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PERVASIVE OR UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING M.HANZALA ALI ABBASS.

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Presentation on theme: "PERVASIVE OR UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING M.HANZALA ALI ABBASS."— Presentation transcript:

1 PERVASIVE OR UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING M.HANZALA ALI ABBASS

2 PERVASIVE OR UBIQUITOUS? Ubiquitous OR pervasive computing (ubicomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. Ubiquitous OR pervasive computing (ubicomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. The idea of ubicomp enable people to interact with information-processing devices more naturally and casually, and in ways that suit whatever location or context they find themselves in. The idea of ubicomp enable people to interact with information-processing devices more naturally and casually, and in ways that suit whatever location or context they find themselves in.

3 Other Names Pervasive Computing Pervasive Computing Sentient computing Sentient computing Ubiquitous Computing Ubiquitous Computing Ambient Intelligence Ambient Intelligence Wearable Computing Wearable Computing

4 Goals of Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing Ultimate goal: Ultimate goal: Invisible technology Invisible technology Integration of virtual and physical worlds Integration of virtual and physical worlds Throughout desks, rooms, buildings, and life Throughout desks, rooms, buildings, and life Take the data out of environment, leaving behind just an enhanced ability to act Take the data out of environment, leaving behind just an enhanced ability to act

5 Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing Vision In the 21st century the technology revolution will move into the everyday, the small and the invisible… In the 21st century the technology revolution will move into the everyday, the small and the invisible… The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. Mark Weiser (1952 –1999), XEROX PARC

6 The Trends in Computing Technology and Pervasive Computing 1970s1990s Late 1990s Now and Tomorrow ?

7 Pervasive Computing Era

8 Pervasive Computing Enablers Moores Law of IC Technologies Moores Law of IC Technologies Communication Technologies Communication Technologies Material Technologies Material Technologies Sensors/Actuators Sensors/Actuators

9 Moores Law Computing power (or number of transistors in an integrated circuit) doubles every 18 months Computing power (or number of transistors in an integrated circuit) doubles every 18 months

10 2nd Enabler: Communication Bandwidth of single fibers ~10 Gb/s Bandwidth of single fibers ~10 Gb/s ~20 Tb/s with wavelength multiplex ~20 Tb/s with wavelength multiplex Powerline Powerline coffee maker automatically connected to the Internet coffee maker automatically connected to the Internet Wireless Wireless mobile phone: GSM, GPRS, 3G mobile phone: GSM, GPRS, 3G wireless LAN (> 10 Mb/s) wireless LAN (> 10 Mb/s) PAN (Bluetooth), BAN PAN (Bluetooth), BAN

11 4th Enabler: Sensors/Actuators

12 Miniaturized cameras, microphones,... Miniaturized cameras, microphones,... Fingerprint sensor Fingerprint sensor Radio sensors Radio sensors RFID RFID Infrared Infrared Location sensors Location sensors e.g., GPS e.g., GPS

13 Pervasive Computing Distributed System Mobile Computing

14 Pervasive Devices EmbeddedDevicesHandle Devices Devices

15 H21s a.k.a HANDYs21and Enviro21s a.k.a E21s HANDHELD DEVICES THE VISION: Person-centered devices provide universal personal appliances that are inexpensive and carried and used anywhere (portability). Person-centered devices provide universal personal appliances that are inexpensive and carried and used anywhere (portability). They are equipped with perceptual transducers such as a microphone, speaker, video camera, and display. They are equipped with perceptual transducers such as a microphone, speaker, video camera, and display. Provide mobile access points for users both within and without the intelligent spaces controlled by E21s. Provide mobile access points for users both within and without the intelligent spaces controlled by E21s. Reconfigure themselves to support multiple communication protocols Reconfigure themselves to support multiple communication protocols Recognize human input Recognize human input

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17 Embedded devices Embedded devices Create intelligent spaces. Create intelligent spaces. (computation embedded in ordinary envoirnments defines intelligent spaces and control for physical entities) People interact in intelligent spaces naturally without being aware that computation is present. E21s provide large amounts of embedded computation E21s provide large amounts of embedded computation Users communicate naturally in the spaces created by the E21s Users communicate naturally in the spaces created by the E21s

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19 Evolution

20 Scenario 1 John opens his refrigerator to take out a soda, and he notices that there is only one can left. John then scans the UPC of the soda with the scanner attached to the refrigerator. John plans to have guests over this weekend, and makes a note on the refrigerator device that he needs to replenish his soda by Friday The next day. John opens his refrigerator to take out a soda, and he notices that there is only one can left. John then scans the UPC of the soda with the scanner attached to the refrigerator. John plans to have guests over this weekend, and makes a note on the refrigerator device that he needs to replenish his soda by Friday The next day. on his way home from work, John happen to approach a local supermarket. His car signals to John that he is near a grocery store, and if it is convenient, that he should stop by. Suppose John does not act on the opportunity, Friday rolls around and he still have not bought the drinks, a notification will be sent to Johns PDA by the refrigerator to alert John on his way home from work, John happen to approach a local supermarket. His car signals to John that he is near a grocery store, and if it is convenient, that he should stop by. Suppose John does not act on the opportunity, Friday rolls around and he still have not bought the drinks, a notification will be sent to Johns PDA by the refrigerator to alert John

21 Scenario 1 – What Happened? Johns virtual shopping list is maintained by his refrigerator. Johns virtual shopping list is maintained by his refrigerator. When John scanned the soda, the refrigerator adds soda to the shopping list. When John scanned the soda, the refrigerator adds soda to the shopping list. When John notes down Friday, the refrigerator notifies his car about the need for soda. When John notes down Friday, the refrigerator notifies his car about the need for soda. When John is on the road, his car constantly monitors the available services; when his car detects the supermarket service, it notifies John. When John is on the road, his car constantly monitors the available services; when his car detects the supermarket service, it notifies John. When its Friday, and the refrigerator has not received a soda purchased notification, it sends a notification to Johns PDA. When its Friday, and the refrigerator has not received a soda purchased notification, it sends a notification to Johns PDA.

22 Data Management Getting information into the temporal or spatial context in which it will be most useful, instead of where the information is created, and using pervasive devices to accept or deliver it Getting information into the temporal or spatial context in which it will be most useful, instead of where the information is created, and using pervasive devices to accept or deliver it In the first scenario, John created his shopping list in his refrigerator, but he needed it the most when hes near a supermarket. In the first scenario, John created his shopping list in his refrigerator, but he needed it the most when hes near a supermarket.

23 Data Management Challenges in PER-COM Instead of the conventional client-proxy-server model, pervasive computing requires a mobile distributed database system, where each device maintains its own database Instead of the conventional client-proxy-server model, pervasive computing requires a mobile distributed database system, where each device maintains its own database No centralized control of each device database No centralized control of each device database Assume data can be communicated in a neutral format between devices Assume data can be communicated in a neutral format between devices Each part of a data object may reside on different device database Each part of a data object may reside on different device database Devices move in ad-hoc networks, therefore no guarantee of fixed set of devices Devices move in ad-hoc networks, therefore no guarantee of fixed set of devices

24 In particular to pervasive computing environments where devices are dynamic In particular to pervasive computing environments where devices are dynamic Data and data source availability Data and data source availability Lack of global data and schema Lack of global data and schema No guarantee of reconnection No guarantee of reconnection No guarantee of collaboration No guarantee of collaboration => query responses are highly based on luck => query responses are highly based on luck

25 CASE STUDY PERVASIVE PATIENT MONITORING PERVASIVE PATIENT MONITORING A vast majority of long-term patients in the world dont take their medication in time, intentionally or not. In the U.S. alone, this represents an additional $100 billion yearly expense due to unexpected emergency hospital admissions. In the U.S. alone, this represents an additional $100 billion yearly expense due to unexpected emergency hospital admissions. It is therefore crucial to gather accurately patient medical data in real time. For this purpose, a team at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory has developed a mobile health toolkit to perform this task. With this toolkit consisting of a Java-based middleware and Bluetooth-enabled sensors, all the medical patient data can be wirelessly exported to a doctors office via a PC or a cell phone.

26 Facts and figures About 55% of all long-term patients in the US and in Europe, it is estimated, do not take their medication (either not taking the prescribed medication at all or more than 14 hours late) Around 12% of all hospital admissions in the UK are due to this non-compliance, the damage to the US taxpayer is an estimated USD 100 billion a year. Most of the patients that do not comply are simply forgetful (about 10% deliberately do not want to take the medication). About 55% of all long-term patients in the US and in Europe, it is estimated, do not take their medication (either not taking the prescribed medication at all or more than 14 hours late) Around 12% of all hospital admissions in the UK are due to this non-compliance, the damage to the US taxpayer is an estimated USD 100 billion a year. Most of the patients that do not comply are simply forgetful (about 10% deliberately do not want to take the medication).

27 How this can be solved? Gathering current patient medical data promptly and accurately is vital to proper health care. Gathering current patient medical data promptly and accurately is vital to proper health care. The usefulness of electronic data capture (EDC) has been demonstrated in applications such as the home monitoring of at-risk heart patients via devices that transmit blood pressure from the home to a central database. The usefulness of electronic data capture (EDC) has been demonstrated in applications such as the home monitoring of at-risk heart patients via devices that transmit blood pressure from the home to a central database. Removing transcription effort (and associated inaccuracies) alone is worth the institution of EDC; but the side benefit of timeliness offers the hope of identifying and responding to trends as they occur, perhaps preventing a dangerous event, instead of simply allowing its diagnosis after the danger has manifest. Removing transcription effort (and associated inaccuracies) alone is worth the institution of EDC; but the side benefit of timeliness offers the hope of identifying and responding to trends as they occur, perhaps preventing a dangerous event, instead of simply allowing its diagnosis after the danger has manifest.

28 So …… This is why IBM has developed its mobile health toolkit, for gathering measurement data from a range of devices,such as This is why IBM has developed its mobile health toolkit, for gathering measurement data from a range of devices,such as H21s and E21s connected through the N21s(discussed earlier) H21s and E21s connected through the N21s(discussed earlier) and present it to management software via a well defined, and easily implemented interface. and present it to management software via a well defined, and easily implemented interface.

29 mobile health care: why go mobile? Monitoring patients in the Monitoring patients in the community community Long-term patients, early Long-term patients, early release patients, elderly release patients, elderly patients, young patients patients, young patients Medication Medication compliance/adherence compliance/adherence monitoring monitoring Symptoms monitoring Symptoms monitoring Healthcare professionals Healthcare professionals

30 On-the spot patient record On-the spot patient record updating updating Direct patient data input Direct patient data input Self Monitoring & lifestyle Self Monitoring & lifestyle Help consumers take an Help consumers take an active part in their well- active part in their well- being/disease being/disease Caring for relatives Caring for relatives Objectives: Objectives: Improve data quality and availability Improve data quality and availability Improve quality of life for patients Improve quality of life for patients Reduce costs Reduce costs

31 Here are some details about this toolkit The IBM mobile health toolkit provides a Java-based middleware using J2ME MIDP 2.0 (Java Mobile Information Device Profile) and JSR 082 (Java APIs for Bluetooth) running on a personal (mobile) hub device to which sensors can connect wirelessly. The IBM mobile health toolkit provides a Java-based middleware using J2ME MIDP 2.0 (Java Mobile Information Device Profile) and JSR 082 (Java APIs for Bluetooth) running on a personal (mobile) hub device to which sensors can connect wirelessly. We can perform local processing on the data, and forward the result to one or more fixed network connections. We can perform local processing on the data, and forward the result to one or more fixed network connections. Data-handling modules can easily be added to the MIDlet suite (application suite compliant with Java Mobile Information Device Profile) on the hub, as can drivers for new sensor devices. Data-handling modules can easily be added to the MIDlet suite (application suite compliant with Java Mobile Information Device Profile) on the hub, as can drivers for new sensor devices.

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36 References Zurich Research Laboratory website, Zurich Research Laboratory website, [1] http://sdforum.org/p/calEvent.asp?CID=751&mo=4&yr=2002 [1] http://sdforum.org/p/calEvent.asp?CID=751&mo=4&yr=2002http://sdforum.org/p/calEvent.asp?CID=751&mo=4&yr=2002 [1] Mark Weiser, Chief Technologist of Xerox PARC, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), the company's renowned high-technology incubator is widely regarded as the 'father' of ubiquitous computing; his web page contains links to many papers on the topic: http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html. [1] Mark Weiser, Chief Technologist of Xerox PARC, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), the company's renowned high-technology incubator is widely regarded as the 'father' of ubiquitous computing; his web page contains links to many papers on the topic: http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html. http://www.ubiq.com/hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html [1] http://www.computer.org/pervasive/ [1] http://www.computer.org/pervasive/http://www.computer.org/pervasive/ [1] http://web.media.mit.edu/~neilg/ [1] http://web.media.mit.edu/~neilg/http://web.media.mit.edu/~neilg/ [1] 'Beyond the Internet', published by the RAND Organisation http://www.rand.org/scitech/stpi/ourfuture/Internet/section4.html [1] 'Beyond the Internet', published by the RAND Organisation http://www.rand.org/scitech/stpi/ourfuture/Internet/section4.html http://www.rand.org/scitech/stpi/ourfuture/Internet/section4.html [1] http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/ [1] http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/ [1] http://cuneus.ai.mit.edu:8000/research/miketalk/miketalk.html [1] http://cuneus.ai.mit.edu:8000/research/miketalk/miketalk.htmlhttp://cuneus.ai.mit.edu:8000/research/miketalk/miketalk.html if offline, see the technical paper: if offline, see the technical paper: http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/ezzat98miketalk.html http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/ezzat98miketalk.html http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/ezzat98miketalk.html [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/ [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/ [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/publications.html [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/publications.htmlhttp://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/publications.html [1] http://www.usa.siemens.com/about/innovations/feature_stories/simpad_228 01.html [1] http://www.usa.siemens.com/about/innovations/feature_stories/simpad_228 01.html http://www.usa.siemens.com/about/innovations/feature_stories/simpad_228 01.html http://www.usa.siemens.com/about/innovations/feature_stories/simpad_228 01.html [1] http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/ [1] http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/ [1] http://www.itl.nist.gov/ [1] http://www.itl.nist.gov/http://www.itl.nist.gov/ [1] http://www.nist.gov/ [1] http://www.nist.gov/http://www.nist.gov/ [1] http://www.computer.org/pervasive/ [1] http://www.computer.org/pervasive/http://www.computer.org/pervasive/ [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/011122/011122-11.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/011122/011122-11.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nsu/011122/011122-11.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/010913/010913-3.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/010913/010913-3.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nsu/010913/010913-3.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/020520/020520-4.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/020520/020520-4.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nsu/020520/020520-4.html [1] http://www.playresearch.com/ [1] http://www.playresearch.com/http://www.playresearch.com/ [1] http://www.viktoria.informatik.gu.se/groups/play/projects/slowtech/installatio ns.html [1] http://www.viktoria.informatik.gu.se/groups/play/projects/slowtech/installatio ns.html http://www.viktoria.informatik.gu.se/groups/play/projects/slowtech/installatio ns.html http://www.viktoria.informatik.gu.se/groups/play/projects/slowtech/installatio ns.html [1] http://www.ambientdevices.com/cat/applications.html [1] http://www.ambientdevices.com/cat/applications.htmlhttp://www.ambientdevices.com/cat/applications.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/020429/020429-7.html [1] http://www.nature.com/nsu/020429/020429-7.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nsu/020429/020429-7.html [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/ [1] http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/http://www-lce.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dl231/


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