAshburton made concessions elsewhere on Canadian and American borderBritish dependence on foreign foodstuffs was increasingAmerican need for British capital was rising
10What (or who) are the obstacles toward achieving “Manifest Destiny”?
11Manifest Destiny OR Westward Ho! Issues w/ MEXICO:TEXAS:The Lone Star Republic or the Lone Star State?The Mexican War:May I Please have Cali OR should I just take it?Issues w/ GREAT BRITAIN:- OREGON: OR Not another war with them Limey Brits!?!
12TEXAS 1821: Americans led by Stephen Austin began to settle the area At same time Mexico declared independence from SpainCotton flourished and Mexican authorities offered free land and something approaching local autonomy to American settlersBy 1830 some 20,000 white Americans in Texas, 2,000 slaves, and only a few thousand MexicansPurchase offersJohn Quincy Adams had offered $1 million and Jackson tried $5 mill.By the 1820s, flood of American settlers was giving the Mexican government problems:Most American settlers were ProtestantWhen Mexico abolished slavery in 1829, Texans freed slaves then signed them to lifetime contracts as indentured servants1830: Mexico tried to prohibit further immigration into Texas by Americans1835: series of skirmishes became full fledged rebellion
13The Texas Revolution, 1836Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna marched north with 6,000 soldiers to subdue the rebels, reaching San Antonio in late February 1836General Houston’s strategy was to retreat and use defense in depth. His line of supply from the United States was shortened as Santa Anna’s lengthened. The Mexicans were forced to bring up supplies by land because the Texas navy controlled the sea. This force consisted of only four small ships, but it was big enough to do the job.William B. Travis and 187 men walled up in the Alamo held off Santa Anna for 10 days until the Mexicans breached the walls on 6 MarchThey killed everyone inside
14Texas “The Lone Star …. Republic or U. S. State Texas “The Lone Star …? Republic or U.S. State? That is the real question!March 2, 1836: Texas declared its independenceSam Houston was placed in charge of the army which routed the Mexicans on April 21, 1836October: Houston was elected PresidentNovember: plebiscite revealed Texans favored annexation to U.S.Andrew Jackson recognized Texas but nothing moreTyler decided to annex itSenate rejected treaty 35 to 16 -Why??
16THE ELECTION OF 1844Decisive factor was Liberty party, an antislavery splinter group organized in 1840Only 62,000 voters supported party candidate16,000 were in western part of New York and helped throw the state to PolkPolk’s victory was seen as a mandate for expansionTyler called on Congress to annex Texas through a joint resolution which was done and Texas was annexed as a territory in December 1845
18OREGONOregon: campaign had demanded all Oregon Territory but Polk told British minister Pakenham would accept 49th parallelPakenham rejectedPolk asked Congress for one year notice to abrogate 1818 treaty of joint occupationNotified British in May 1846British decided to compromise5,000 Americans in Willamette ValleyNo more than 750 British subjectsBritish now agreed to earlier proposal though Vancouver Island remained British and both could use the Strait of San Juan de FucaApproved by Senate in June 1846
20See PDF:“09 Mexican-American War” Read only Sources C, E, G and IIdentify who the authors are and why they supported or opposed …..the war
21Other opponents of the War William Lloyd Garrison expressed open support for the Mexican people.Henry Clay declared “This is no war of defense, but one of unnecessary offensive aggression.”Abraham Lincoln (freshman Congressman from Illinois) called the war immoral, proslavery, and proposed the so-called “Spot Resolutions.”Henry David Thoreau in an act of civil disobedience was jailed for his refusal to pay the poll tax as a protest against the country’s involvement in the Mexican War.
23TO THE HALLS OF MONTEZUMA Polk had three—part strategy:Clear Mexicans from Texas and occupy the northern provinces of MexicoTake possession of California and New MexicoMarch on Mexico CityJune 1846: American settlers in Sacramento Valley seized Sonoma and raised the Bear Flag of the Republic of CaliforniaJoined by John C. Frémont of American exploring party and naval squadron under Commodore John D. SloatBy February 1847: U.S. had won control of nearly all of Mexico north of capitalMarch 9, 1847: Scott and U.S. army laid siege to Vera Cruz which they took three weeks later then moved on to Mexico City which took on September 14
24“War News from Mexico”, by Richard Caton Woodville The new telegraph kept the nation closely informed of events in far-off Mexico.
25THE TREATY OF GUADELUPE- HIDALGO Polk sent Nicholas P. Trist to act as peace commissioner and he met with Scott’s army in May 1847and with peace commissioners in January 1848Originally authorized to pay $30 million for New Mexico, Upper and Lower California, and right of transit across the isthmus of TehuantepecTreaty of Guadelupe HidalgoMexico accepted Rio Grande as Texas borderCeded New Mexico and upper CaliforniaU.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take on$3.25 million in American citizens’ claims vs. MexicoSenate ratified treaty by a vote of 38 to 14
26What were the effects or consequences of the Mexican War? It increased size of the country by a third.At the same time, it created deep political divisions that threatened the country’s future.It reignited the question of slavery in the western territories.Many Northerners were convinced that slave owners had precipitated the war to add new slave states.Emerson predicted that the U.S. would conquer Mexico “… but it will be as the man who swallows arsenic…Mexico will poison us.”
27SLAVERY: Storm Clouds Gather Northern Democrats increasingly uneasy with slaveryAugust 8, 1846: Congressman David Wilmot introduced an amendment banning slavery from any territory acquired from MexicoPassed House but failed in SenateIn response to Wilmot Proviso, Calhoun proposed that Congress could not legislate regarding slavery in territories since area belonged to all states, slave and freeSeemed merely a step away from demanding Congress guarantee the right of slave owners to bring slaves into the territories and establish slave codes in the territoriesTwo potential compromisesExtend Missouri Compromise line to PacificAllowed territories in without mention of slavery, leaving it to local legislatures to decide (popular sovereignty)August 1848: Congress barred slavery from the Oregon Territory
28Election of 1848Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, offered no platformDemocrats nominated Lewis Cass, father of popular sovereignty, but did not endorse particular scheme for territoriesBarnburners (dissatisfied Democrats) joined with Liberty Party to form Free Soil Party which nominated Van BurenPolled nearly 300,000 votes, about 10 percent of total
29THE GOLD RUSHJanuary 1848: James W. Marshall was building a sawmill on the American River in Sacramento Valley east of San Francisco when he noticed flecks that turned out to be GOLD!Created international sensation$200 million was extracted in next 4 yearsBy summer of 1848 San Francisco had become a virtual ghost town and two-thirds of the adult males in Oregon had headed to the California gold fieldsDuring 1849, 25,000 Americans made their way from the east to California by ship55,000 crossed the continent by overland routes8,000 Mexicans, 5,000 South Americans and a number of Europeans joined the rushBetween 1849 and 1860 about 200,000 people (nearly all males) crossed the Rockies to California and thousands more came by ship
31Compare and contrast the views of Clay, Calhoun, Taylor, and Cass on the issue of slavery in the territories.Taylor recommended that California be admitted as a state with popular sovereignty while rest of Mexican cession should be made into another state; no need to trouble CongressHenry Clay proposed compromise plan on January 29, 1850:California should be allowed in as a free stateRest of southwest should be organized as a territory without mention of slavery; southerners would retain the right to bring slaves there though unlikely they would do soEmpty lands in dispute along Texas border should be assigned to New Mexico Territory and in exchange U.S. should take over pre-annexation debts of TexasSlave trade, but not slavery itself, should be abolished in Washington DCEffective federal slave law should be enacted and enforced in the NorthCalhoun, too weak to deliver his speech, watched while Senator James Mason explained that while the plan might save the Union, Calhoun believed that the North should yield on every issue and if it failed to do so the South should secedeDaniel Webster argued in favor of Clay’s proposaldue to geography the Wilmot Proviso was unnecessaryNorth had a constitutional obligation to turn over escaped slaves
35THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 ( continued…) Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was amended to provide for the appointment of federal commissioners with authority to issue warrants, summon posses, and compel citizens under pain of fine or imprisonment to assist in capture of fugitive slavesIf commissioner decided accused was a runaway, received larger fee than if they declared person freeBills only passed due to shifting coalitionsWhat does this mean?
36So…..Describe or explain the connection between the Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Wilmot Proviso, and the great debate on slavery in the territories that led to the Compromise of 1850.Explain why many thought that the Compromise of 1850 was the final solution to the slavery issue in the U.S.?