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Iranian nuclear program: history, modern stage and the ways to solve the problem By Artem Patalakh Hui Chen.

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Presentation on theme: "Iranian nuclear program: history, modern stage and the ways to solve the problem By Artem Patalakh Hui Chen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Iranian nuclear program: history, modern stage and the ways to solve the problem By Artem Patalakh Hui Chen

2 Contents: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: 1950s to 1988 Accelerating Under the Radar of the International Community: late 1980s – 2003 Ahmadinejad’s presidensy period After Ahmadinejad Contents: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: 1950s to 1988 Accelerating Under the Radar of the International Community: late 1980s – 2003 Ahmadinejad’s presidensy period After Ahmadinejad

3 One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: 1950s to 1988 One step forward: 1950s – the program began but was slow to progress – U.S supplied TNRC with a small 5 MWt research reactor, fueled with highly enriched uranium( HEU) – the Shah unveiled ambitious plans to install 23,000 MWe of nuclear power, charging the newly founded AEOI with oversight of this task. Two steps back: 1979 – much of Iran's nuclear talent fled the country in the wake of the revolution. Work on nuclear projects that had been ongoing, such as construction of the Bushehr nuclear reactors, was suspended

4 Accelerating Under the Radar of the International Community: late 1980s – 1990s 1987 – Iran – Pakistan nuclear cooperation agreement 1990 – Iran – China nuclear cooperation agreement 1992 – Iran – Russia nuclear cooperation agreement January 1995 – Russia announced :it would complete Bushehr's construction and agreed to build three additional reactors US reaction: 1) suspecting Iran of using its civilian nuclear program as a cover for clandestine weapons development; 2) pressuring potential suppliers to limit any nuclear cooperation with Iran.

5 Accelerating Under the Radar of the International Community: early 2000s August 2002 – the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) revealed the existence of undeclared nuclear facilities in Iran. Autumn 2003 – the IAEA carried out a number of facilities inspections and met with Iranian officials to determine the history of Iran's nuclear program. November 2003 – the IAEA Board of Governors’ resolution:  welcoming Iran's decision to sign the Additional Protocol and suspend enrichment (has never been ratified be the Parliament);  noting Iran's previous concealment efforts;  pointing out that Iran's new declarations contradicted the Agency's previous information;  outlining the procedures for sanctions if Iran failed to meet the requirements of the Resolution;  requesting that the Director General take all of the necessary steps to confirm Iran's past and present nuclear activities. August 2002 – the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) revealed the existence of undeclared nuclear facilities in Iran. Autumn 2003 – the IAEA carried out a number of facilities inspections and met with Iranian officials to determine the history of Iran's nuclear program. November 2003 – the IAEA Board of Governors’ resolution:  welcoming Iran's decision to sign the Additional Protocol and suspend enrichment (has never been ratified be the Parliament);  noting Iran's previous concealment efforts;  pointing out that Iran's new declarations contradicted the Agency's previous information;  outlining the procedures for sanctions if Iran failed to meet the requirements of the Resolution;  requesting that the Director General take all of the necessary steps to confirm Iran's past and present nuclear activities.

6 2004 – 2012: exacerbation of tensions early 2005 – attempts to come to an agreement:  2005 February – Russia – Iran agreement: all spent nuclear fuel shall be sent to Russia from Iran  2004 September – IAEA resolution obliging Iran to stop enriching uranium till 25 November (Iran first rejected the ultimatum, then accepted; the EU agreed to deliver nuclear fuel and a light-water reactor to Iran)  Condoleezza Rice: the US will support Iran’s accession to the WTO and allow Iran to purchase American aero- engines if it gives up its nuclear program

7 2004 – 2012: exacerbation of tensions 26 June 2005 – Ahmadinejad was elected a new Iranian President August 2005 – resumption of uranium enrichment February 2006 – Iran asked the IAEA to remove all seals and CCTVs from its nuclear facilities IAEA brings the matter to the UN Security Council – Russia and China tried to persuade Iran to negotiate, but failed December 2006, June 2010 – the UN SC’s resolutions imposing sanctions on Iran

8 Attitudes of negotiators Iran: insisting on “peaceful” purposes of its nuclear program; threatening that it can withdraw from NPT; stating that Israeli possession of nuclear weapons is unfair Russia and China: not supporting new sanctions, trying to incline Iran to accept IEME conditions Western states: lobbying new sanctions (the US), threatening to attack Iran (Israel)

9 After Ahmadinejad: success in resolving the issue 15 June 2013 – Hassan Rouhani was elected a new Iranian President Electoral program: improving relations with the international community; criticism of Ahmadinejad’s policy 24 November 2013 – the Geneva Agreement: - no further development of the Arak plant which it is believed could produce plutonium, - no new nuclear-related sanctions for six months if Iran sticks by the accord, - access to inspectors including daily access at nuclear sites, - Iran will stop enriching uranium beyond 5%, and "neutralise" its stockpile of uranium enriched beyond this point, -Iran’s nuclear “rights” are recognized

10 …everything could be excellent, but… “What was achieved last night in Geneva is not a historic agreement, but a historic mistake. Today the world became a much more dangerous place because the most dangerous regime in the world made a significant step in obtaining the most dangerous weapons in the world” Benjamin Netanyahu, 24 November “What was achieved last night in Geneva is not a historic agreement, but a historic mistake. Today the world became a much more dangerous place because the most dangerous regime in the world made a significant step in obtaining the most dangerous weapons in the world” Benjamin Netanyahu, 24 November 2013.

11 Bibliography Alexei G. Arbatov, "The Inexorable Momentum of Escalation," in Double Trouble: Iran and North Korea as Challenges to International Security, Patrick M. Cronin, ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007), pp. 64–65. "Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets: Iranian, P5+1 Proposals to Resolve Iranian Nuclear Issue" Retrieved 24 February 2008."Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets: Iranian, P5+1 Proposals to Resolve Iranian Nuclear Issue" “Iran and the Bomb”, Seymour Hersh, The New Yorker, 30 June 2011.“Iran and the Bomb "Iran holds enough uranium for bomb, By Daniel Dombey in Washington, Financial Times, February 19, 2009". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 September 2009."Iran holds enough uranium for bomb, By Daniel Dombey in Washington, Financial Times, February 19, 2009" "Iran launches Bushehr nuclear power plant". RIA Novosti. 12 September Retrieved 14 September 2011."Iran launches Bushehr nuclear power plant" ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:". Institute for Science and International Security. 16 November Retrieved 17 November 2012.ISIS Analysis of IAEA Iran Safeguards Report:" Katzman, Kenneth (23 March 2012). "Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 3 April 2012."Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses"Congressional Research Service Roe, Sam (28 January 2007). "An atomic threat made in America". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 July 2009."An atomic threat made in America" Rosenthal, Max (6 July 2012). "Iran Nuclear Program Should Be Abandoned, State TV Viewers Say". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2012."Iran Nuclear Program Should Be Abandoned, State TV Viewers Say"

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