2Easy rules you CAN ALWAYS remember … The basicsEasy rules you CAN ALWAYS remember …
3The VERB + -ING form is used: 1. After prepositions:The company is looking into expanding their operations in the Middle East.
4And… 2. As a subject or object of a sentence: Financing the arts is an expensive form of publicity.The company directors fixed breaking into the Japanese market as their main objective.
5& 3. After while, before, after and when After completing his studies, he got a job in a bank.When implementing a new project, it’s important to keep to budget.
6& 4. After certain verbs including: Admit, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, face, fancy, finish, imagine, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, report, resent, resist, risk, suggestEx.: They postponed launching their special offer until after the holiday season.
7Do you need to memorize the list ? Not necessarily…..these are verbs that are often followed by an object, or a preposition….For example, you…..…practise playing a musical instrument…report seeing a person stealing a car…resent someone insulting you.…suggest seeing a doctor
8We use the infinitive… 1. To express purpose: The purpose of this meeting is to discuss possible strategies for the launching of our new product.They sold the land to finance the building of a new factory.
9It’s too far in the future to decide yet. &2. After adjectivesThe Fine Arts Festival indicated that they would be delighted to accept our sponsorship3. After too and enough.It’s too far to walk.It’s too far in the future to decide yet.The offer is not high enough for us to accept.
10&4. As a formal way to talk about something that will happen in the future :President Obama is to visit Italy next April.Volkswagen are to open a new factory in Romania next month.
12For example:Don’t hesitate to contact me if you require assistance.He seemed to be very sure he was right.He demanded to see the director immediately.She appeared to be confused.I arranged to meet my sister for lunch.
131. ……(GO) into business involves ….(TAKE) a certain amount of risk. Complete these sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets:1. ……(GO) into business involves ….(TAKE) a certain amount of risk.2. That production is not cost-effective enough …..(CONTINUE) with it: we risk ….. (GO) bankrupt unless we modify it.3. He was quick …..(SPOT) the mistake in the accounts, and without even …..(RUN) them through the computer.
14….4. ….(DISCOURAGE) their workers from …. (GO) on strike, FIAT has been threatening …. (CLOSE) its Italian operations.5. Do you happen …(KNOW) if Mr. Woodward is considering …. (VISIT) Zurich during his European trip ?6. Could you arrange …. (HOLD) the meeting after …. (COMPLETE) the proposal .
15We know that verbs are often followed by other verbs: VERB COMBINATIONSWe know that verbs are often followed by other verbs:I enjoy reading.I didn’t choose to do this job.You deserve to get a promotion.She denies cheating on the test.But how can we know whether the 2nd verb is a to-infinitive or ends with –ing ?
16VERB + VERB+ingThe –ing verb focuses on:an action or state BEFORE the action of the first verb:She admitted taking a bribe.She finished doing her homework an hour ago.Now that he is in prison, he misses seeing his wife and children.
17b. the activity itself:I hate working the night shift.She recommends selling the shares now.
18Some common verbs followed by –ing involve: Saying and thinking (admit, consider, deny)Liking and disliking (dislike, enjoy, not mind)Phrasal verbs (carry on, give up, put off, look forward to....)Phrases with can’t (can’t bear, can’t stand, can’t help)It’s not worth..... / It’s no use / no good....Other common verbs: avoid, delay, finish, involve, keep, miss, postpone, practice, risk
19admit appreciate contemplate hive up involve deny enjoy consider carry on mean look forward to rememberjustify can’t stand mind anticipate resent warrant detest recollect risk recommend delay dislike/hatelike/love jeopardise suggest put off avoid miss
20We use MIND +-ing in negative and interrogative sentences. Do you mind waiting a moment ?GO and COME + –ing are used for sports and outdoor activities:I often go skiing in the winter.Do you want to come shopping with me ?
211. Travelling doesn’t bother me as long as there are no delays. (mind) I don’t.....____________________________2. He was late so I didn’t see him. (miss)He was late so ....._____________________3. Why on earth did you spend so much money on clothes. (justify)How can you _____________________4. In my job I have to meet many people. (involve)My job ... ____________________________
22The to-infinitive form focuses on: VERB + to-INFINITIVEThe to-infinitive form focuses on:a) a purpose (to explain why we do something):I’m calling to find out if you stock spare parts.She intends to complain about her marks.
23b) a future situation:They are planning to launch a takeover bid.I’ve arranged to see the sales rep tomorrow.I expect to see them in Rome next week.
24c) The infinitive is used after a question word: Can you show me how to get on the Internet on this computer ?Some common verbs followed by to-infinitive forms are:Intend attempt promise plan guaranteemean try undertake arrange offer want hope forget seem fail wish expect rememberappear neglect claim pretend
251. We will provide a 24-hour-a-day hotline. (undertake) 2. Send them the samples they requested—don’t forget, will you ? (remember)Please ....________________________3. I anticipate receiving an answer soon (expect)I ______________________________4. I have every intention of complaining. (intend)I fully ... _________________________
26VERB + OBJECT + to-infinitive When we want to talk about two actions performed by different people or things, the verbs are separated by an object:He didn’t want me to attend the meeting.(NOT: He didn’t want that I attend...)They don’t allow you to smoke at work.(NOT: They don’t allow that...)A laptop enables people to work on a plane.(NOT: A laptop enables that...)
27Some common verbs used with an object + to-infinitive are: advise allow ask cause challenge choose defyenable encourage expect forbid force help inspireinstruct intend invite lead leave mean oblige order pay permit persuade prefer programme recruit remind teach tell train trust urge use warn
28VERB + OBJECT + VERB +ing Some verbs are used with an object + a second verb ending in –ing:Her comment set me (to) thinking .Outsourcing would save you (from) spending money on permanent staff.
29Some common verbs used this way are: catch describe discover feel find catch describe discover feel findhear imagine keep leave likelisten to notice observe prevent (from)save see send set show watch
30-ing when not all of the action is seen or heard: VERBS of PERCEPTION The choice of –ing or the infinitive without to depends on the meaning:-ing when not all of the action is seen or heard: I saw a man stealing some clothes from a shop.I heard a door banging repeatedly.He watched the crowd leaving the stadium.Infinitive, if all of the action is seen or heard:I saw a man steal some clothes from a store.He watched the crowd leave the stadium.I heard a door bang once and then nothing.
31VERB + INFINITIVE without TO: A few verbs used in second position do not take to. These are let, make and have (in the sense of ‘cause to happen’).We let them to have a 10% discount.Don’t make me to laugh.Could you have the secretary to bring us coffee, please ?
32VERB + IT + OBJECT CLAUSE: When the object of a verb is a clause, to+infinitive or –ing structure, we use IT after the verb to introduce the clause:I find it impossible to understand their culture.The government regard it as unnecessary to raise taxation.She feels it is necessary to send a copy to absolutely everyone.
33CORRECT THE ERRORS IN THESE SENTENCES: I find impossible to work with him.They made us to work extremely hard in my previous job.She never let me to take any decisionsCould you have Mr. Clarke to prepare some statistics ?She’s finding difficult to get used to her new job.
34VERB + for + to-INFINITIVE Some verbs are followed by the preposition FOR and its object, then an infinitive:He arranged for his secretary to drive him to the airport.I waited for him to get back in touch.They called for the union to reconsider its strike.
35These verbs can be used in this way: Appeal apply arrange ask callOpt pay plead vote waitWish yearn
36VERB + possessive + verb + ing It’s possible to introduce a possessive pronoun or genitive between the first and second verb.‘Please forgive me for asking’ INFORMAL‘Please forgive my asking’ FORMALThat would entail our making a concession.This will save our wasting time.They have suggested his going to the symposium.He’s looking forward to our visit.
37SPECIAL CASES: REMEMBER / FORGET: Certain verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or another verb +ing, but the choice leads to a change in meaning:REMEMBER / FORGET:+ ing for PAST MEMORIES (the action happens before remembering)+ to infinitive for actions someone is/was supposed to do.
38I will never forget meeting Bill Gates. (=always remember meeting) I sometimes forget to wear my seatbelt.(=don’t remember to wear)She remembered to turn her headlights off.(=didn’t forget)She remembers turning off her headlights.(=has a clear memory of)
39MEAN + ing = when one thing results in/ requires another MEAN + to infinitive = an intentionI mean to see her later this week.(Intend to)I could get a better job butit would mean moving.(=involve)
40STOP + -ing = when we end an action STOP + to infinitive = to give the reasonfor stoppingWe stopped buying from that supplier.(=ceased)He stopped to have a drink on the way home.(in order to)
41GO ON + ing = continue something GO ON + to infinitive = when we move on to something else.They went on trading even though they were nearly bankrupt. (=did the same thing)After leaving IBM he went on to start his own company. (=did something new)
42TRY + -ing = when we do something and then see what happens TRY + to infinitive = we make an effort but don’t necessarily suceedWhy don’t you try giving the staff greater autonomy ? (=experiment and see what happens)He tried to learn Russian but gave up. (=attempted/made the effort)
43REGRET + ing = am sorry about something in the past REGRET + to infinitive = to give bad newsI regret saying no to the job in Paris.I regret to inform you that we are unable to....
44VERBS OF PERCEPTION: see, watch, feel, hear, listen to, notice: If we see or hear only part of the action, or it continues, we use –ingIf we see or hear the whole action from beginning to end we use the infinitive:
45Compare:I saw her giving the presentationI saw her give the presentation.I heard the machine make a strange noise.I heard the machine making a strange noise.
46VERBS WITH LITTLE CHANGE IN MEANING (infinitive or –ing) BEGIN, CONTINUE, INTEND, STARTIn the 2nd quarter, when the market began to go down, we began selling stock to minimize our losses.
47N.B.We usually DO NOT use two –ing forms together:It was starting to get dark NOTIt was starting getting dark.
48LIKE /LOVE /HATE /PREFER + to infinitive = a good/bad ideaLIKE /LOVE /HATE / PREFER + -ing form= shows your feelingsI like to do my taxes early, but I don’t like doing them.