kaart 10 Case 1: Traffic 32,000 vehicles /day; Distance to the centre of the road 15 m; Background concentration 36 µg/m 3.
kaart 11 Case 2: Trans-shipment of coal and ore Rotterdam Hoek van Holland Coal and ore trans-shipment and storage facilities
kaart 12 Case 2: Trans-shipment of coal and ore Air pollution rose for PM 10 in the city of Hoek van Holland
kaart 13 Case 2: Trans-shipment of coal and ore Trans-shipment and storage of coal and ore and the PM 10 emissions
kaart 14 Case 2: Trans-shipment of coal and ore Site map with real-time dust monitoring stations
kaart 15 Case 3: The refineries PM10 concentration contribution (µg/m3) of all industrial sources (thin line) and after (thick line) the emission reduction by 3 refineries
kaart 16 Discussion 1: Measuring PM 10 Different methods: Automated instruments Not - automated instruments Reference instruments Different sources: industrial urban natural agricultural % precursors and its origins ?
kaart 17 Discussion 2: Results PM 10 Results depending on: Type of monitoring equipment Season Site Wind direction Result: Correctionfactor
kaart 18 Methodological issues on monitoring and modelling: AIR4EU WWW.AIR4EU.NL Disc. 3: Accuracy and its consequences Results close to limit value Exceeding often due to correction factor
kaart 19 Discussion 4: What is desirable? Local authorities pushing PM 10 below limit value Result: A lot of effort for small areas Health authorities focussing on PM 10 in general Result: Effects on large areas
kaart 20 Discussion 5: What solution? Large emissions High stack Result: Low concentration Small emissions Low stack Result: High concentrations? No EU Directive
kaart 21 Discussion 6: Concentration PM 10 Due to local sources Background: Beyond control of local authorities national and international efforts