2Greek Archaic or Formative Period (800-500 B.C.) A major creative periodGreek alphabetHomer's writings (Illiad and Odyssey)Greek religion codifiedMoralsScienceDemocracy
3What a Difference Language Makes Greek AlphabetFirst alphabet with the ability to write in full phonetic detailLess ambiguityAnyone with a little training could learn to read and writeNo longer restricted creation of new ideas as pictograms and Chinese characters didEasy recording
4Greek Language Accomplishments Homer’s writings-foundation of Greek civilizationAesop’s fables- Greek ethicsHesiod’s writings-defined Greek religionScience was born
5Greek religion did not have a god that gave the “true” method of living so the Greeks adopted the lifestyle of the Homeric heroes as their standard and Homer’s works became the “scriptures” of the Greeks.
6Homer Blind bard, or professional story teller Recited stories to a scribeCreated the Illiad and the OdysseyGreatest literary works of all time, in terms of their impact on societyBegan the western literary traditionBasic values for the Greek cultureAlmost like a religious text, often memorizedMythical beginnings for Greek historyWas a unifying force for the Greek peopleDefined the epic genre
7Homer Epics Larger than life Long story with many events over many yearsHeroes and often godsWrestle with problems and also with lifeLessons that can apply to everyone in many periods of time
8The Iliad Discusses the interaction of men and gods Takes place in the last year of the Trojan WarExamines the motivation of the main charactersThemesPurpose of life and immortality is achieved through heroic acts (areté)Human vanity and pride can be costlyGrowth comes from inner reflectionDeath can be ennoblingHuman action is influenced only slightly by the gods
9Illiad and the Bible Many gods involved Challenge by Hector Greek fear and shameAcceptance by Ajax by lotHector's ridicule of AjaxSpears and stonesArmor of AchillesPost fight honor (until Patroclus and Achilles, then sacrilege)One GodChallenge by GoliathIsraelite fearAcceptance by DavidGoliath's ridicule of DavidSlings and stonesArmor of GoliathPost death beheading
10The Odyssey Travels of Odysseus trying to get home Tone is light hearted10 year journeyExploration of his growth and maturingGrowth comes from experiencing troubles
11“How foolish men are! It is their lot to suffer, but because of their folly they bring upon themselves sufferings over and above what is fated for them. And then they blame the gods.”The quote is a dialogue from Zeus in the Odyssey
12Religion Theogony by Hesiod (700 B.C.) Traces the descent of the gods (myths)Greek GodsSeparate race from humansImmortal characteristicsExplanation for life events and conditionsDid not give patterns for moral behaviorArt and literature—method of finding purpose of life
14Religion The Olympics Founded in 776 BC Held in Olympia First event was a foot raceOther events addedBoxing, javelin, throwing, chariot racing, wrestling, long jump, discusHeld every 4 years until 394 ADRevived in 1896
15Morals Aesop Slave in 550 B.C. Wrote short stories Attention to ethics Used fables and morals to make his pointsCicada and the fox (learn from others' mistakes)Greedy dog (the greedy end up with less)Tortoise and the hare (perseverance)
16Aesop's The Lion and the Mouse Or The Mion and the Louse
17Science Thales First great Greek thinker (625 B.C) First Philosopher, First scientistMathematician, astronomerGreatest contribution:“All events, even extraordinary ones, can be explained in natural terms that can be understood by humans.”Water is the fundamental material
18"In its early days philosophy included science – which became known as 'natural philosophy'. Thales' thinking was scientific because it could provide evidence for its conclusions. And it was philosophy because it used reason to reach these conclusions."– Strathern, Paul, Mendeleyev's Dream, New York: Berkley Books, 2000, p.11.
19Thales and Water"We know from anecdotal evidence that Thales arrived at his theory [that water is the fundamental material] after seeing some seashell fossils high above the contemporary sea level. But his speculations probably went deeper than this. He must have seen the mist rising from the Anatolian hills to become clouds, and have observed the rain falling from clouds in storms out over the Aegean. Land becoming damp air, which in turn became water. Just a couple of miles north of Miletus, a large river meanders over the wide plain to the sea. (This is in fact the ancient River Meander, from which our word derives.) Thales would have observed the river slowly silting up: the water becoming muddy earth. He would have visited the springs on the nearby hillside: the earth becoming water again. It takes little imagination now to see how Thales conceived of the idea all is water.“– Strathern, Paul, Mendeleyev's Dream, New York: Berkley Books, 2000, p.12.
20Science Pythagoras Inventor of Mathematics Created a system for expressing equationsThrough numbers, all truth could be expressed (fundamental of the world)Irrational numbers bad
21Science Pythagoras (cont) Pythagorean theorem Trigonometry Music is based in mathematicsPrinciple of harmonic vibrationString length relationships (octaves, fifths, etc.)
22Pythagoras Discovered Golden Mean (ratio of 1.618) Body dimensions Crosses
23“The Golden Mean defines the proportions of the Parthenon, the shape of playing cards and credit cards, and the proportions of the General Assembly Building at the United Nations in New York. The horizontal member of most Christian crosses separates the vertical member by just about the same ratio: the length above the crosspiece is 61.8% of the length below it. The Golden Mean also appears throughout nature – in flower patterns, the leaves of an artichoke, and the leaf stubs on a palm tree. It is also the ratio of the length of the human body above the navel to its length below the navel (in normally proportioned people, that is). The length of each successive bone in our fingers, from tip to hand, also bears this ratio.”– Peter L. Bernstein, Against the Gods, 1996, XXVI
27Science Anaximander Heraclitus Xeno Democritus Fire was the fundamental elementHeraclitusFundamental concept of change being constant“No one can step in the same river twice”XenoAny movement is impossible because you can divide all space in halfDemocritusAtomic TheoryAtoms were the fundamental of naturesolved the Xeno dilemma
28Democracy Rule of Law Broad Participation of Government Draco (621 BC)—tyrant of AthensWritten Laws were harsh (“draconian”) but equalStabilityBroad Participation of GovernmentFamilies formed a council, Aeropagus (Oligarchy)Solon, Father of DemocracyGave voice to merchants and other non-landholdersFirst jury systemStrong currency systemFreedom of thought and action
29Persian Wars 5th Century BC Revolt of Ionian GreeksPresent day TurkeyBrought the wrath of Darius, the Persian KingDarius defeated at MarathonGreek messenger carried the news to AthensShouted “NIKE” (victory) and diedTraditional race distance is from Marathon to AthensXerxesBridge over the BosporousDefeated the Spartans but they gained gloryHe was defeated on the sea at SalamisHe was defeated on land at Plataea (phalanx)