Adair,J. (1993) Effective Leadership, Pan: London
Individuals in groups have common needs (page 28) To achieve the common task To be held together or to maintain themselves as cohesive unities The needs which individuals bring with them into the group
Common Task Groups form up because individual/s cannot complete a task Each member of the group needs to recognise the target and the time constraints Groups are relatively oblivious when the task being performed well and within limits (in the same way that we do not recognise we are well fed). Only when there is an outstanding success/moment of truimph do the group actual react – social man is happy/fulfilled – a moment of deep joy (Maslow) When a group is having a bad time, and all groups do (storming?), then only those people who are committed to the common good/group ideals really recognise this. Adversity can lead to the group recognising the need for development/reorganisation so as to put the team back on track/target.
Maintenance needs a need to get on effectively Unwritten rules develop to promote unity and overcome threats from outside and inside. Recognition of united we stand divided we fall Need to remove or stop disruptive elements People need other people to survive and be successful/achieve and to develop (occurs in social arrangements as well as work) (avoid group think).
Individual Needs Individuals bring their own needs: physiological needs are mainly taken care of through wages Recognition A sense of doing something worthwhile#sttus Deeper needs to give and revieve from other people
A concept that leadership is vested in the task – The person who is accepted as providing the task/function at the time holds effective leadership for the moment There will be leaders who act as safety net leaders for when no one emerges to take on the role of leader. This form of consensus leadership requires that the leader takes on board other peoples acceptance – look around the group and ensure that everyone is accommodated.
Things a group develops In order for a corporate personality to emerge, of course, a group has to be in the formative stage for some time. Then its unique character emerges. It acquires something like a collective memory. Especially groups are in their formative stages, 1~ can do a great deal to act the tone of this distinctive nature.
All groups have The other half of the theory stresses what group share in common As compared to their uniqueness. Different as individuals are in terms of appearance and personality, they share in common their. At midnight all of us usually begin to feel tired; at breakfast time we shall be hungry, and so on. According to this version of the theory, there are three areas of need present in working groups:
1 to achieve the common task 2 to be held together or to maintain themselves as cohesive ' unities 3 the needs which individuals bring with them into, the group.
After (Doyle, M and Smith, M. 2005) Four main styles of leadership: Concern for task. Here leaders emphasize the achievement of concrete objectives. They look for high levels of productivity, and ways to organize people and activities in order to meet those objectives. Concern for people. In this style, leaders look upon their followers as people - their needs, interests, problems, development and so on. They are not simply units of production or means to an end. Directive leadership. This style is characterized by leaders taking decisions for others - and expecting followers or subordinates to follow instructions. Participative leadership. Here leaders try to share decision-making with others (Wright 1996: 36-7).
Blake and mouton produce a chart to recognise if people are more interested in the task or people; range between the total task orientation to county club. –Authoritarian –Impoverished –Team Leader –Country Club
Janis victims of group think 1972 p164 Very cohesive group must serve its cohesiveness first. Too high a price on harmony and morale. Loyalty overrides individuals views Consensus at all costs Can lead to a refusal to think outside of the box – blocks development