2Reliable Indicators that labor has begun The Show: Spotting of blood because of the mucus plug coming out when the cervix begins to dilate.Water Breaks: Rupture of amniotic sac causing fluid leaks through cervix.Contractions: Muscle contractions at regular intervals than cannot be “walked off.”
3ContractionsContractions are the rhythmic tightening and relaxing motions of the muscles of the uterus.Braxton-Hicks Contractions are called “false labor.” They can occur throughout the pregnancy and typically involve the back, not the uterus. They are not regular and can go away with exercise.
4Induced LaborA doctor causes labor to begin by injecting a drug that begins contractionsA doctor ruptures the amniotic sac to begin contractions.
5First Stage of Labor Contractions begin Cervix dilates to 7 Average length is two to ten hoursLongest StageContractions grow stronger, longer, and more frequentFetal monitor attached
6TransitionRegular, powerful, contractions every two to three minutes that last up to 60 to 90 secondsLast about 90 minutesBaby’s head enters birth canalCervix dilates to 10
7Epidural Injection in back next to spinal canal. Numbs the lower half of the bodyGiven when mother is dilated to about cm.
8Positions for Giving Birth Lie on backSquattingLie on sideSittingKneelingIn water
9Second Stage of LaborThe second stage of labor is the birth of the babyCrowning is when the head of the baby can be seen.
10EpisiotomyAn episiotomy is a surgical cut in the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening to make birth easier and prevent tearing.The cut is stitched back together after delivery.
11Breech DeliveryA breech delivery is when a baby is born feet or butt first.A feet first delivery is especially worrisome due to broken bones or displaced joints.Breech delivery is a concern because the cord and head must come at the same time pinching off the oxygen supply as the baby descends through the birth canal.Many breech babies use cesarean delivery.
12Cesarean Delivery Used When: The labor is long and difficult and the life or the baby or mother is threatened.The fetal monitor shows a drop in heart rate.Placenta Previa—placenta is covering the opening to the cervix.The woman’s bone structure is too small to allow vaginal delivery.
13Third Stage of LaborThe third stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta.The placenta detaches from the uterine wall as the uterus shrinks.The placenta is expelled typically within 20 minutes.
14The Apgar RatingThe Apgar rating is used to determine if emergency steps need to be taken with a newborn.The rating goes from 0 to 10 with a score of 7 or higher indicating a healthy newborn.
15ColostrumColostrum is a yellow fluid rich in nutrients and antibodies produced by the breast in the first few days after childbirth.Colostrum protects the newborn from infections.Mothers are encouraged to give the new baby the colostrum.
16Sitz BathSoaking the perineum for short periods of time after childbirth.Keeps area clean to prevent infection of episiotomy.
17Problems of Premature Infants Low birth weightUnderdeveloped lungsInfectionsSlow development later in lifeLittle or no sucking reflex