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+ Understanding by Design: Next steps Tom Rye Donna Herold ASCD Faculty 2010 Understanding by Design Training, Allen Parish 1.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Understanding by Design: Next steps Tom Rye Donna Herold ASCD Faculty 2010 Understanding by Design Training, Allen Parish 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Understanding by Design: Next steps Tom Rye Donna Herold ASCD Faculty 2010 Understanding by Design Training, Allen Parish 1

2 + Think of a successful learning experience. Identify three characteristics that made it successful:

3 + Our Outcomes Explore backward design principles and common misunderstandings about design; Identify desired results for unit of study and draft a complete unit to include an assessment and learning plan; Review unit of study applying design standards Strategize about how to collaboratively develop multiple units, courses, and programs as you move forward ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 3

4 + Tasks: Design a unit for a period of instruction between 1-6 weeks. Review units by applying design standards and offering feedback to improve design. Explore what an Understanding by Design classroom looks like. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 4

5 Essential Questions: Why Understanding by Design? Why 21st Century Skills? What strategies are there for evaluating and revising existing UbD units? What is a performance task? To what extent can we truly implement a performance task into every unit of instruction? How can we assess/grade performance tasks reliably and practically? What does a UbD classroom actually look like? How do we continue to move forward professionally?

6 Why are we here? What do you want your students to remember about your class ten, twenty years from now? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 6

7 + What is Understanding? Understanding Understanding Big ideas make meaning of the learning and permit transfer Transfer is the key evidence of understanding (or lack of it) Good design best done “backward” from the desired understanding Given the understanding we seek, we ask: what follows for assessment and for student learning? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 7

8 + Designing for understanding: “Understanding is never a passive possession of information or mere automaticity of skill, but the capacity to act wisely, decisively and effectively.” -- Schooling by Design (2007) ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 8

9 + What does understanding as a goal require of - ‘Designs’ - our planning? Learning and teaching activities? Assessment and feedback to learners? How do we achieve understanding by design vs. ‘good fortune’? What is ‘understanding’? - really ‘getting it’? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

10 + Three stages of backward design ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction

11 + Three stages of backward design ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 11 1.What should students be able to DO with their learning? 2. What IS valid evidence of ability to meet the long-term transfer goal? 3. What learning experiences & instruction do students need to get there?

12 + Typically: ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 12 1.Identify content to be acquired 2. Brainstorm lessons to teach the content 3. Create an assessment to judge if students learned the content Without checking for alignment Without checking for alignment

13 + UbD design template ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 13 Overarching understandings Knowledge and skill to be acquired Essential Questions

14 + Three stages of backward design ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction

15 + Stage 1:Desired results ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 15 Stage 1 - Desired Results Enduring Understanding(s ): Essential Question(s ): Established Goals Students will know and be able to do: Insights students earn that will transfer to new learning Inquiry students pursue to earn insights and develop proficiency Content priorities for the unit / course / subject Students will be accountable to demonstrate in their work Key vocabulary concepts Excerpted from program level documents Demonstrates how unit will embody system expectations

16 + What the research says ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 16 “Research on expertise suggests that a superficial coverage of many topics in the domain may be a poor way to help students develop the competencies that will prepare them for future learning and work.” -- Bransford, How People Learn

17 + From the Agriculture Age to the Conceptual Age Affluence, Technology, Globalization 18 th century19 th century20 th century 21 st century Agricultural Age (farmers) Industrial Age (factory workers) Information Age (knowledge worker) Conceptual Age (creators and empathizers) ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

18 + Are we developing... communicators... leaders... creators... critical thinkers... self-directed workers? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

19 + Really Ready to Work? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

20 + Partnership for 21 st Century Core Themes and skills THEMES: Global Awareness Financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy Civic literacy, Health and environmental literacy SKILLS: Creativity and Innovation Information, Media, and Technology Skills Life and Career Skills ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

21 + 21 st Century skills / themes checklist

22 + Design Standards for Enduring Understandings Big ideas at the heart of the discipline Requires “uncoverage” Lasting value beyond the classroom Measurable ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 22

23 + Worth being familiar with Important to know & do Big ideas & Enduring Understandings Establishing Priorities: From “Big Ideas” to Enduring Understandings “Big ideas” worth exploring and understanding in depth Foundational knowledge & skill Nice to know ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

24 + A timeline detailing the early history of the Internet How to evaluate the credibility of Internet sources Emerging technologies have the power to change the way we understand our world “Big ideas” worth exploring and understanding in depth Foundational knowledge & skill Nice to know ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

25 + Key protests of Civil Rights Movement Analyze effects of landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education Conflict creates change “Big ideas” worth exploring and understanding in depth Foundational knowledge & skill Nice to know ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

26 + Enduring Understandings for 21 st Century Skills In pairs, write an enduring understanding derived from the 21 st century skills/themes

27 + Sample enduring understandings Social Studies A union is only as strong as its citizens belief in it and each other. The government structure reflects the amount of faith the leaders have in its people. We have become more democratic over time. English Youth cannot always know what is right because of inexperience. You are judged by the rules you follow and the rules you break. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 27

28 + Sample enduring understandings Physical Education/Health Knowing the rules can create opportunities. A team is more than a collection of individuals. Risk-taking has both expected and unexpected consequences. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 28

29 + Sample enduring understandings Art The context in which a piece is created impacts the audience’s perception of the piece. Experience and opportunities provide inspiration for further pursuits. FACS Pursuing a career path requires structured long-term planning and willingness to deviate from those plans to take risks. You are judged by the rules you follow and the rules you break. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 29

30 + Sample enduring understandings Computers/Business Education A good planner knows why and when to make adjustments. Success and failures are measured in every area of business. Audience and purpose influence the choice, use and presentation of language. Satisfying a customer at any cost is not always good for business. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 30

31 + Sample enduring understandings Environmental Science: Citizens have a responsibility to voice their opinions about important issues in articulate and educated ways. Environmental awareness and stewardship are crucial toward developing civic responsibility. Letter writing can be a powerful way to bring about change in the community. Mathematics: is a useful language for symbolically modeling and thus simplifying and analyzing our world. Math can give visualization to what cannot be seen. Probability models are useful tools for making decisions and predictions. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 31

32 + Writing involves many elements. In a free-market economy, price is a function of supply and demand. DNA Students will understand how to compare and order fractions, decimals, percents, and numbers written in scientific notation. Students will understand that there are numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. Which of the following are enduring understandings? ASCD O Fallon SD ; Donna Herold

33 + Task: Choose a unit for your work today Create two or three Enduring Understandings for your unit. Be ready to share your understandings at 10:10 Remember to incorporate 21 st Century Skills and/or Themes

34 + Enduring Understanding: Conflict creates change Essential Question: To what extent did the conflicts of the Civil Rights movement create a platform for political change? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

35 + Designing with Essential Questions 35 More question-based, problem-based, and challenge-based design: as opposed to content- based design Moving away from the textbook as syllabus: to the textbook as resource, in support of understanding-focused goals More like athletics, art: complex performances of transfer that require the inferences and the content ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

36 + Design Standards for Essential Questions Align with enduring understandings Provoke genuine inquiry Encourage transfer ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 36

37 + Is this an Essential Question? What are the elements of writing? How do you find the mean? To what extent can you lie with statistics? What are the causes of the Civil War? Why read old books? To what extent can we predict the future?

38 + Sample essential questions Math How can you represent the same number in different ways? How can that help you? To what extent can you lie with statistics? What are the limits of this mathematical model? Physical Education What makes this technique work? When (and who) is it best for? What’s our strategy? How is it working? What adjustments do we need to make? How does the way I talk affect the other players? How do I get better at this? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 38

39 + Sample essential questions Business and Applied Arts What’s the best tool/materials for the job? Is failure necessary for personal growth? What do existing models help me see? How does that influence my work? When should I follow an example? When do I go out on my own? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 39

40 + Sample essential questions Language Arts What does a good listener do? What does a reader bring to a text? How do you write so other people can understand what you are trying to say? What makes a story work? What is the speaker trying to communicate? How does the delivery influence my response? How do I figure out meaning when I don’t understand all of the words? Science How do you know something is alive? Are we destined to become our parents? How is this system designed to handle change? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 40

41 + Sample essential questions Social Studies What story do maps tell? What makes a community work? How do the stories we tell shape who we are? To what extent can one person change the world? Photograph How does a camera record a moment? How do I use technique to create a vision? What makes an image memorable? Dance Why does my mind need to know what my body is doing? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 41

42 + Sample essential questions How do my words/actions impact myself/others? When does opportunity become innovation? When does innovation become a way of life? What is the pattern here? What does it help me see? How does a reader work to make meaning from a text? What am I focusing on as I’m working? How does that affect the quality of my work? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 42

43 How the big ideas hang together Sample from a teacher’s draft Big IdeaEnduring Understandings Essential Questions Cultural voice / heritage A group’s identity is defined by a shared system of beliefs and practices. How does family influence who we are? Who we become? What makes a group powerful? What do we learn about a group/culture by the stories they tell? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 43

44 + Moving from an enduring understanding to an essential question Enduring Understanding: Draft Essential Question: ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 44

45 + ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 45

46 + Essential Questions vs. Good Questions ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 46

47 + knowledge and skills...assist students in gaining understanding AND in illustrating their understanding ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

48 + Content—Knowledge--Skills ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

49 +

50 + Design Standards for Knowledge and Skills What students should know Appropriate given the unit focus, assessments, and time allotted Succinctly stated What students should be able to do Appropriate given the unit focus, assessments, and time allotted Choice of verb indicates performance expectation Designer’s choice whether to separate knowledge and skills ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 50

51 + Identifying key knowledge and skills Knowledge: __________________ Skills: __________________ ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 51 Given the targeted content standards and understandings, what will students need to know and be able to do?

52 + Factual knowledge ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 52 includes... - vocabulary/ terminology - definitions - key factual information - critical details - important events and people - sequence/timeline

53 + Skills ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 53 includes... - basic skills - e.g., decoding, drawing - communication skills - e.g., listening, speaking, writing - research/inquiry/ investigation skills - thinking skills - e.g., comparing, problem solving, decision making -study skills - e.g., note taking -interpersonal, group skills

54 + Your Task: Brainstorm Knowledge and Skills for your unit. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 54

55 + LUNCH! If a student ‘got it’--what could they do with it?

56 + The understandings are declarative statements that demand exploration. The essential questions engage students and guide them to understanding. Stage 1 truly centers on understanding. Knowledge and skills align with and are appropriate for the understandings. Self-assessment of Stage One: ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

57 + 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction Three stages of backward design ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 57

58 + Desired results for Stage 2 The purpose of assessment is to provide reliable and authentic evidence of understanding and transfer. Assessment not only measures student performance, it motivates it. If you value the desired result, learners deserve accessible opportunities to demonstrate learning. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 58

59 + How would you measure for transfer? Models impact and improve student understanding Society impacts the natural world in positive and negative ways What you want to communicate influences the way your present information How can I model and demonstrate remainders? Combinations are an essential tools for finding the number of possible ways events can occur. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 59

60 + The photo album versus the snapshot. How to Assess Targets

61 + The photo album versus the snapshot. How to Assess Targets

62 + Recognizing the limits of testing “Evaluation is a complex, multi-faceted process. Different tests provide different information, and no single test can give a complete picture of a student’s academic development. -- from CTB/McGraw-Hill Terra Nova Test Manual ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 62

63 + Stage 2: Assessment Plan ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 63 Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Transfer Task(s):Other Evidence: Performance task Products / Performances Academic Prompts -All other forms of assessment Quizzes, tests, prompts, work samples Observations Student self-assessment

64 + Stage 2: Assessment Plan ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 64 Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Transfer Task(s):Other Evidence: Determine types of assessment (Formative) Summative Determine types of assessment Diagnostic Formative Summative

65 + Worth being familiar with Important to know & do Big ideas & Enduring Understandings “Big ideas” worth exploring and understanding in depth Foundational knowledge & skill Nice to know Traditional quizzes & tests Paper/pencil Selected- response Constructed response Performance tasks & projects Complex Open ended Authentic ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

66 + Key research findings Preparing Teachers for a Changing World “Authentic tasks increase student motivation to learn.” — Stipek (2002) “Student’s beliefs about real-world significance of what they are learning were a strong predictor of their interest and enjoyment of math class.” — Mitchell (1993) “Students give highest interest ratings to classes that make them think hard and require them to participate actively in thinking and learning.” — Newmann (1992) ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 66

67 + Designing performance tasks Goal Role Audience Situation Product/Performance Standards ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 67 GRASPSGRASPS

68 + Performance tasks v. Academic prompt FAT-P Format Audience Topic Purpose RAFT Role Audience Format Topic

69 + How do you assess understanding? 21 st Century skills Add two here Communication Successful communication is measured by the degree by which it is understood by the audience Ecosystems The change one organism makes in order to adapt/survive has significant ripple effects. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 69

70 + Is the task relevant? Connected to the classroom — demonstration / extension of what was learned Connected to the real world — work that professionals in the field would do Connected to student’s life — Connected to capacity — students have clarity on what is expected from them and the necessary skills / knowledge to be successful ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 70

71 + Do students have the ability to be successful? Assess before teaching Offer appropriate choices Provide feedback early and often Encourage self-assessment and goal setting Allow new evidence of achievement to replace old evidence ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 71

72 + Sample performance tasks Academic Prompts Performance Tasks

73 + Task: Design a transfer task (performance or academic prompt) for your unit. Create the ACTUAL student instructions for the task. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 73

74 + Gallery Walk—Peer Review Post enduring understandings, essential questions, transfer task, and student handout Feedback including I wonder... I notice...

75 + Day Two

76 + Day one feedback Write down one or two questions that you would like to have resolved by the end of the day. Take 15 minutes to examine peer feedback from day one

77 + Definitions Analytic Holistic Gradual Release of Responsibility Most importantly: Tied to Stage one ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Rubrics:

78 + Rubrics vs. Partial Credit The purpose of the rubric is to reliably and efficiently assess a student’s progress towards standard. Rubrics:

79 + …elements have a range of variation between what is considered introduced and what is demonstrated or applied. …the instructional process is being monitored. …the rubric will guide the learning process. …many educators will be using the rubric. …a product with specific attributes is being evaluated. Rubric Indicators are important when:

80 + Strategies and Tools Gradual Release of Responsibility Acquisition, Meaning, Transfer Depth of Knowledge Bloom Writing Rubric Indicators:

81 + Rubrics designed for tasks Rubrics designed for understandings Rubrics

82 + Begin by delineating the 2 and 3. Then progress to the 4 and the 1. Writing Rubrics

83 + In your small groups, try writing rubrics for your transfer task/understandings. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Writing Rubrics

84 + Rubrics 4321 Understanding Knowledge & Skill

85 + In your small group, assign one person to construct: A ‘2’ response A ‘3’ response A ‘4’ response How might these be used in the classroom? How might teachers use this process? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Exemplars:

86 + Other Evidence Begin brainstorming other elements of your assessment package

87 + To what extent do your assessments… assess the enduring understandings? assess the knowledge and skills? Check for gaps and points of emphasis. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Alignment of Assessments:

88 + Is there a range of assessments as opposed to a single task/test (photo album vs. snapshot)? Could a student be successful on the assessment package without truly understanding? Could the student understand and not be successful on the assessment package? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Review Standards—Stage Two:

89 + Lunch

90 + Three stages of backward design ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction

91 + Acquisition vs. Meaning Making Learning Calculus Start 2x 3 3x 5 2x 5 5x 7 4x 10 3x 8 Finish 6x 2 15x 4 10x 4 35x 6 40x 9 24x 7

92 + Acquire Information Constructing Meaning Transfer ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold A M T

93 + ‘Enduring Understanding’ Learners must Acquire and Make Meaning out of information in the service of understanding and Transferring it. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

94 + A fact is a fact; a skill is a skill. We acquire each in turn. Acquisition does not yield understanding; it is necessary but not sufficient. If I have skills and facts, it does not mean that I understand. I cannot, however, understand without those skills and facts. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Acquire information

95 + What do these facts imply? When would I use this skill (or not)? What is their sense, import, value? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Constructing meaning

96 + How many buses does the army need to transport 1,128 soldiers if each bus holds 36 soldiers? 32 ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

97 + How should I apply my prior facts, skills, and ideas effectively in this particular situation? The situation must be new and uncharted. The goal is independent transfer. ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Transfer

98 +

99 + Stage 3: Learning Plan ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 99 Stage 3 - Learning Plan Design a set of learning experiences that fosters understanding and transfer.

100 + So, what is understanding? “To understand is to be able to wisely and effectively use what one knows, in context – to “apply” our knowledge and skill effectively, in a realistic setting.” -- Wiggins and McTighe ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 100

101 + Stage two planning is revealed in Stage three instructional design Pre-assessment (Finding Out) Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking -up) Summative Assessment (Making sure) Feedback and Goal Setting Readiness, Interests, and Learning Preferences of students Essential Questions [reading/writing] Exit Cards Peer evaluation 3-minute pauses Vocabulary - quiz/notebooks Observations Creating Rubrics Self-evaluation Journals - Essential Questions+ Performance Task Academic Prompt Portfolio ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

102 + Where are we headed? How will the student be ‘hooked’? What opportunities will there be to be equipped, experienced, and explore key ideas? What will provide opportunities to rethink, rehearse, refine and revise? How will students evaluate their work? How will work be tailored to individual needs, interests, styles? How will work be organized for maximal engagement and effectiveness? ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 102 W H E E R T O

103 + Teaching with misunderstandings in mind A study of how plants make food was conducted with students from elementary school through college [to] probe understanding of the role of soil and photosynthesis in plant growth and of the primary source of food in green plants (Wandersee, 1983)... Students from all levels displayed several misconceptions: Soil is the plants’ food. Plants get their food from the roots and store it in the leaves Chlorophyll is the plant’s blood” -- Bransford, How People Learn ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 103

104 + Example of a misunderstanding in Science “Some students think that ‘cold’ is being transferred from a colder to warmer object…students often think that objects cool down or release heat spontaneously… Even after instruction, students don’t always give up their naive notion that some substances (e.g. flour) cannot heat up or that metals get hot because they “attract heat” etc.” (pp ) -- From 2061 Benchmarks (AAAS) ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 104

105 + Implications for instruction ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 105 Address predictable misunderstandings by design. -Provide real or simulated experiences related to the desired understandings. -Build in checks for understanding and misunderstanding along the way. -Require students to revisit/rethink what they thought they understood. -Final assessments should check to see if common misunderstandings have been overcome.

106 + Task: Design a Stage Three learning plan for your unit. Indicate order, code with A-M-T ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 106

107 + 3 units per group (max of 6 people) Author shares overview of unit (5 minutes) Reviewers discuss unit (5 minutes) Author listens, takes notes, does not engage Conversation (5 minutes) Clarifications, suggestions, next steps ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold Peer Review Protocol:

108 + Cornerstone Assessment Task(s) Overarching Essential Question(s) Overarching Understanding(s ) Content Standards Program Area unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 Course 1 Course 3 Course 4Course 2 unit 5 ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold 108

109 + ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

110 + Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe) Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook (Wiggins and McTighe) Assessment for 21 st Century Learning—DVD 1,2 &3 Moving Forward with Understanding by Design—DVD Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design (Tomlinson and McTighe) Schooling by Design (Wiggins and McTighe) Classroom Assessment and Grading That Work (Marzano) All available at ascd.org For more information: ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

111 + For more information: Partnership for 21 st Century skills: International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Thomas Rye Donna Herold ASCD Allen Parish 2010; Rye and Herold

112 + ©2010 by Thomas Rye and Donna Herold. All rights reserved. This handout is intended for your personal use only. Further reproduction and dissemination, in whole or part, requires the permission of the various owners as credited herein. ASCD Publications present a variety of viewpoints. The views expressed or implied in this publication are not necessarily official positions of ASCD.

113 + Evaluating your Experience

114 + Below is a link to ASCD’s online Professional Development Feedback Survey. We encourage all participants to complete the online evaluation within the next ten (10) days. All responses will be anonymously reported to ASCD. Thank you for taking the time to honestly evaluate the program. The results we receive help us to improve the quality of services you receive


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