2Napoleon - Who Is He?1804 Declared himself Emperor of FranceBrilliant embodiment of French Revolution ideals of egalitarianism and meritocracyThe creator of modern warfareAt height of his power he ruled 70 million people
4Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte dominated European history from 1799 to 1815.He preserved what was beneficial in the revolutionary program.Napoleon was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica.He went to a military school in France on a royal scholarship.In 1785, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army.
5Napoleon BonaparteThe French Revolution and the European wars that followed it gave him the chance to use his knowledge.By the age of only 24, Napoleon was made a brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety.
6Napoleon Bonaparte- A Brilliant Military Commander
7Napoleon BonaparteThe Italian Campaigns. He conquered most of Italy for France.He captured 540 cannon and 170 standardsIn northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege.He took Venice- ending 1,100 years of independence
8He was a brilliant strategist. He used deception on the field and off Napoleon BonaparteHe was a brilliant strategist.He used deception on the field and offDuring the Italy campaigns of 1797 he created 2 newspapers: 1 for the troops and 1 for France.When he returns to France he is a hero
91798 the Directory rules France. Napoleon helps them stay in power.... Napoleon Bonaparte1798 the Directory rules France. Napoleon helps them stay in power....He wants to destroy England (of course!) but knows the French navy is not equipped to defeat the strongest naval force on earth.So Napoleon turns to Egypt where he hopes to cut off the trade route between India and England. (India, a British colony, provides immense wealth to England...remember the British East India Tea Company; the world’s largest corporation...with its own army)
101798- Napoleon in Egypt Napoleon Bonaparte He took along 167 scientists, mathematicians, chemists, etc.Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone
11What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? Napoleon BonaparteWhat made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway?Speed and SurpriseVery mobile army - marched 500 miles in 5 weeks to capture Vienna, AustriaIt was said, the emperor Napoleon won his battles with legs rather than arms. He could calculate the marching speed and distance so exactly that he knew with certainity when his support troops would arrive
12What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? Napoleon BonaparteWhat made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway?Napoleon was brilliant at divide and conquerHe could “see the field” and knew exactly where the enemy would march - he often set successful traps and he often deceived the enemy as to his intent or the size of his troops
13What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? Napoleon BonaparteWhat made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway?French Cannon could shoot an 8 pound projectile (other armies used a 6 pounder) and it was very mobile
14But the PRIMARY WEAPON of the French forces was Napoleon’s mind Napoleon BonaparteWhat made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway?But the PRIMARY WEAPON of the French forces was Napoleon’s mindNapoleon was a brilliant tactician. Duke of Wellington said,“Napoleon’s hat on the battlefield is worth 50,000 men”
15What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? Napoleon BonaparteWhat made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway?This could be your next evil headquarters...This is a 30-foot-tall Martello Tower in Suffolk, England. It has one door, 13-foot-thick walls, and was built to keep Napoleon out of England
17Coalition Allies against France/Napoleon: Napoleon BonaparteMEANWHILE......Back in France, the French Republican army is not doing to well fighting the Second Coalition.Over time there are 6+ different coalition forces against France and Napoleon.Coalition Allies against France/Napoleon:England, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Spain (and just about everyone else)
18The Directory is overthrown in a coup d’etat Napoleon BonaparteThe ConsulateThe Directory is overthrown in a coup d’etatThe Consulate (3 men- 1 of which is Napoleon) will rule until 1804
191801-1802 Temporary Peace in Europe Napoleon BonaparteTemporary Peace in EuropeFrance isn’t yet ready to invade EnglandA temporary peace is signedNapoleon under the Consulate issues significant reforms
20Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon1. Civil code of law- Napoleonic Code of Law was clearly written and accessibleIts purpose was to reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution.Create one law code for France.
21Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under NapoleonNapoleonic Code of Law1. All people equal in the eyes of the law: no special privileges for clergy, nobles, etc2. Feudal rights are ended3. Trail by jury guaranteed4. Religious freedom guaranteed5. Wives could own her own property (with her husband’s permission in writing)Did Napoleon preserve the ideals of the French Revolution, as he claimed, in his domestic policies?
22Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under NapoleonInfluence of the Napoleonic Code of LawWherever it was implemented (in the conquered territories), the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.
23Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon2. Centralized administrationNapoleon developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine with promotion based on ability.Opening government careers to individuals based on their ability was one change the middle class wanted.Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service.He created 3,263 nobles between 1808 and More than half were military officers and from the middle class.
24Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon3. Centralized bank and currency
25Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon4. Concordat of 1801 with Catholic ChurchCatholicism was declared the religion of the majority of FrancePapal acceptance of church lands lost during the RevolutionCatholic bishops are subservient to the regime
26Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon5. Legion of Honor- highest award possible in FrancePalace of the Legion of Honor, Paris
27Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under Napoleon6. Higher EducationPublic education does not suit women,as they are not called upon to live in public…marriage is their whole estimationIn France, women are considered too highly. They should not be regarded as equal to men,In reality they are nothing more than machines for producingchildren
28Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleon BonaparteReforms Under NapoleonHigher EducationLycee Education System of FranceEstablished by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform.Lycées initially enrolled the nation’s most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student].Lycées trained the nation’s future bureaucrats.
29Touissant L’Ouverture Napoleon BonaparteThese revolutionary ideals that Napoleon established will influence other nations and other peopleTouissant L’Ouverture
301804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte1804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor
31Napoleon is still a military man and he wants to increase his empire Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon is still a military man and he wants to increase his empireWhat makes his army so different?How do the Napoleonic Wars become the beginning of modern warfare?
32It a different world by the 1800s. Napoleon BonaparteIt a different world by the 1800s.The coalition forces fought in the old European manner- one filled with established social classes, centuries of military habits, and one where noble blood meant you led men.The French army fought in the manner of the French Revolution- a more egalitarian, patriotic citizentry where officers rose in rank, no matter their birth, but according to ability
34Napoleon destroyed the Third Coalition in this battle Napoleon BonaparteBattle of Austerlitz 1805Considered Napoleon’s most brilliant battleConsidered one of history’s most brilliant battlesNapoleon destroyed the Third Coalition in this battle
35Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon willingly gave up the high defense ground knowing how poorly organized the Allied forces were.The Allied or Coalition forces were led by the Russian Czar Alexander- Russia was still using the old Julian calendar rather than the European Gregorian calendar. That meant they were 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar. Incredibly, no one in the coalition forces saw this mistake.During the battle the Austrian general Mac was awaiting support from the Russian troops - surely they were near?No - they were 200 miles away.
36Napoleon ruled the mainland of Europe now! Napoleon BonaparteBattle of Austerlitz 1805Napoleon held some troops behind the hill- knowing the Austrians would take the bait and come forward into his hinged trapThey didCoalitionFrenchmen dead130515,000men captured57312,000standards lost150Napoleon ruled the mainland of Europe now!
37The Battle of Trafalgar 1805 Napoleon BonaparteThe Battle of Trafalgar 1805The British Navy destroys Napoleon’s navyThe British hero Horatio Nelson achieves lasting fame
38Napoleon wants to defeat the British. Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon wants to defeat the British.He uses the Continental System - a circling of Europe in order to prevent England from trading with the continent. With this plan, Napoleon hopes to break the financial back of the British Empire.It failed.Everyone still traded with England
39Napoleon turns to Russia Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon turns to Russia
41Napoleon meets his end at Waterloo Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon meets his end at WaterloovsDuke of WellingtonNapoleon
42So what defeats Napoleon in the end? Napoleon BonaparteSo what defeats Napoleon in the end?1. Continental System did not work - he could not defeat the British2. The Russian campaign seriously weakened his forces.3. The very item he spread - nationalism or pride in one’s nation - would become the source of revolt against his rule