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History of HIV History of HIV First appeared in USA in early 1980s Originated in Africa The HIV virus in humans evolved from a virus in these primates:

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Presentation on theme: "History of HIV History of HIV First appeared in USA in early 1980s Originated in Africa The HIV virus in humans evolved from a virus in these primates:"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of HIV History of HIV First appeared in USA in early 1980s Originated in Africa The HIV virus in humans evolved from a virus in these primates: 1. Sooty mangabey monkey 1. Sooty mangabey monkey 2. Chimps 2. Chimps The virus is called SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Virus

2 What is HIV? What is HIV? HIV is an RNA virus HIV infects the T cells T cells help fight off infections HIV is a type of Hidden Virus

3 HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV destroys a part of the immune system. It affects T-cells which are white blood cells blood cells These white blood cells fight viruses, bacteria and help prevent diseases. viruses, bacteria and help prevent diseases. The fo ur m aj or ro ut e s of tr a n s m is si o n: 1.U n pr ot e ct e d s e x 2. C o nt a m in at e d n e e dl e s 3. B re a st m il k 4. T ra n s m is si o n fr o m a n in fe ct e d m ot h er to h er b a b y at bi rt h Bloo d tr a n sf u si o n s ar e n ot lo n g er a pr o bl e m

4 The 4 major routes of transmission of HIV: 1. Unprotected sex 2. Contaminated needles 3. Breast milk 4. Transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth * Blood transfusions are not longer a problem

5 AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Human T lymphocytes Human T lymphocytes (T cells) (T cells) Magnification 2,600x Magnification 2,600x AIDS is the diseases caused by HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus When too many T cells are destroyed by HIV they can no longer fight off infections The individual now has the disease called AIDS Person can have AIDS for years and not know it. Why is this dangerous ????? dangerous ?????

6 AIDS and other diseases People with AIDS get other diseases and infections People with AIDS get other diseases and infections 1. Cancer – Kaposi's sarcoma 1. Cancer – Kaposi's sarcoma 2. Hepatitis C 2. Hepatitis C 3. Fungal infections 3. Fungal infections 4. Bacterial infection 4. Bacterial infection 5. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma – blood cancer involving Lymphocytes 5. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma – blood cancer involving Lymphocytes 6. Lung Cancer 6. Lung Cancer 7. Cancer in the digestive tract 7. Cancer in the digestive tract

7 AIDS PREVALANCE (Who has AIDS) In 2005 Worldwide: Close to 40 million people worldwide are infected Almost 4 million people were infected in 2005 65% of AIDS victims live in sub-Saharan Africa 65% of AIDS victims live in sub-Saharan Africa * 70% of these victims are WOMEN * 70% of these victims are WOMEN Close to 15 million children are orphans due to AIDS due to AIDS In the U.S. 1 – 1.2 million people have AIDS 25% may not even know they are infected

8 Is there a cure for AIDS? Unfortunately NO!!!! But, there are drugs that can stop HIV from causing more damage to the T-cells and the immune system. But, there are drugs that can stop HIV from causing more damage to the T-cells and the immune system. These are called Antiviral drugs What can you do to prevent HIV from spreading?????

9 Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV HIV infection. Release of HIV mature virus from a T cell lymphocyte Nucleus of T cell: Pink Cytoplasm of T cell: Purple RNA virus, Retroviridae Family Magnification: x14,555

10 Electron microscope pictures of HIV HIV infection. Mature virus and budding release of HIV in human lymph tissue Mature virus and budding release of HIV in human lymph tissue Magnification: x14,555 Magnification: x17,545

11 Review Questions Q: Which cells of the immune system does the HIV virus destroys? Q: Which cells of the immune system does the HIV virus destroys? A: T-Cells A: T-Cells Q: What are the 4 major routes of transmission? Q: What are the 4 major routes of transmission? A: Unprotected sex A: Unprotected sex Sharing contaminated needles Sharing contaminated needles Breast milk Breast milk From mother to her unborn baby From mother to her unborn baby Q: What is the name of the disease caused by HIV? Q: What is the name of the disease caused by HIV? A: AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome A: AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Q: What kind of a virus is HIV? DNA or RNA Q: What kind of a virus is HIV? DNA or RNA A: RNA A: RNA

12 Q: What happens when too many T cells are destroyed? A: The person gets AIDS and other diseases Q: Name 3 other diseases or infections that people with AIDS can get? can get? A: Kaposis Sarcoma Lung cancer Infections Q: Is there cure for AIDS? A: Not at the present time but scientists are working very hard. Will you be the scientist who discovers very hard. Will you be the scientist who discovers the cure????? the cure????? Q: Is there any treatment? A: Yes, antiviral drugs are now available to help patients live longer lives longer lives


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