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Process skills used by South African and Norwegian students to perform cognitive tasks on magnetism, acids and bases Oyvind Mikalsen and Meshach Ogunniyi.

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Presentation on theme: "Process skills used by South African and Norwegian students to perform cognitive tasks on magnetism, acids and bases Oyvind Mikalsen and Meshach Ogunniyi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Process skills used by South African and Norwegian students to perform cognitive tasks on magnetism, acids and bases Oyvind Mikalsen and Meshach Ogunniyi

2 Origin of SATASYO Scientific, Technological, Literacy project STL Project Graduate Studies in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education GRASSMATE Science Among Thirteen and Sixteen Years Olds in South Africa and Norway SATASYO

3 The six major themes for the various concepts 1. Energy and Forces 3. Measurement 5 Soil, Plants & Animals 2. Properties of matter 4. Adaptations of Organisms to their Environment 6. Human systems

4 List of all the instruments Grade 7 (8) 1. Acids and bases in the home 2. Energy and change 3. Forces 4. Magnetism 5. Measurement and Matter 6. Our environment and us - Part 1 7. Our environment and us - Part 2

5 Analysis The analysis involves both:  ”marking” - to establish validity  ”probing” - to attain a deeper under- standing of underlying assumptions

6 Types of probes The probes are of three types: (i) Tracking a trend within a single category (ii) Tracking across two or m ore categories (iii) Relating findings to experiences outside the assessment framework, e.g. out-of-school activities and interests.

7 Basic assumption 1: If the claim that students’ conceptual under-standings evolve from their immediate life world experiences is valid, then it is reasonable to situate both the curriculum and instruction in those experiences.

8 Basic assumption 2 The assumption here is that a curriculum or an assessment, which lacks some experiential foundation from the students’ perspectives is not likely to succeed in engaging the students’ intellectual interest.

9 Aim of the study 1  The SATASYO-project is based largely on a constructivist paradigm, i.e. learning as a process of active knowledge-construction.  The study is concerned with determining what knowledge, attitude or views about science and technology are held by grades 7 – 10 pupils in the Western Cape region and the area around Bergen in Norway.

10 Aim of the study 2 The overall aim is to determine grades 7 – 10 South African and Norwegian students’ conceptions of various scientific concepts. This report focuses specifically on grade 7 and 8 students’ conceptions of magnetism, acids and bases. Using an Assessment Framework the study explores the process skills used by the students in performing the cognitive tasks on magnetism, acids and bases.

11 Methods Two instruments, “Students’ Conceptions of Acids and Bases in the home” (SCABITH) and “My ideas of Magnetism” (MIM) were used. The students’ responses were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of basic and high-order process skills.

12 Assessment framework Categories of science performance: 1. Use process skills to investigate 2. Conception of scientific concepts and principle 3. Applying scientific knowledge and skills innovatively 4. Use of scientific knowledge and skills in responsible decision-making and management 5. Scientific versus alternative conceptions or traditional worldviews. 6. The revisionary or tentative nature of scientific information

13 Reliability Inter-reliability for MIM and SCABITH were 0.97 and 0.98, on average. Reliability values for RSA and Norway, using KR-21, were 0.81 and 0.72 on MIM and 0.91 and 0.88 on SCABITH, respectively

14 Findings 1 The findings indicate that while there is no significant difference in the students’ conceptions of acids and bases in terms of sex, age and career interest, there are, with the exception of sex, significant differences of magnetism on account of age, language and career interest.

15 Findings 2 Overall, less than 40% of both groups of students hold valid conceptions of the concepts. Likewise the process skills demonstrated by the students are largely of low-order category

16 Performance per individual question (SCABITH)

17 The two highest responses on SCABITH A Table with the colours of various indicators in ACID and BASIC solutions is given before the questions.  Q3.1 What will be the colour of thymol when added to vinegar? (Mean 63%)  Q3.3 What will be the colour of litmus when testing a base? (Mean 63%)

18 The two lowest responses on SCABITH  Basic substances taste … and feel … (Mean 15%)  When you add the indicator bromo-thymol blue to a solution of sodium bicarbonate the colour changes to blue. What does this colour change tell you about sodium bicarbonate? (Mean 19%)

19 Students’ selection of various careers on SCABITH

20 Students’ performance according to career interests (MIM).

21 Students’ performance on the MIM according to the assessment framework

22 Performance on individual items of the MIM, ranked on increasing average performance

23 List of all instruments - Grade 8 (9) 1.Adaptations of organisms to their environment 2. Soil, Plants and animals 3. Electricity 4. The interdependence of organism 5. Properties and classifications of matter - Part 1 6. Properties and classification of Matter - Part 2 7. Gases - Part 1 8. Gases - Part 2

24 List of all instruments - Grade 9 (10) 1. Chemical change of substances 2. Electricity 3. Force, Work, Energy and Power 4. Pressure 5. The Cell 6. Plants 7. Human systems

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