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B the TOS or POS w/ the 411 A Staff and Parent Training on Text Messaging and Cyber-Bullying Presented By: Virginia Gallup Larsen, Olweus Trainer Alexandria.

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Presentation on theme: "B the TOS or POS w/ the 411 A Staff and Parent Training on Text Messaging and Cyber-Bullying Presented By: Virginia Gallup Larsen, Olweus Trainer Alexandria."— Presentation transcript:

1 B the TOS or POS w/ the 411 A Staff and Parent Training on Text Messaging and Cyber-Bullying Presented By: Virginia Gallup Larsen, Olweus Trainer Alexandria City Public Schools

2 Internet Use In the U.S. in 2005, In the U.S. in 2005, 79% of people used the Internet (compared to 67% in 2000).79% of people used the Internet (compared to 67% in 2000). Each person spent an average of 13.3 hours online per weekEach person spent an average of 13.3 hours online per week (up from 9 hours in 2000). This was four years ago. What do you think the statistics are now? Taken from: Center for Digital Future Limber, Kowalski & Agatston (2008). Cyber Bullying: What is it and why should we be concerned?

3 Adolescents and the Internet In 2005… In 2005… 87% of adolescents (21 million) spend time online and more than 50% do so daily.87% of adolescents (21 million) spend time online and more than 50% do so daily. 75% use instant messaging; 50% do so daily.75% use instant messaging; 50% do so daily. 45% have their own cell phones.45% have their own cell phones. 33% communicate via text messaging.33% communicate via text messaging. Taken from: The Pew Internet and American Life Project 2005 Limber, Kowalski & Agatston (2008). Cyber Bullying: What is it and why should we be concerned?

4 Use of Social Networking Sites 55% of all U.S. youth use on-line social-networking sites (Facebook, My Space, Twitter, etc.) and 55% of these have created their own profiles 55% of all U.S. youth use on-line social-networking sites (Facebook, My Space, Twitter, etc.) and 55% of these have created their own profiles For girls, social-networking sites are primarily places to reinforce existing friendships For girls, social-networking sites are primarily places to reinforce existing friendships For boys, the networks also provide opportunities for flirting and making new friends For boys, the networks also provide opportunities for flirting and making new friends Taken from: The Pew Internet Project 2007 Limber, Kowalski & Agatston (2008). Cyber Bullying: What is it and why should we be concerned?

5 5 What is the Olweus Definition of Bullying? A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself. Olweus et al., 2007 © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2007

6 6 Bullying is when someone repeatedly and on purpose says or does mean or hurtful things to another person who has a hard time defending himself or herself. In everyday language… © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2007

7 What is Cyber-bullying? Bullying through email, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a Web site, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. Bullying through email, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a Web site, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008

8 What is Cyber-bullying? Cyber-bullying occurs when youth use technologies to bully others. Cyber-bullying occurs when youth use technologies to bully others. Technologies can include: Technologies can include: Text messagingText messaging Internet sites (You Tube, etc.)Internet sites (You Tube, etc.) Cell PhonesCell Phones Social Networking (Facebook, Twitter, My Space, etc.)Social Networking (Facebook, Twitter, My Space, etc.)

9 Cyber-bullying As with traditional bullying, cyber- bullying also involves indirect bullying such as spreading rumors, gossiping, and verbal taunts or attacks.

10 Cyber-bullying There are 3 similar characteristics that cyber-bullying shares with traditional forms of bullying: There are 3 similar characteristics that cyber-bullying shares with traditional forms of bullying: Aggressiveness Aggressiveness Power Imbalances Power Imbalances Repetitiveness Repetitiveness Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston 2008

11 Cyber-bullying There are 5 different characteristics: There are 5 different characteristics: AnonymityAnonymity Unfortunately, the target may not even know the perpetrator Unfortunately, the target may not even know the perpetrator AccessibilityAccessibility Prevalence of information and lack of accessibility to identity Prevalence of information and lack of accessibility to identity Punitive fearsPunitive fears Children and adolescents are less likely to tell an adult about Cyber-bullying for fear of having their cell phones or computers taken away (or their use restricted/monitored). Children and adolescents are less likely to tell an adult about Cyber-bullying for fear of having their cell phones or computers taken away (or their use restricted/monitored). Bystanders are less empowered and less likely to interveneBystanders are less empowered and less likely to intervene DisinhibitionDisinhibition There are social-emotional and environmental impacts. There are social-emotional and environmental impacts. There are also sometimes legal consequences. There are also sometimes legal consequences. Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

12 Common Forms of Cyber-bullying Harassment Harassment Denigration Denigration Flaming Flaming Impersonation Impersonation Outing and Trickery Outing and Trickery Cyber Stalking Cyber Stalking Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

13 Harassment Repeatedly sending offensive, rude, and insulting messages Repeatedly sending offensive, rude, and insulting messages Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

14 Denigration Distributing information about another that is derogatory and untrue Distributing information about another that is derogatory and untrue Posting the information on a Web page or sending it via email, text, or instant messaging Posting the information on a Web page or sending it via email, text, or instant messaging Posting or sending digitally altered photos of someone Posting or sending digitally altered photos of someone Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

15 Flaming Online fighting using electronic messages or pictures with angry, vulgar language Online fighting using electronic messages or pictures with angry, vulgar language Often posted for others to see Often posted for others to see Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

16 Impersonation Breaking into an email account or creating a false profile and sending or posting vicious or embarrassing material. Breaking into an email account or creating a false profile and sending or posting vicious or embarrassing material. Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

17 Outing and Trickery Sharing someones secrets or embarrassing information Sharing someones secrets or embarrassing information Tricking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information and forwarding the information to others. Tricking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information and forwarding the information to others. Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

18 Cyber Stalking Repeatedly sending messages that include threats of harm or that are highly intimidating Repeatedly sending messages that include threats of harm or that are highly intimidating Engaging in other online activities that make a person afraid for his or her safety Engaging in other online activities that make a person afraid for his or her safety Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

19 How Do We Prepare Ourselves? We are knowledgeable about the Olweus program and Bullying Prevention Interventions… but how many of us stand on the other side of the digital divide? We are knowledgeable about the Olweus program and Bullying Prevention Interventions… but how many of us stand on the other side of the digital divide?

20 B4 We Can Intervene, We Need the 411 Todays workshop is meant to provide you with sample scenarios that you can take back to teachers, staff and parents. This exercise will allow you to begin to practice decoding the cyber-language that is second nature for our kids. Todays workshop is meant to provide you with sample scenarios that you can take back to teachers, staff and parents. This exercise will allow you to begin to practice decoding the cyber-language that is second nature for our kids.

21 Take A Few Minutes…. If you have not already done so…. If you have not already done so…. decode the conversations you have been provided. decode the conversations you have been provided.

22 Conversation 1: 2GTBT09: Hey QT! ;) 2GTBT09: Hey QT! ;) EMOHART4EVA: ZUP? EMOHART4EVA: ZUP? 2GTBT09: NMH….U? 2GTBT09: NMH….U? EMOHART4EVA: Z. ZZZZZ EMOHART4EVA: Z. ZZZZZ 2GTBT08: LOL. Me2. TCOY. 2GTBT08: LOL. Me2. TCOY. EMOHART4EVA: GNSD. XOXO. EMOHART4EVA: GNSD. XOXO.

23 Conversation 2: BRATZ99: Hey! BAY! R U there? BRATZ99: Hey! BAY! R U there? Lil1: Yea. WB! Lil1: Yea. WB! BRATZ99: IK! MOS. :-0 BRATZ99: IK! MOS. :-0 BRATZ99: So…SK8RBOI is her B/F BRATZ99: So…SK8RBOI is her B/F Lil1: AYS?!?!? Lil1: AYS?!?!? BRATZ99: Yea! Im LMHO. BRATZ99: Yea! Im LMHO. BRATZ99: :-0 GG. MOS. OMG! BRATZ99: :-0 GG. MOS. OMG!

24 Conversation 3: HOTCHIX: 20? HOTCHIX: 20? TDTM2009: A/S/L? TDTM2009: A/S/L? HOTCHIX: Home. DIKU? HOTCHIX: Home. DIKU? TDTM2009: Yea. LMIRL. TDTM2009: Yea. LMIRL. HOTCHIX: NW. HOTCHIX: NW. TDTM2009: LOL. OK. KEYA QT. TDTM2009: LOL. OK. KEYA QT. HOTCHIX: LD. HOTCHIX: LD.

25 Conversation 4 4202NTE: ?4u 4202NTE: ?4u MTFBWU: W@ MTFBWU: W@ 4202NTE: WDYK@ W/end? 4202NTE: WDYK@ W/end? MTFBWU: PRT@801 AFAIK MTFBWU: PRT@801 AFAIK 4202NTE: CUL. 4202NTE: CUL. MTFBWU: OO. MTFBWU: OO.

26 A Closer Look At Cyber-Bullying

27 Some facts about Cyber-bullying Prevalence of Cyber-Bullying: Prevalence of Cyber-Bullying: Studies vary based upon the data gathering techniques.Studies vary based upon the data gathering techniques. The Pew Internet Survey found that almost 1/3 of adolescents had experienced cyber- bullying (Lenhart, 2007).The Pew Internet Survey found that almost 1/3 of adolescents had experienced cyber- bullying (Lenhart, 2007). Kowalski and Limber (2007) found that 22% of middle school students had been involved in some form of cyber-bullying (either the victim or perpetrator).Kowalski and Limber (2007) found that 22% of middle school students had been involved in some form of cyber-bullying (either the victim or perpetrator). The implications of the studies suggest that as our childrens access to technology increases, their experiences with cyber-bullying will also increase. The implications of the studies suggest that as our childrens access to technology increases, their experiences with cyber-bullying will also increase. (Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

28 What forms of cyber-bullying most commonly occur? Of those who had been cyber bullied, Of those who had been cyber bullied, 68% said they were teased in a hurtful way68% said they were teased in a hurtful way 53% said someone told lies and/or spread rumors about them53% said someone told lies and/or spread rumors about them 35% said someone used their name to pick on others35% said someone used their name to pick on others Kowalski and Limber 2007

29 Warning Signs of Cyber-Bullying Appears Upset After Viewing a Text Message or Email Appears Upset After Viewing a Text Message or Email Appears Upset After Using the Computer or Being Online Appears Upset After Using the Computer or Being Online Experiences a Drop in Grades or a Decline in Academic Performance Experiences a Drop in Grades or a Decline in Academic Performance Withdraws From or Shows a Lack of Interest In Social Activities Withdraws From or Shows a Lack of Interest In Social Activities Avoids School or has excessive absences Avoids School or has excessive absences Appears Sad, Moody, or Anxious Appears Sad, Moody, or Anxious (Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

30 How Does Cyber-Bullying Affect Students, Schools and Communities? As with traditional bullying, targets are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety and depression (Olweus 1978; Rigby and Slee, 1993). Suicidal thoughts are also more likely (Rigby, 1997). As with traditional bullying, targets are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety and depression (Olweus 1978; Rigby and Slee, 1993). Suicidal thoughts are also more likely (Rigby, 1997). Health concerns such as stomach aches, headaches, fatigue and sleeping difficulties are also noted (Fekkes et al. 2004). Health concerns such as stomach aches, headaches, fatigue and sleeping difficulties are also noted (Fekkes et al. 2004). Academic failure, absenteeism, lower grades are common among cyber-bullying targets (Arseneault et al. 2006; Eisenberg et al. 2003; Rigby 1997). Academic failure, absenteeism, lower grades are common among cyber-bullying targets (Arseneault et al. 2006; Eisenberg et al. 2003; Rigby 1997). (Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

31 How Does Cyber-Bullying Affect Students, Schools and Communities? Many altercations at school begin with incidents that happen outside of the school day, such as those that start with: Many altercations at school begin with incidents that happen outside of the school day, such as those that start with: Comments on social-networking sitesComments on social-networking sites Text messagesText messages Instant messages and emailsInstant messages and emails Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

32 How Does Cyber-Bullying Affect Students, Schools and Communities? SCHOOL SAFETY SCHOOL SAFETY Youth who reported being targeted by Internet harassment were 8 times more likely than all other youth to report carrying a weapon to school in the past 30 days. Ybarra et al. 2007

33 How About Those Who Cyber-Bully? Those who bully, especially those who are bully- victims, are especially at-risk for the mental health, academic and social risks described previously. Those who bully, especially those who are bully- victims, are especially at-risk for the mental health, academic and social risks described previously. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

34 How can schools prevent Cyber- bullying? School Districts School Districts Schools Schools Educators Educators Parents Parents Communities Communities

35 School Districts Need: An effective anti-bullying policy that specifically prohibits cyber-bullying An effective anti-bullying policy that specifically prohibits cyber-bullying An acceptable use of technology policy that specifically prohibits cyber-bullying An acceptable use of technology policy that specifically prohibits cyber-bullying Implementation of a research-based bullying prevention program to teach lessons about cyber-bullying Implementation of a research-based bullying prevention program to teach lessons about cyber-bullying Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

36 What Should Teachers Do If They Know Of Or Suspect Cyber-Bullying is Occurring? Advise Students to Save and Print All Evidence of Cyber-Bullying Advise Students to Save and Print All Evidence of Cyber-Bullying The Student Should Inform an Adult At Home and an Adult at School (It is likely to be an adult at school, however, because students are afraid of losing their cell phone or computer). The Student Should Inform an Adult At Home and an Adult at School (It is likely to be an adult at school, however, because students are afraid of losing their cell phone or computer). Some Forms of Cyber-Bullying are Illegal and May Require the Involvement of Law Enforcement. These Include Communications Involving: death threats, extortion, intimidation, or threats based upon race, religion, gender or sexual orientation; or if there is evidence of sexual exploitation. Some Forms of Cyber-Bullying are Illegal and May Require the Involvement of Law Enforcement. These Include Communications Involving: death threats, extortion, intimidation, or threats based upon race, religion, gender or sexual orientation; or if there is evidence of sexual exploitation. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

37 Weekly Meetings Incorporating Cyber- Bullying Lessons in weekly meetings is an excellent way of addressing student concerns, the prevalence of cyber- bullying and offering strategies for diminishing the prevalence of these bullying incidents. Incorporating Cyber- Bullying Lessons in weekly meetings is an excellent way of addressing student concerns, the prevalence of cyber- bullying and offering strategies for diminishing the prevalence of these bullying incidents. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

38 Resources from Hazelden Publishing Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Teacher Guide, DVD and CD-ROMTeacher Guide, DVD and CD-ROM Schoolwide Guide, DVD and CD-ROMSchoolwide Guide, DVD and CD-ROM Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 3-5 Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 3-5 Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

39 The Cyber Bullying curriculum is designed to Educate students about bullying and cyber-bullying Educate students about bullying and cyber-bullying Prevent cyber-bullying through activities and discussions about appropriate online etiquette, empathy, and ethics Prevent cyber-bullying through activities and discussions about appropriate online etiquette, empathy, and ethics Empower bystanders to prevent or intervene in cyber-bullying situations Empower bystanders to prevent or intervene in cyber-bullying situations Encourage parent/guardian and child communication Encourage parent/guardian and child communication Kowalski, Limber and Agatston 2008

40 Sample Weekly Meeting The Text Messaging Game Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

41 The Text Messaging Game We have discussed the negative effects of cyber-bullying, now lets discuss some positive uses of cyber- technology. We have discussed the negative effects of cyber-bullying, now lets discuss some positive uses of cyber- technology. We know that text messaging has its own language. There are abbreviations for everything! We know that text messaging has its own language. There are abbreviations for everything! Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

42 The Text Messaging Game There are abbreviations for insults, put-downs, and even swear words. You may even know more negative abbreviations than positive abbreviations! There are abbreviations for insults, put-downs, and even swear words. You may even know more negative abbreviations than positive abbreviations! How many abbreviations do you know? How many abbreviations do you know? Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008) Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

43 The Text Messaging Game Todays challenge is to come up with new, more positive text abbreviations that you can use in your own messages. Todays challenge is to come up with new, more positive text abbreviations that you can use in your own messages. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008) Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

44 The Text Messaging Game Each small group will be challenged to come up with new, positive text abbreviations. Each small group will be challenged to come up with new, positive text abbreviations. See if you can create at least ten.See if you can create at least ten. I will collect your ideas at the end of class. I will collect your ideas at the end of class. We will then publish the class (or school) list to hand out to everyone. We will then publish the class (or school) list to hand out to everyone. This way, you can use our new abbreviations when you are texting one another. This way, you can use our new abbreviations when you are texting one another. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

45 The Text Messaging Game Each peer leader will write down the new abbreviations on the left hand column of their sheet and their meanings in the right hand column. Each peer leader will write down the new abbreviations on the left hand column of their sheet and their meanings in the right hand column. EXAMPLE:ULG2D means: You look good today. EXAMPLE:ULG2D means: You look good today. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

46 The Text Messaging Game Allow Approximately 10-15 minutes for the groups to work. Allow Approximately 10-15 minutes for the groups to work. When the groups have finished, have the peer leaders share some of their groups new abbreviations, as time permits. When the groups have finished, have the peer leaders share some of their groups new abbreviations, as time permits. Collect the sheets and combine the new words into one list to give to students during the next session. Collect the sheets and combine the new words into one list to give to students during the next session. Encourage students to use these new positive abbreviations when text messaging each other. Encourage students to use these new positive abbreviations when text messaging each other. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6- 12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

47 The Text Messaging Game Teacher Tip: For a quick game, have the groups exchange lists or give out the whole list generated by all of the groups without including the meanings and invite students to try to figure out what the new abbreviations mean. Follow up this guessing game by giving the students a complete list with all of the meanings. Teacher Tip: For a quick game, have the groups exchange lists or give out the whole list generated by all of the groups without including the meanings and invite students to try to figure out what the new abbreviations mean. Follow up this guessing game by giving the students a complete list with all of the meanings. Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008) Adapted from Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski, and Agatston, 2008)

48 Some Final Notes Other forms of cyber- bullying and inappropriate use of technology: Other forms of cyber- bullying and inappropriate use of technology: SextingSexting Youtube: Fights, Bullying, and Drama Reenactments that further spread rumors and gossipYoutube: Fights, Bullying, and Drama Reenactments that further spread rumors and gossip Facebook: False accounts, groups, quizzes, and predators.Facebook: False accounts, groups, quizzes, and predators.

49 Resources The material and information on Cyber- Bullying was adapted from:Limber, Susan P., Robin M. Kowalski and Patricia W. Agatston. 2008. Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12. Center City, MN: Hazelden. The material and information on Cyber- Bullying was adapted from:Limber, Susan P., Robin M. Kowalski and Patricia W. Agatston. 2008. Cyber-Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12. Center City, MN: Hazelden. Additional resources have been adapted from Olweus Bullying Prevention Materials, including the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Manual, The Olweus Schoolwide Guide and the Olweus Teacher Guide (Hazelden). Additional resources have been adapted from Olweus Bullying Prevention Materials, including the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Manual, The Olweus Schoolwide Guide and the Olweus Teacher Guide (Hazelden).

50 Resources Additional Studies and Resources Cited from Cyber-Bullying:Additional Studies and Resources Cited from Cyber-Bullying: Arseneault, Louise, Elizabeth Walsh, Kali Trzesniewski, Rhiannon Newcombe, Ashalom Caspi, and Terrie E. Moffitt (2006). Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: A nationally representative cohort study. Pediatrics 118: 130-38. Eisenberg, Marla E. Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, and Cheryl Perry. 2003. Peer harassment, school connectedness, and academic achievement. Journal of School Health 73:311-16. Fekkes, Minne, Frans I.M. Pijpers, and S. Pauline Verloove-VanHorick. 2004. Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. Journal of Pediatrics 144: 17-22. Kowalski, Robin M. and Susan P. Limber. 2007. Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health 41:S22-S30. Lenhart, Amanda. 2007. Cyberbullying and online teens, from www.pewinternet.org www.pewinternet.org Olweus, Dan. 1978. Aggression in the schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Hoboken,NJ: John Wiley. Rigby, Ken and Phillip T. Slee. 1993. Dimensions of interpersonal relations among Australian school children and their implications for psychological well- being. Journal of Social Psychology. 133:33-42. Rigby, Ken. 1997. Bullying in schools: And what to do about it. Briston, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

51 Contact Information Virginia Gallup Larsen, School Psychologist and Olweus Trainer Alexandria City Public Schools virginia.larsen@acps.k12.va.us irginia.larsen@acps.k12.va.us (703) 933-6308


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