By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail. -Ben Franklin
3 15 6 7 10 17 16 18 14 17 31 ANNUAL TOTALS OF ACTIVE SHOOTER INCIDENTS (United States) Active Shooter DataActive Shooter Data
Tragedy after tragedy has occurred involving mass shootings of innocents. We hope that by having an understanding of what has led us to today will better prepare you and your loved ones. Why Are We Presenting on This Topic?
Define “active shooter” Understand measures you can employ to protect yourself during a violent incident Anticipate actions of responding law enforcement personnel Know what you can do to train and prepare
An Active Shooter is an armed person who has used deadly physical force on other persons and continues to do so while having unrestricted access to additional victims.
Washington, D.C. LAX, CA Aurora, CO Oak Creek, WI Newtown, CT Tucson, AZ Recent Events – U.S.
There is no one “profile” of an active shooter.
Demographics of an Active Shooter: Male (97%) Ages (12-88) Religion Education Socio-economic
Many offenders who engage in targeted violence may display certain behaviors during pre-attack planning. These predatory behaviors may be observable to persons familiar with the offender. Pre-Attack Indicators
Development of a personal grievance Contextually inappropriate and recent acquisition of multiple weapons Contextually inappropriate and recent escalation in target practice and weapons training Pre-Attack Indicators
Contextually inappropriate and recent interest in explosives and IEDs Contextually inappropriate and intense interest or fascination with previous active shootings or mass attacks Many offenders experienced a significant real or perceived personal loss in the weeks and/or months leading up to the attack, such as a death, breakup, divorce, or loss of a job Pre-Attack Indicators
Many active shooters were described as “social isolates,” harbored feelings of hate or anger, and/or had some reported contact with mental health professionals Few had previous arrests for violent crimes Pre-Attack Indicators
Loss of significant relationships Feelings of humiliation/rejection Changes in financial status Major adverse changes to life circumstances Loss of job Changes in living arrangements Active Shooter Data
Statistical Breakdown of Active Shooter events: 57% of the attackers were insiders (known) 63% of the attackers broadcasted a perceived injustice 71% of the victims initially targeted were the focus of the perceived injustice 74% of the attackers entered through the main entrance *per John Nicoletti, Ph.D. (Nicoletti-Flater Associates) as provided to PERF 4/22/13 Active Shooter Data
Attack Data 37% of the attacks were over in under 5 minutes *49% of the attackers committed suicide *17% of the attackers were killed *34% of the attackers were arrested 63% of the attacks were over in under 15 minutes Average attacks last approximately 12 minutes
49% of the time it ends prior to police arrival 40% of the time civilians at the scene stopped the attack 10% of the time attackers walk away
51% of the attacks occurred in the workplace 17% of the attacks occurred in a school 17% of the attacks occurred in a public place 6% of the attacks occurred in a religious establishment 9% of the attacks occurred either in the victim’s or the offender’s residence *per John Nicoletti, Ph.D. (Nicoletti-Flater Associates) as provided to PERF 4/22/13 Active Shooter Data
1993: 1,068 workplace homicides 2011: 518 workplace homicides 50+% decrease U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), March 2012 Workplace Homicides
For male victim: 4% relative/personal acquaintance For female victim: 28% relative/personal acquaintance Co-workers & former co-workers: 12% Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, July 2010 Workplace Homicides: The Offender
Workplace: 80% Campus: 54% 36% used more than one
Immediate Danger You can either see the shooter directly or see the effects of the gunfire Risk of Danger You can hear shooting but are not in the immediate vicinity to see the effects of the gunfire or the shooter
Escape (“RUN”) Seek cover (“HIDE”) As a last resort, take action (“FIGHT”) As soon as possible – call 911 Law enforcement officials need accurate and timely information to respond effectively and neutralize threat
Shooter(s) Specific location Number or assailants Race and gender Clothing color and style Physical features-height, weight, facial hair, glasses Type of weapons (rifle/shotgun, handgun) Backpack Identification/name of the shooter(s) (If known) Violent actions other than gunshots – Explosions, fires, etc. Other pertinent information – doors chained, location of injured personnel, etc.
- Escape - Secure location - 911 - Monitor ingress / egress routes - Make the area look unoccupied -Do not move until released by authorities
“Normal” response to hostage situation, bomb threat, hijacking, etc. Wait for back-up/follow-on forces Establish cordon Stop and treat wounded Enter building and use force as a last resort Active Shooter – sole focus is to find and neutralize the shooter!
Immediately enter the facility/area alone or in small teams – will not wait for back-up Will not stop to treat wounded or assist with evacuation Follow-on forces establish cordon, crowd control, staging areas Police maintain control of the tactical incident until threat is neutralized
Stay in your secure area, and stay calm Convey to others that help is on the way Provide self aid and buddy care Monitor the situation via computer, TV, radio Be prepared to evacuation when ordered
Safety corridors will be established, this may be time consuming Stay in your secure area until instructed otherwise Remain calm and follow instructions Keep your hands where they can be seen Avoid quick movements You may be searched You will be escorted out of the building by police
You will be taken to a holding area for medical care, interviewing, counseling, etc. The entire area will be treated as a crime scene. You will not be permitted to retrieve items or access the crime scene.
First response is the same for both groups Further reactions differ markedly TrainedUntrained Startle and Fear Feel AnxiousPanic Recall what they have learnedFall into disbelief Prepare to act as rehearsedLost in denial Commit to actionDescend into helplessness
Emergency escape procedures and route assignments (i.e., floor plans, safe areas) Contact information Responsibilities of individuals during an incident Local area hospital information (i.e., name, telephone number, distance and location) Emergency notification systems to alert personnel located at remote locations throughout the premises Considerations for special needs personnel Exercise your plan frequently!
The most effective way to prepare for an Active Shooter situation is to exercise Training should include, but not be limited to: Recognizing the sound of gunshots Reacting quickly when gunshots are heard and/or when a shooting is witnessed Evacuating the area Seeking cover Calling 911 Reacting when law enforcement arrives Adopting the survival mindset during times of crisis Acting against the shooter as a last resort
Define “active shooter” Understand measures you can employ to protect yourself during a violent incident Understand actions of responding law enforcement personnel What you can do to train and prepare