1Planning, Implementing &/or Evaluating Physical activity Experiences Specification: Planning, implementing and/or evaluation of physical activity programmes/experiences drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards and (3.1 & 3.2)
2What is the process & purpose of each? Goal settingPlanningImplementingEvaluationWhat is the process & purpose of each?Purpose & reasonPlanning - how do we get from A to B? To manage risk… To achieve other goals (personal / group / for the activity)Implementation- what do we have to do? (planning in action to some degree)- LogisticsSafety ManagementEvaluation– outcomes (planned-achieved or not achieved), unexpected (+ & -)- review goals, planning & implementation.
3Outdoor Experience Content Purposes of OE – needs – of individual and groupWellbeing and OE experiencesBenefits of OE experiencesProblems/concerns associated with OE experiences within schoolsNature of RiskSafety vs Risk vs ChallengePlanning for OESafety Management Systems - “Safety and EOTC- A good practice guide for NZ Schools” #1Risk Management Planning Tools- SAPs / RAMS / Rainbow System (WaterSafe Guidelines for Schools #2)Crisis ManagementReviewing OE experiencesOwn experiential knowledgeNature of risk – perceived, actual/real risk, residual risk (after safety management).
4Purpose What was your school’s outdoor experience? What was the purpose of your school’s outdoor experience?Think-pair-shareCompetitionAdrenaline/thrillStress releaseTeam work/bondingLearning skillsPersonal development – Leadership, Comfort zone/Challenge (could be P M So Sp)Testing your limitsDecision making/Problem solving
5How many did we get? Competition Adrenaline/thrill Stress release Team work/bondingLearning skillsPersonal developmentLeadershipOut of comfort zoneChallenge any dimension of wellbeingTesting your limitsDecision making/Problem solving
6What planning knowledge is needed Logistical factorsTimelinePlan where to go and what we are doingPermission/consentLocation/facilitiesTransport/navigationSafety and risk managementNutritionKnowledge of participantsGear/resources/skills requiredBudgetWeather conditionsBack up plans – alternative activitiesCommunication with others involvedEnvironmental impactPurpose & reasonPlanningLogisticsSafety Management
7Planning to manage risk Risk Management Planning processAssess the risk (What could go wrong?)Causal Factors (Hazards)PeopleEquipmentEnvironmentStrategies to Prevent Things Going WrongEmergency Procedures
8Risk Management Strategies 1. Eliminate risk if possible2. Isolate risk if you can’t eliminate it3. Minimise risk if you can’t isolate it4. Cancel activity if you can’t minimisethe risk(Ministry of Education, pg 69)Rainbow System of Supervision ResourcesOutdoor Safety – Risk Management for leaders - NZ Mountain safety councilThe 4 window matrix pg 25-26Risk reduction strategies – involving everyone in the safety pg
9Implementation “Doing it” e.g. Leadership-outside instructors Decision-makingCommunicationRisk ManagementPossible RoutesBack up PlansEmergency ProceduresPlanning in action ??
10Wellbeing and OE experiences How will the experience relate to the PHYSICAL dimension of your wellbeingFitness levelsChallenge yourself physicallyListening to body and responding accordinglyKeeping yourself safe and injury freeNutritionTraining leading up to the tripPrevious experience with activitiesRest before tripSleeping in tentHow will the experience relate to the MENTAL/EMOTIONAL dimension of your wellbeingPositive, encourage team membersNavigationGroup members fears/weaknessesIndividual fears/weaknessesMental challengesEmotions expectedHow will the experience relate to SPIRITUAL dimension of your wellbeingAppreciation of the outdoor environmentGoal settingSense of AchievementPersonal ReflectionPersonal Growth through challengesFeelings of satisfactionHow will the experience relate to the SOCIAL dimension of your wellbeingGroup membersTeachersInstructorsOther forest usersGroup guidelinesDependence on group membersHow well you know group beforehandLeadershipCommunication
11Brainstorm Outdoor activities Outdoor providers Current news items 3 groups – list e.g. What providers have your schools used?
12Outdoor Experience Court Room Battle ScenarioRecent incident in Piha (March 2011)Who are the involved parties? Faciliatators-see NZ Herald article: Instructor stands by kids…’Focus statementCritically evaluate whether the level of risk was acceptable in this outdoor activity scenario.
13Essay Descriptors Debate IntroductionKey wordsRelevant contentHard factsBackground – own experiences this yearAllP lusesPositive view pointWhat do you agree with?Own experienceOther Points ViewStrengthsPlus groupM inusesNegative view pointWhat do you disagree with?WeaknessesWho benefits?Errors of logicMinusgroupI ssues/ interestingExamine biasChallenge validityChallenge assumptionsS uggestionsInitiativesNew ideasAlternativesConclusionReflectMain points
14Introduction Key words / definitions Relevant content Hard facts Background – own experiences this yearRemember the focus statement:Critically evaluate whether the level of risk was acceptable in this outdoor activity scenario.Critically evaluate whether the level of risk was acceptable in this outdoor activity scenario.How do we define… e.g.Level of riskDegree of riskAcceptable risk
15Acceptable RiskThe concept of Acceptable Risk is essentially a measure of the risk of harm, injury from a process that will be tolerated by a person or group.Reference: Oxford UniversityHow do we define ‘acceptable risk’?Who decides? Society decides. And certain groups see ‘acceptable risk’ differently; depending on their experience,..responsibility… etc.
16Operational Zones Model Facilitator to explain each zone (see resource sheet).POV/perception:Surf instructor perception– children were in Peak experience/Challenge zone – they needed exposure to risk to learn/benefit/positive outcome.Lifeguard perception-children were distressed (it was too difficult & their level of competence wasn’t enough)Who’s right?Factors that affect how we perceive the level of risk include:how we see the difficulty of the activity & the competence of the individual.past experiences.Perceived risk affects how we experience activities/scenarios – e.g. what we get out of it, if see ‘distress’ or ‘challenge’ etc.
17Relevant OE Content Purposes of OE – needs – of individual and group Wellbeing and OE experiencesBenefits of OE experiencesProblems/concerns associated with OE experiences within schoolsNature of RiskSafety vs Risk vs ChallengePlanning for OESafety Management Systems - “Safety and EOTC- A good practice guide for NZ Schools”Risk Management Planning Tools - SAPs / RAMS / Rainbow System (WaterSafe Guidelines for Schools)Crisis ManagementReviewing OE experiencesOwn experiential knowledgeLinks to how to use the planning sheets (for pluses & minuses groups)-knowledge used. Could highlight the relevant areas.What is relevant??Handout: Mark Orams–perceived risk (talk to it briefly and could be used as extra reading).Key points=publicity of accidents influences people’s decisions to participate/not participate in outdoor recreation activities.
18Mini debate Divide into 2 groups: the plus group; the minus group. 3 min brainstorm (Planning sheet 1)8 min prepare & write paragraph (Planning sheet 2 & 3)Feedback to the whole group(read paragraph)Half the group is pluses, half is minuses. E.g. use black cards (clubs & spades) & red cards (hearts & diamonds)Facilitators use: NZ Herald article ‘Eight children in rip triggers surf scare’ to identify POVs:- Pluses – surf instructor – level of risk was acceptable- Minuses – lifeguard – level of risk was unacceptable.Planning sheets 1-3 for each group.-> jot down on board: plus points & minus points/statements (& any issues)
19What are the issues? Identify bias / assumptions / limitations Look critically at different points of view(Key points/judgements made by Pluses & Minuses)- Who do you believe?How do you know they are a reliable, knowledgeable, credible source?Are they biased?
20----Brainstorm ideas in your group What are the issues?Identify bias / assumptions / limitationsLook critically at different points of viewCan you challenge any judgements?It is always true?What’s worth discussing?----Brainstorm ideas in your groupThen share
21Group discussion Examine Challenge Jot down key points With your issue (bias/assumption/limitation)ExamineChallengeJot down key pointsFeedback to the whole groupGroup completes worksheets on Issues. Feedbacks & then group discussion. Depth! Critical Thinking.Other general ideas:One size fits all – planning for different abilities- physical, mental and emotional; different levels of challenge- peak experience.Voluntary regulation of outdoor adventure companies riskShared responsibilityTrustReasoning behind OE as apposed to any other experienceDo we check as clients the outdoor safety procedures of outside providersHegemony – power agents push the vested interest groups/have their own agenda–outdoor provider in the outdoors- here to paid. Safe as you pay the moneyOutdoor experience as a business – people feel safe as they presume they are safe; assume they experienced and manage risks; assumptions that anything involved in the outdoors is high risk; or anyone involved in the outdoors is perceived as an adrenalin junkie- crazy people; it assumed that people get natural highs from participating in thrill seeking ideasAssuming it is bad luckAssume will look after you as you pay them tooOutdoor provider experience / leadership abilityChallenging the comprehensive planningProfessional planning more precise.Socialising agents come from social institutions / media – big influence in terms of perceptions of norms around the outdoorsMedia pushes the powerful stories
22Suggestions Based on your discussion: What are the factors that determine whether the level of risk was acceptable?Suggest ways to deal with the issues:InitiativesNew IdeasAlternativesWays forwardBrainstorm suggestions from the issues on board. Discussion in groups and come up with 1-2 suggestions.Talk about 1 suggestion (outline the discussion you have had) and justify why. Other groups can challenge their thinkinge.g. Suggestions: set appropriate challenges for participants. Appropriate difficulty, perception of risk, to match ability/competence.Make it safe enough for the weakest (lowest ability) person but provide alternative challenges for other, more able participants, e.g. be a team leader, provide a mental challenge over physical risk.Suggestions: fear can be exciting but we don’t want too much danger. You can alter perceptions to create opportunities for growth. E.g. pilots use flight simulators to learn. What is the outdoor equivalent?Risk perception:- Varies from person to person. Experienced people can misjudge the level of challenge or distress perceived by others in the same situation (e.g. people who are inexperienced).- Varies from situation to situation- Influenced by peoples’ past experiences, ability level (competence)- Influences how people react in situations
23ConclusionContinuumTake a positionJustify your position
24Reference www.tki.org.nz/r/eotc/resources/ safety_e.php #1 “Safety and EOTC- A good practice guide for NZ Schools”safety_e.php
25Related organisations Mountain Safety CouncilResources, Public CoursesNZ Outdoor Instructors AssociationResources, Instructor Training Courses
26Further reading Outdoor Education Curriculum links on camp Health & Physical Education NZ Curriculum, p46-47Curriculum links on camp- School camps are the perfect vehicle for the key competencies, Thorndon School teachers found earlier this year.Striding towards success- EOTC has helped a low-decile secondary school keep more students on the path to successEducation Gazette 30 June 2008, p7-9
27Further readingOutdoor recreation strategy sparc sparc-has-released-i ts-outdoor-recreation-strategy2008 International Outdoor Recreation and Education Conference papers -
28Possible content focuses & contexts Outdoor Pursuit CentreLaura Dekker – 13yr old girl sailorAvalanche- Methven and CoronetRiver boarding- Mad dog river adventure s, QueenstownBridge swing –Manawatu Gorge
29Possible content focuses & contexts Risk & Crisis Management- Extreme surf skierSurf skier Paul Wilford loves wild weather 12 Aug 2008.. he insists that despite a number of paddlers getting into trouble recently, the sport is safe, and paddlers know what they are doing.12th August 2008
30Make sure to access the wiki site for the power points and more links