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The globally unique fauna of the Victorian coast

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1 The globally unique fauna of the Victorian coast
Sea Cucumbers The globally unique fauna of the Victorian coast P. Mark O’Loughlin Honorary Associate, Museum Victoria, Marine Science (since 1980) My acknowledgement and gratitude for: Images provided by Marine Research Group members Leon Altoff, John Eichler and Platon Vafiadis. Assistance with image editing and PowerPoint by Liz Dane (Museum Victoria).

2 Think small! Think hidden! Think undiscovered species! Think behaviour (social, reproductive, nutrition)!

3 Smilasterias multipara O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1990
Holotype, NMV F53036 Echinoderm (seastar) gastric brooding

4 Archaster typicus Müller and Troschel, 1840
Echinoderm (seastar) male on female pseudo-copulation Japan species

5 Coscinasterias muricata Verrill, 1867 [larger]
Allostichaster polyplax (Müller and Troschel, 1844) [smaller] Echinoderm (seastar) reproduction by splitting (fissiparity)

6 Meridiastra fissura O’Loughlin, 2002
Echinoderm (seastar) small red optical cushion sense organ

7 “Brown papillate sea cucumber” Australostichopus mollis (Hutton, 1872)

8 “Smooth tapered sea cucumber” Paracaudina australis (Semper, 1868)

9 “Mottled box sea cucumber” Plesiocolochirus ignava (Ludwig, 1875)

10 “Chocolate sea cucumber” Staurothyone inconspicua (Bell, 1887)
“Eichler’s sea cucumber” Staurothyone sp. (new)

11 “Falconer’s sea cucumber” or “Caterpillar sea cucumber”
Australostichopus mollis (Hutton, 1872)

12 “Golden-red sea cucumber”
Squamocnus aureoruber O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992 Button and cup ossicles from body wall Rod ossicle from tentacle

13 Cucumella mutans (Joshua, 1914) “Blue-grey sea cucumber”
“Violet sea cucumber” Cucumella mutans (Joshua, 1914) “Blue-grey sea cucumber” Neoamphicyclus lividus Hickman1962 Body wall table ossicle

14 “Rowe’s sea cucumber” Cucuvitrum rowei O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992 “White sea cucumber” Trachythyone candida O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992

15 Psolidiella nigra Mortensen, 1925
“Black sea cucumber” Psolidiella nigra Mortensen, 1925

16 “Feet covered sea cucumber” Lipotrapeza vestiens (Joshua, 1914)

17 “Red worm sea cucumber” Taeniogyrus roebucki (Joshua, 1914)
Wheel and hook ossicles from body wall

18 “Violet-flecked sea cucumber” Trochodota sp. cf. allani (Joshua, 1912)

19 “White spotted pink sea cucumber”
Chiridota gigas Dendy and Hindle, 1907 Wheel and bracket rod ossicles

20 Leptosynapta dolabrifera (Stimpson, 1855)
“Sticky sea cucumber” Leptosynapta dolabrifera (Stimpson, 1855) Plate and anchor ossicles

21 “Black and white psolid sea cucumber” Ceto cuvieria (Cuvier, 1817)
South Australia

22 “Antarctic psolid sea cucumber” Psolus antarcticus (Philippi, 1857)
Macquarie Island

23 “Hickman’s psolid seacucumber” Psolidium ravum Hickman, 1962
Syntype AM J7202 (30 mm long) Specimen from Tasmania, Derwent Estuary

24 “Golden-red sea cucumber”
Squamocnus aureoruber O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992 Specimen 7 mm long Various stages of fissiparity

25 “Constrictions sea cucumber”
Molpadiodemas constrictus O’Loughlin and Ahearn, 2005 Paratype USNM (51 mm long) Specimen from North Atlantic Ocean, Puerto Rico Trench, 7086 m, 20 January 1973, collected by RV Gilliss

26 “Marsupial sea cucumber”
Neocnus bimarsupiis O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992 Specimen 5 mm long

27 “Maroon brooding sea cucumber”
Pentocnus bursatus O’Loughlin and O’Hara, 1992 Holotype, NMV F57549 (6 mm long) Juveniles and embryos Cape Paterson 1980, 1981

28 “Chocolate sea cucumber” Staurothyone inconspicua (Bell, 1887)
Coelomic embryo / juvenile attached to gonad tubule Brood juveniles dissected from the coelom of a female

29 “Blue-grey sea cucumber” Neoamphicyclus lividus Hickman, 1962
Adult (20 mm long) with brood 528 brood juveniles (October) Adult (30 mm long) with single large brood juvenile (December) Adult (10 mm long) with 58 brood juveniles removed from coelom

30 “Blue-grey sea cucumber” Neoamphicyclus lividus Hickman, 1962
Brood juveniles removed from coelom

31 Brood embryos in pockets around anterior body wall
“Hickman’s sea cucumber” Psolidiella hickmani O’Loughlin, 2000 “Black sea cucumber” Psolidiella nigra Mortensen, 1925

32 Psolidocnus amokurae (Mortensen, 1925)
New Zealand specimen and species NZ specimen from Kaikoura, 91 m, 14 June 1961

33 Psolidocnus amokurae (Mortensen, 1925)

34 Cucumaria sp. cf. georgiana (Lampert, 1886)
Specimen from Prydz Bay, Antarctica Composite drawing by Mark O’Loughlin of male (with genital papilla in tentacle crown) and female (with anterior interradial marsupia with openings at the introvert)

35 Cucumaria sp. cf. georgiana (Lampert, 1886)
Male (23 mm long) with digitate genital papilla (1.5 mm long) on oral disc Anterior view of female with juvenile emerging from marsupium, juveniles in marsupia Female (37 mm long) with with openings (two) into anterior interradial marsupia


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