Presentation on theme: "How can or be applied for making managerial decisions PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT I XAVIER INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERVICE RANCHI."— Presentation transcript:
How can or be applied for making managerial decisions PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT I XAVIER INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERVICE RANCHI
GROUP MEMBERS NAMEROLL NO. BETTY MATHEW01 SHRADHA GARG02 VISHAL VATS03 PREMLATA TUTI04 DAKSH AGRAWAL05 ASHUTOSH SHARMA06 NEHA MARWAH07 MANSI SHARMA08 RAVI ROSHAN DUNGDUNG09 JUDE ANUPAM SINGH10
INTRODUCTION TO O.R. Operations Research (OR) is one of the popular managerial decision science tools used by profit and non-profit organizations. Operations Research has gained significance in applications like world-class Manufacturing systems (WCM), Lean production, Six-sigma quality management, Benchmarking, Just-in- time (JIT) inventory techniques.
Growth of global markets and the resulting increase in competition have highlighted the need for Operation Research. This presentation is an attempt to highlight the significance of Operation Research, different techniques used and its application in business and industry in decision making.
BRIEF HISTORY AND GROWTH Operations Research as a new field started in the late 1930s (pre-World War II era). The British army was conducting exercises on the radar system for detecting the aircrafts. In July 1938, the Superintendent of Bawdsey Research Station, announced that although the exercise had demonstrated the technical feasibility of the radar system, its operational achievements were not up to the mark.
He proposed that a crash program of research into the operational, as opposed to the technical aspects of the system should begin. The term "Operational Research" was coined as a suitable description of this new branch of applied science. On 15th May 1940, with German forces advancing rapidly in France, Stanmore Research Section was asked to analyze a French request for ten additional fighter squadrons. They prepared graphs for Winston Churchill, based upon a study of current daily losses and replacement rates, indicating how rapidly such a move would deplete fighter strength.
No aircrafts were sent and most of those currently in France were recalled. This is held by some to be the most strategic contribution to the course of the war made by Operations Research (as the aircraft and pilots saved were consequently available for the successful air defence of Britain, the Battle of Britain). Patrick Blackett, working for the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) set up a team known as the "Circus" which helped to reduce the number of anti- aircraft artillery rounds needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft from an average of over 20,000 at the start of the Battle of Britain to 4,000 in 1941.
In 1941 Operational Research Section (ORS) was established in Coastal Command which was to carry out some of the most well-known OR work in World War-II. Thus OR as a separate field of specialization was born!
Operational research doubled the on-target bomb rate of B-29s bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours; Revealed that wolf-packs of three United States submarines were the most effective number to enable all members of the pack to engage targets discovered on their individual patrol stations; Revealed that glossy enamel paint was more effective camouflage for night fighters than traditional dull camouflage paint finish, and the smooth paint finish increased airspeed by reducing skin friction.
In India, Operation Research came into existence in 1949 when an Operation Research unit was established at Regional Research Laboratory, Hyderabad. Prof. R.S.Verma set up an Operation Research team at Defence Science Laboratory to solve problems of store, purchase and planning. In 1953, Prof. P.C. Mahalanobis established an Operation Research team in the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta to solve problems related to national planning and survey. Operation Research is now being used in Railway, waiting or queueing problems of passengers for tickets at booking windows or trains queueing up in marshalling yard, waiting to be sorted out.
EVOLUTION OF OPERATION RESEARCH AS AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE During the last 50 years, operational research has evolved as a multidisciplinary function involving economics, mathematics, statistics, industrial engineering and management. Operational research as a discipline can be classified into three distinct set of categories. They correspond to tools, models and methodology.
TOOLS ABC ANALYSIS 80:20 RULE BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS TOOLS
MODELS Blending models Optimized Distribution System Portfolio Optimization Of Assets
METHODOLOGY Simulation Methodology Game Theory
SIGNIFICANCE OF OR OR approach is particularly useful in balancing conflicting objectives (goals or interests) where there are many alternative courses of action available to the decision-makers. The optimum decision must be one that is best for the organization as a whole it is often called the global optimum.
SIGNIFICANCE OF OR Operation Research is concerned with providing the decision-maker with decision aids (or rules) derived from: A Total System Orientation Scientific Methods of Investigation. Models of reality, generally based on quantitative measurement and techniques.
O.R. APPROACH O.R. represents an integrated framework to help make decisions, to achieve this, the so-called O.R. approach is Orientation Problem Definition Data Collection Model Formulation Simulation Model Validation And Output Analysis, and Implementation and Monitoring
ORIENTATION PROBLEM DATA COLLECTION MODEL FORMULATION SOLUTION OUTPUT ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING VALIDATION
TECHNIQUES USED IN O.R. Decision Analysis: Decision analysis refers to a set of quantitative methods for analyzing decisions that use expected utility as the criterion for identifying the preferred alternative. A general decision making process can be divided into the following steps: DEFINE THE PROBLEM DETERMINE THE REQUIREMENTS ESTABLISH GOALS IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVES DEFINE CRITERIA SELECT DECISION MAKING TOOL EVALUATE VALIDATE
DEFINE PROBLEM DETERMINE REQUIREMENTS ESTABLISH GOALS IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE DEFINE CRITERIA SELECT DECISION MAKING TOOL EVALUATE ALTERNATIVES AGAINST VALIDATE SOLUTION AGAINST PROBLEM STATEMENT SOLUTION
TECHNIQUES USED IN O.R. Linear programming arose as a mathematical model developed during Second World War to plan expenditures and returns in order to reduce costs to the army and increase losses to the enemy. In OR Optimization means to find out the maximum profit and minimum loss in any deal which we can be done in Quantitative Techniques, in this we can narrowing our choices to the very best when there are virtually immeasurable feasible options. This is a constrained optimization technique, which optimize some criterion within some constraints.
TECHNIQUES USED IN O.R. SIMULATION In this technique of OR we can make the model of a real situation and then perform the various experiments on this rough sculpt. Generally it is used in uncertain condition, through this model to know more about different situations which we use in this artificial model.
TECHNIQUES USED IN O.R. QUEUING THEORY Queuing System is used in situations where the queue is formed (for example customers waiting for service, aircrafts waiting for landing, jobs waiting for processing in the computer system, etc). The objective here is minimizing the cost of waiting without increasing the cost of servicing. Vehicles requiring service wait for their turn in a garage. A simple example is the telephone exchange.
TECHNIQUES USED IN O.R. TRANSPORTATION TECHNIQUE A special class of linear programming problem is Transportation Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost of distributing a product from a number of sources (e.g. factories) to a number of destinations (e.g. warehouses) The transportation model can be extended to areas other than the direct transportation of a commodity, including among others, inventory control, employment scheduling, and personnel assignment
Typical Applications of Operations Research Capital budgeting. Asset allocation. Portfolio selection. Fraud prevention, Anti-Money Laundering. Benchmarking. Marketing channel optimization, Customer segmentation. Direct marketing campaigns, Predicting customer response, and Campaign optimization.
CONCLUSION Another name for managers is decision makers. To survive and lead the todays highly competitive and demand driven market, pressure is on management to make economical decisions. One of the essential managerial skills is ability to allocate and utilize resources appropriately in the efforts of achieving the optimal performance efficiently.
CONCLUSION In some cases such as small-scale low complexity environment, decision based on intuition with minimal quantitative basis may be reasonably acceptable and practical in achieving the goal of the organization. However, for a large-scale system, both quantitative and qualitative (i.e. intuition, experience, common sense) analyses are required to make the most economical decisions.
Using Operations Research techniques including Linear Programming, Discrete Event Simulation and Queuing Theory, organization leaders can make high quality decisions. Operations managers are not expected to be experts in any decision science tools; however, he or she must have fundamental knowledge of such tools to acquire right resources and to make the most economically sounding decisions for the company as a whole.