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Human Security Through a Gendered Lens Elena Cason Global Security: an Integrated Approach 01 December 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Security Through a Gendered Lens Elena Cason Global Security: an Integrated Approach 01 December 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Security Through a Gendered Lens Elena Cason Global Security: an Integrated Approach 01 December 2011

2 Layout Hard Power Globalisation Soft Power National Security Human Security Gender Security

3 The Shift of Power: Power Transition, Power Diffusion and the Change of Global Actors Two concepts of sovereignty: from control over one’s borders to permeability of borders. (State Sovereignty ✒ Individual Sovereignty) Two concepts of sovereignty: from control over one’s borders to permeability of borders. (State Sovereignty ✒ Individual Sovereignty) Two concepts of power: Two concepts of power: HARD POWER= the ability to affect others and get the outcomes you want (carrots &sticks system). SOFT POWER= the ability to get the outcomes you want through diplomatic persuasion.

4 The UN Machine From 1948 till the Cold War: security was developed in terms of political stability, military defence, economic activities ect. During the Cold War: security was prevention due to the increase in military expenditures and the fears of a nuclear war

5 The UN Machine 1 90s. New unconventional threats: Deterioration of economic conditions Internal socio-political conditions Environmental threats Identity politics and ethnics identity Organized crime Necessity to move from NEGATIVE PEACE to POSITIVE PEACE: NEW CONCEPT OF SECURITY

6 The Human Security (Galtung model) Structural Security Cultural Security Personal Security ‘ Human security involves establishing machines, policies and structures that will ensure that individuals and communities enjoy personal, structural and cultural security, in other words, positive peace.’ (B. Muthien) ‘ Human security involves establishing machines, policies and structures that will ensure that individuals and communities enjoy personal, structural and cultural security, in other words, positive peace.’ (B. Muthien) Example of questions for the assessment of human security: Example of questions for the assessment of human security: - Is this good for the environment? - Will this enable people to meet their basic need? - Will this enhance people’s identity and dignity? - Would this infringe upon the protection of other people?

7 Human Security (UN concept) The vital core of all human lives in ways that enhance human freedoms and human fulfillment. Human security means protecting fundamental freedoms – freedoms that are the essence of life. It means protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive (widespread) threats and situations. It means using processes that build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating political, social, environmental, economic, military and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity" [Human Security Now, p.4] The vital core of all human lives in ways that enhance human freedoms and human fulfillment. Human security means protecting fundamental freedoms – freedoms that are the essence of life. It means protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive (widespread) threats and situations. It means using processes that build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating political, social, environmental, economic, military and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity" [Human Security Now, p.4] ‘Human security is both freedom from want and freedom from fear’ (K. Annan) ‘Human security is both freedom from want and freedom from fear’ (K. Annan)

8 Women Security (B. Reardon model) ‘The remedies that could move the international system closer to a sustainable system of human security lie in the demilitarisation of security in favour of non violent conflict […] committing talent and global resources to fulfilling all security expectations within national, cultural and gender equity. […] Human security depends on gender equality.’ ( Reardon) ‘The remedies that could move the international system closer to a sustainable system of human security lie in the demilitarisation of security in favour of non violent conflict […] committing talent and global resources to fulfilling all security expectations within national, cultural and gender equity. […] Human security depends on gender equality.’ ( Reardon) ‘ In crisis situation women are the best humanitarian workers.’ (S. Anderlini) ‘ In crisis situation women are the best humanitarian workers.’ (S. Anderlini) ‘Women hold up half the sky’. (Mao Zedong) ‘Women hold up half the sky’. (Mao Zedong)

9 Historical Overview of Women and the Security Paradigm 1948 UDHR 1979 CEDAW 2000 Resolution 1325 on Women Peace and Security

10 Why to Focus on

11 1. GOOD GOVERNANCE= the ability to maintain social peace, guarantee law and order and create or promote conditions necessary for economic growth and ensure a minimum of social security. ☞ Women prioritise education, health, empowerment. 1. GOOD GOVERNANCE= the ability to maintain social peace, guarantee law and order and create or promote conditions necessary for economic growth and ensure a minimum of social security. ☞ Women prioritise education, health, empowerment. 2. LESS CORRUPTION= according to the World Bank one of the main indicator of good governance is the control of corruption. ☞ Women are more trustworthy and public-spirited since their behaviour is always scrutinized. 2. LESS CORRUPTION= according to the World Bank one of the main indicator of good governance is the control of corruption. ☞ Women are more trustworthy and public-spirited since their behaviour is always scrutinized. 3. DIPLOMACY= in order to stop the war it is necessary to enter in a bridge- builder mindset. ☞ Women are better mediator, they expect and promote dialogue and they have a tension lowering effect. 3. DIPLOMACY= in order to stop the war it is necessary to enter in a bridge- builder mindset. ☞ Women are better mediator, they expect and promote dialogue and they have a tension lowering effect. POSITIVE DIVERSITY= in post-conflict situations multiple identities can backfire. ☞ Women tend to play less on their ethnic, religious etc. identity while still keeping plurality alive. POSITIVE DIVERSITY= in post-conflict situations multiple identities can backfire. ☞ Women tend to play less on their ethnic, religious etc. identity while still keeping plurality alive.

12 How to Translate the Rhetoric into Achievable Policy Standard “to walk the walk and not just to talk the talk”: “to walk the walk and not just to talk the talk”: - International assistance - Help mission officers to use a gender perspective - Direct economic resource toward women - Enable governments and NGOs to become a ‘pool’ of experiences and to work alongside organisations in the field. (The case of Rwanda)

13 Still a Long Way to Go…

14 Thank you for your attention!

15 Bibliography Acharya, A., ‘Human Security. East versus West’, International Journal, 56 (2001), pp Acharya, A., ‘Human Security. East versus West’, International Journal, 56 (2001), pp Hunt, S. and Cristina Posa, ‘Women Waging Peace’, Foreign Policy, 124 (2001), pp Hunt, S. and Cristina Posa, ‘Women Waging Peace’, Foreign Policy, 124 (2001), pp Manchanda, R., ‘Women’s Agency in Peace Building. Gender relations in Post-Conflict Reconstruction’, Economic and Political Weekly, 40 (2005), pp Manchanda, R., ‘Women’s Agency in Peace Building. Gender relations in Post-Conflict Reconstruction’, Economic and Political Weekly, 40 (2005), pp Muthien, B., ‘Human Security Paradigms through a Gendered Lens’, Agenda Feminista Media, 43 (2000), pp Muthien, B., ‘Human Security Paradigms through a Gendered Lens’, Agenda Feminista Media, 43 (2000), pp Joseph Nye, On Global Power Shift Kofi Annan, Two Concepts of Sovereignty Kofi Annan, Two Concepts of Sovereignty


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