4British in North America French in North AmericaNative Americans were caught in the middle. They lost a lot of land to the Europeans who were migrating into North America
5The Ohio River Valley was ready to explode! British in North AmericaFrench in North AmericaThe Ohio River Valley was ready to explode!Why?
6Causes: French and Indian War 1. Fur Trade 2. Land 3. Indian Relations B.2. Land3. Indian Relations
7The Fur TradeVery important to the French. Made a lot of money selling Beaver fur 1500s-1800s Beaver fur was used to make hats, they were the fashion in Europe. This is one of the causes of the French and Indian War.
9LandAnother cause of the French and Indian War.English colonists bought 500,000 acres of land in the Ohio Valley to farm. This became the colony of New YorkThis area was very important to the French fur trade and hurt the French economicallyFrench gov’t built forts to stop English taking the land.English government built forts and started to grant land to its citizens.
10Indian RelationsFrench had good relationships with Indians. English didn’t. They wanted to take their land for farming.Most French colonists were fur traders and trappers.French only wanted the fur. They didn’t stay on the land.They lived among the Indians and adopted their ways.They learned to make canoes, trap animals, make snow shoes, etc..They learned Native American languages.They took Indian brides. Had bi-racial children
12British in North America French in North America The English attacked the French fort, Fort Duquesne. The attack was a disaster for the British but it was the beginning of the French and Indian War.British in North AmericaFrench in North America
13British in North America French in North America The French and Indian War was fought on two continents (North America and Europe)In the Colonies it was called French & Indian War. In Europe it was called The Seven Years WarBritish in North AmericaFrench in North America
14WarIn America, they fought over control of the entire Western frontier including the Ohio River Valley.In Europe, France and England began to fight in what was called the Seven Years War.
15Advantages of Each Side B.C.D.1. British/American Advantages:2. French Advantages:A.B.
16Advantages of Each Side British/American AdvantagesLarger Population1,485,000Militias(Poorly organized and equipped but…)They were ready at a moment’s notice.Had been fighting the Indians for over a 100 years.Self-supportingProduced enough food and supplies.Britain controlled the seas.French AdvantagesDidn’t have self-government in French colonies. Didn’t have to “convince” colonists to helpTowns were close together and easier to defend
17Disadvantages of Each Side French and Indian WarDisadvantages of Each SideA.1. British/American Disadvantages:A.B.C.2. French Disadvantages:
18Disadvantages of Each Side British/American ColoniesHad to “convince” Colonists to fight for EnglandB. Fighting an Offensive WarAttacked Quebec and Montreal to try to win the war.French ColoniesSmaller Population75,000Depended on ImportsBritish controlled the seas.Not enough troopsFrance sent few troops over.Defense fell to the fur trading companies and they weren’t soldiers.
19Native American Involvement 1. British/American Allies:A.2. French Allies:
20Native American Involvement British/American ColoniesIroquois League Mostly neutral, but did fight occasionally.Chief of the Mohawks, Joseph Brant, became a colonel in the British army.French ColoniesHuron, Algonquin, Ottawa. Longtime trading partnersDidn’t trust the land grabbing white settlers.
23Draw Albany Plan on right C.Draw Albany Plan on right
24The Albany Plan1754-Delegates from nine of the thirteen colonies met in Albany, New York.Benjamin Franklin, a delegate from Pennsylvania came to Albany with the “Albany Plan”, a loose union or compact between the colonies.He tried to get a promise from the colonies to work together and with the British. He told the Colonists that if they didn’t work together and fight the French, they would all die because the French would see them as English and kill them.The Plan failed b/c the Colonies were trying to protect their own interests over the interests of the whole group
26Results of the French and Indian War War EndsA.B.A.B.C.Results of the French and Indian WarProclamation Line of 1763A.B.
27France and Britain continued fighting in Europe for three more years War Ends (in America)France and Britain continued fighting in Europe for three more yearsTreaty of Paris was signed on February 10, 1763-this ended the war in America.France surrendered all land in North America to Britain
28Results of French and Indian War Britain gained control over half the North American continent-everything east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.British decided to re-establish control of the Colonies-They set up a “line” that Colonists were not supposed to crossBritish government was deeply in debtBritain began fighting in 1754 with a national debt of approximately 75 million pounds, but the war effort caused the debt to soar to 133 million pounds by 1763.
29The British set up the Proclamation Line of 1763 Told Colonists to not go west of the Appalachian Mountains (the “line”)This kept Colonists close to the Atlantic ports and made it easier for England to keep Colonists trading with them. It was a way to control the Colonists.Proclamation Line made Colonists really angry. They realized it was a way for England to control them. They wanted to be free to find land west of the Appalachian's
30French made a lot of money selling Beaver fur. French and Indian WarCauses:French made a lot of money selling Beaver fur.1. Fur TradeEnglish bought land in the Ohio Valley to farm. This became the colony of New York2. LandThis area was very important to the French fur trade and hurt the French economically3. Indian RelationsFrench had good relationships with Indians. English didn’t.French wanted the fur. They didn’t stay on the land.
31Advantages of Each Side Larger Population1. British/American Advantages:MilitiasSelf-supportingBritain controlled the seas.Didn’t have to “convince” colonists to help2. French Advantages:Towns were close together and easier to defend
32Disadvantages of Each Side French and Indian WarDisadvantages of Each SideHad to “convince” Colonists to fight for England1. British/American Disadvantages:Smaller Population2. French Disadvantages:B. Depended on ImportsC. Not enough troops
33Native American Involvement A. Iroquois League Mostly neutral1. British/American Allies:Huron didn’t trust white settlers.2. French Allies:
34Draw Albany Plan on right Benjamin Franklin came to Albany with the “Albany Plan”Albany PlanB. He tried to get a promise from the colonies to work together and with the British.C. The Plan failed b/c the Colonies were trying to protect their own interests over the interests of the whole groupDraw Albany Plan on right
35Results of the French and Indian War Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10, 1763-this ended the war in America.War EndsB. France surrendered all land in North America to BritainBritain gained control over half the North American continent-everything east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.Results of the French and Indian WarBritish decided to re-establish control of the Colonies-They set up a “line” that Colonists were not supposed to crossBritish government was deeply in debtProclamation Line of 1763A. Told Colonists to not go west of the Appalachian MountainsB. Proclamation Line made Colonists really angry. They realized it was a way for England to control them