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WHAT LAWS GOVERN THE QUANTITY AND TYPES OF ENERGY EMITTED BY AN OBJECT?

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In particular: 1) The Sun, our source of energy. 2) The Earth, which must ultimately lose the energy it receives, or get warmer.

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WHAT LAWS GOVERN THE QUANTITY AND TYPES OF ENERGY EMITTED BY AN OBJECT? In particular: 1) The Sun, our source of energy. 2) The Earth, which must ultimately lose the energy it receives, or get warmer. TWO BASIC QUESTIONS: 1)HOW MUCH ENERGY? 2)WHAT TYPE OF ENERGY?

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic Radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: Electromagnetic radiation generated by the vibration of molecules of a substance. Average energy level (vibration) of the molecules in an object is determined by its temperature. Hotter objects - more vibration More vibration – more electromagnetic radiation “Hot objects emit more radiation than cold objects.”

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy.

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =15

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =15 Δ Temp =1

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =15 Δ Temp =1

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =15 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =65

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How Much Energy? Stefan-Boltzman’s Law: E = d.T 4 E = Total energy emitted T = Surface temperature of the radiating object d = Stefan-Boltzman’s constant 5.86 x 10 -8 (Don’t need to remember!) Hot objects emit a disproportionately large quantity of energy. 1x1x1x1 = 1 2x2x2x2 = 16 3x3x3x3 = 81 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =15 Δ Temp =1 Δ Energy =65

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law Electro-magnetic radiation is emitted in a wave form as the nucleii vibrate. Waves are characterized by the distance between two consecutive wave peaks, their “wavelength”. Hot objects have a greater average energy level in their molecules. They vibrate more frequently, so the distance (time) between peaks becomes shorter. Hot objects emit most of their energy at short wavelengths, cool ones emit it at longer wavelengths.

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COOL MOLECULE

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Wavelength

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COOL MOLECULE Wavelength HOT MOLECULE

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COOL MOLECULE Wavelength HOT MOLECULE

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = T/2898 W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object.

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object.

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object.

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object.

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object. T = 289.8

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object. T = 289.8W max = 2898/289.8 = 10.0μ

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object. T = 289.8 T = 1499 W max = 2898/289.8 = 10.0μ

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What Type of Energy? Wein’s Law: W max = 2898/T W max = Wavelength at which an object emits the maximum quantity of its energy, but not exclusively so. T = Surface temperature of the radiating object. T = 289.8 T = 1499 W max = 2898/289.8 = 10.0μ W max = 2898/1499 = 2.0μ

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun Earth

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun6000 Earth 280

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 Earth 280

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 Earth 280360

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 0.5 Earth 280360

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 0.5 Earth 28036010

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 0.5 Earth 28036010 Short In

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SUN AND EARTH SurfaceEnergyW max Temp (Wm -2 )(μ) Sun600072.3x10 6 0.5 Earth 28036010 Short In Long out

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Fahrenheit

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Water Freezes 32°F

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Water Boils 212°F Water Freezes 32°F

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Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F Water Freezes 32°F

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Water Freezes 32°F Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F Centigrade 0°C 100°C -273°C

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Water Freezes 32°F Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F 0°C 100°C -273°C 0°K KELVIN (Absolute) E = d. 0 4 = 0 : No temp, no vibration, no energy

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Water Freezes 32°F Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F 0°C 100°C -273°C 0°K KELVIN (Absolute) Centigrade increments

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Water Freezes 32°F Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F 0°C 100°C -273°C 0°K KELVIN (Absolute) Centigrade increments 273°K + 273

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Water Freezes 32°F Water Boils 212°F All Molecules Cease Vibrating -465°F 0°C 100°C -273°C 0°K KELVIN (Absolute) Centigrade increments 273°K373°K +100

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