Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821 Hero or Tyrant?. Napoleon - Who Is He? 1804 Declared himself Emperor of France Brilliant embodiment of French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon Bonaparte Hero or Tyrant?
Napoleon - Who Is He? 1804 Declared himself Emperor of France Brilliant embodiment of French Revolution ideals of egalitarianism and meritocracy The creator of modern warfare At height of his power he ruled 70 million people
Napoleon Bonaparte or
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte dominated European history from 1799 to He preserved what was beneficial in the revolutionary program. Napoleon was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. He went to a military school in France on a royal scholarship. In 1785, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army.
Napoleon Bonaparte The French Revolution and the European wars that followed it gave him the chance to use his knowledge. By the age of only 24, Napoleon was made a brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety.
Napoleon Bonaparte- A Brilliant Military Commander
Napoleon Bonaparte The Italian Campaigns. He conquered most of Italy for France. He captured 540 cannon and 170 standards In northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege. He took Venice- ending 1,100 years of independence
Napoleon Bonaparte He was a brilliant strategist. He used deception on the field and off During the Italy campaigns of 1797 he created 2 newspapers: 1 for the troops and 1 for France. When he returns to France he is a hero
Napoleon Bonaparte 1798 the Directory rules France. Napoleon helps them stay in power.... He wants to destroy England (of course!) but knows the French navy is not equipped to defeat the strongest naval force on earth. So Napoleon turns to Egypt where he hopes to cut off the trade route between India and England. (India, a British colony, provides immense wealth to England...remember the British East India Tea Company; the worlds largest corporation...with its own army)
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon in Egypt He took along 167 scientists, mathematicians, chemists, etc. Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone
Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleons army so terrifying anyway? Speed and Surprise Very mobile army - marched 500 miles in 5 weeks to capture Vienna, Austria It was said, the emperor Napoleon won his battles with legs rather than arms. He could calculate the marching speed and distance so exactly that he knew with certainity when his support troops would arrive
Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleons army so terrifying anyway? Napoleon was brilliant at divide and conquer He could see the field and knew exactly where the enemy would march - he often set successful traps and he often deceived the enemy as to his intent or the size of his troops
Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleons army so terrifying anyway? French Cannon could shoot an 8 pound projectile (other armies used a 6 pounder) and it was very mobile
Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleons army so terrifying anyway? But the PRIMARY WEAPON of the French forces was Napoleons mind Napoleon was a brilliant tactician. Duke of Wellington said, Napoleons hat on the battlefield is worth 50,000 men
Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleons army so terrifying anyway? This could be your next evil headquarters... This is a 30-foot-tall Martello Tower in Suffolk, England. It has one door, 13-foot-thick walls, and was built to keep Napoleon out of England
Napoleon Bonaparte defense-tower-is-your-new-evil-headquarters
Napoleon Bonaparte MEANWHILE Back in France, the French Republican army is not doing to well fighting the Second Coalition. Over time there are 6+ different coalition forces against France and Napoleon. Coalition Allies against France/Napoleon: England, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Spain (and just about everyone else)
Napoleon Bonaparte The Consulate The Directory is overthrown in a coup detat The Consulate (3 men- 1 of which is Napoleon) will rule until 1804
Napoleon Bonaparte Temporary Peace in Europe France isnt yet ready to invade England A temporary peace is signed Napoleon under the Consulate issues significant reforms
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 1. Civil code of law- Napoleonic Code of Law was clearly written and accessible Its purpose was to reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution. Create one law code for France.
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleonic Code of Law 1. All people equal in the eyes of the law: no special privileges for clergy, nobles, etc 2. Feudal rights are ended 3. Trail by jury guaranteed 4. Religious freedom guaranteed 5. Wives could own her own property (with her husbands permission in writing) Did Napoleon preserve the ideals of the French Revolution, as he claimed, in his domestic policies?
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Influence of the Napoleonic Code of Law Wherever it was implemented (in the conquered territories), the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 2. Centralized administration Napoleon developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine with promotion based on ability. Opening government careers to individuals based on their ability was one change the middle class wanted. Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service. He created 3,263 nobles between 1808 and More than half were military officers and from the middle class.
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 3. Centralized bank and currency
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 4. Concordat of 1801 with Catholic Church Catholicism was declared the religion of the majority of France Papal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution Catholic bishops are subservient to the regime
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 5. Legion of Honor- highest award possible in France Palace of the Legion of Honor, Paris
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 6. Higher Education In France, women are considered too highly. They should not be regarded as equal to men, In reality they are nothing more than machines for producing children Public education does not suit women, as they are not called upon to live in public… marriage is their whole estimation
Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Higher Education Lycee Education System of France Established by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. Lycées initially enrolled the nations most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student]. Lycées trained the nations future bureaucrats.
Napoleon Bonaparte These revolutionary ideals that Napoleon established will influence other nations and other people Touissant LOuverture
Napoleon Bonaparte 1804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon is still a military man and he wants to increase his empire What makes his army so different? How do the Napoleonic Wars become the beginning of modern warfare?
Napoleon Bonaparte It a different world by the 1800s. The coalition forces fought in the old European manner- one filled with established social classes, centuries of military habits, and one where noble blood meant you led men. The French army fought in the manner of the French Revolution- a more egalitarian, patriotic citizentry where officers rose in rank, no matter their birth, but according to ability
Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Considered Napoleons most brilliant battle Considered one of historys most brilliant battles Napoleon destroyed the Third Coalition in this battle
Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Napoleon willingly gave up the high defense ground knowing how poorly organized the Allied forces were. The Allied or Coalition forces were led by the Russian Czar Alexander- Russia was still using the old Julian calendar rather than the European Gregorian calendar. That meant they were 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar. Incredibly, no one in the coalition forces saw this mistake. During the battle the Austrian general Mac was awaiting support from the Russian troops - surely they were near? No - they were 200 miles away.
Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Napoleon held some troops behind the hill- knowing the Austrians would take the bait and come forward into his hinged trap They did men dead130515,000 men captured 57312,000 standards lost 150 French Coalition Napoleon ruled the mainland of Europe now!
Napoleon Bonaparte The Battle of Trafalgar 1805 The British Navy destroys Napoleons navy The British hero Horatio Nelson achieves lasting fame
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon wants to defeat the British. He uses the Continental System - a circling of Europe in order to prevent England from trading with the continent. With this plan, Napoleon hopes to break the financial back of the British Empire. It failed. Everyone still traded with England
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon turns to Russia
Napoleon meets his end at Waterloo Duke of Wellington vs Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte So what defeats Napoleon in the end? 1. Continental System did not work - he could not defeat the British 2. The Russian campaign seriously weakened his forces. 3. The very item he spread - nationalism or pride in ones nation - would become the source of revolt against his rule