Presentation on theme: "TVET and the challenge of North - South cooperation Learn4Work Seminar 2009, Amsterdam September 22, 2009 Jan van den Hoogen."— Presentation transcript:
TVET and the challenge of North - South cooperation Learn4Work Seminar 2009, Amsterdam September 22, 2009 Jan van den Hoogen
Presentation in five steps Comparing TVET in South and North: some reflections). Challenges for N/S cooperation: a possible agenda for action). Dutch Development Policies and TVET. Strategy for N/S cooperation. Final conclusions.
Definition TVET (UNEVOC) Post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programmes delivered by Higher Education, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills.
Comparing TVET in South and North (1) South: Often buildings in poor condition, wiring inadequate, pollution (health), safety problem, broken/old equipment, traditional library, no/few raw materials. North: Often new buildings, proper wiring etc., health precautions, new equipment, open learning centers, ample materials.
Comparing TVET in South and North (2) South: Large groups, mostly demonstration rather than (active) learning by doing, safety issue, theory – practical skills divide. North: Small groups, assignments to promote active learning, integration of theory and practical skills training.
Comparing TVET in South and North (3) South: TVET – industry linkages at best in initial stage, often non existent; TVET supply driven, curricula academic (supply) rather than industry based (demand). North: Industry involved in NQF development, strong regional imbedding, demand driven, centres of expertise (kenniscentra) as intermediate agencies.
Comparing TVET in South and North (4) South: TVET is expensive, often underfinanced; need for more financial support from industry, but private sector still rather weak; as a result TVET must rely on student fees, donor funding and similar. North: Mostly higher government funding, more often private sector (better developed) input through Training Fund, high(er) student fees; funding from other Ministeries (Labour, Immigration, Social Affairs).
Comparing TVET in South and North (5) South: Enterpreneurial skills training more academic than focussing on practical entrepreunrial skills, not integral part of overall curriculum, but seperate subject or course; need to learn by doing. North: Enterpreneurial skills at the heart of the curriculum (especially at the higher levels), integral part of teaching and learning.
Challenges for N/S partnerships (1) Development of a clear and comprehensive TVET policy (legislation), e.g. new TVET in Kenya. Development of a National Qualification Framework (NQF) incorporating lessons learnt in the North e.g. Botswana; Creation of strong involvement of social partners in TVET development, making use of good practices in the North;
Challenges for S/N partnerships (2) Setting up of intermediate (= bridging) agencies like Centers of Expertise (kenniscentra) in NL. Development of MBO Council like national interest group(s) promoting attention for and investment in TVET as well as proper conditions of services (renumeration). Development of demand rather than supply driven curricula. Short intermezzo
The national expertise centers (Kbbs): the Dutch collection….
Mission of Kenwerk As centre of expertise for the sectors hospitality, bakery, travel, leisure and facility services, we bring vocational education and industry together to contribute to a healthy labour market. Jobs for young people Well trained employees for the industry
Kenwerk Kenwerk works by commission of the minister for Education, Culture and Science (OCW) as a consequence of our new VET legislation (1997:WEB). There are 18 CoEs. Main tasks: 1.Maintaining a qualification framework (NQF) 2.Certification of workplacement companies 3.(International) projects for schools, government, industry to stimulate good education and a healthy labour market
Development qualification structure Educ. institutions (development of curricula based on qualifications) Social partners (job profiles) Centres of expertise (qualification profiles) Minister of Education (approval) Which VET programmes are funded? Inspection of: Education Examination Dialogue social- and educational partners
Development: the complex version Social partners Employers and Employees organisations Colo Umbrella sector expertise centres MBO Council Represents all educational institutes Decision taker (approval) Ministry of Education,Culture and ScienceMinistry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality Inspectorate (for overall Inspection and control) Coordination Point Qualification VET (CP) Assessment Industry / Branches: Via National Expertise Centres Education VET: Via regional educational (Agricultural) institutes (ROC+AOC) National Expertise Centres Sector specific Parity Committee Define occupational profiles (BCP) (Description vocational context core tasks, core issues and competences) Design curriculum Teach curriculum Test competences Develop Education Profiles (OP) Industry Education Sectors Develop together qualification profiles (KP) based on format
Challenges for N/S partnerships (3) Development of Quality Assurance Policy and QA system(s), with special reference to school self- evaluation approaches; and making use of such experiences in the North. Jointly avoiding a too narrow economic approach to TVET. Developing proper career guidance system, and assisting in job seeking initiatives. Development of TVET teacher training (ToT), and related upgrading of TVET teachers and instructors, and TVET managers.
Challenges for N/S partnerships (4) Development of more student centered, and IT based learning methods. Improving learning through work placements (internships) through training (certification) of supervisors as well as companies. Promotion of problem solving skills, Combining funding (public, private sector, NGO) to avoid waste of limited resources for TVET development; Creation of Training Fund (sectorwise).
Challenges for N/S cooperation (5) Cooperation in promoting entrepreneurial skills training through e.g. Student Enterprise Projects (SEP), College Enterprise Projects (farm, car repair workshop), and self-employment projects (starting up SMEs). Cooperation in setting up database of graduates to keep in contact in view of work placements, in service training, SEP etc. Jointly promoting relevance and reputation of TVET (industry, parents/students).
Dutch Development Policies and TVET No specific programme on TVET, neither a specific TVET Dutch development policy. NPT includes TVET projects, but major focus of NPT is on HE; NICHE has yet to start (will come back). Study (2007) indicated limited capacity and expertise on TVET at HQ, and Embassies. Nuffic: primarily HE, no specific TVET department or unit. Dutch TVET: limited capacity for tendering and implementation of TVET projects. Limited (TVET) resources are not used effectively and efficiently, too many and too small projects.
N/S cooperation to put TVET on Dutch Development Agenda Cooperation amongst TVET stakeholders in both North and South is essential. To promote that TVET is high on the agenda for Dutch development support. To promote improved TVET capacity and expertise of decision (policy) makers. To promote good TVET practices in the South based on (new) N/S partnerships.
Strategy for N/S cooperation Combining forces of key TVET stakeholders in North and South, and Combining limited financial resources (funding) to realise. A small number of good TVET pilot projects (= Centers of Excellence) to act as examples of good TVET practice, and As models for further TVET development.
Funded by Dutch Government (48% Grant through ORIO) and Government of Kenya (52%) Total project value: 15 MLN EURO 1)Technical Assistance 2)Consultancy 3)Curriculum Development 4)In-Country Training 5)Overseas Fellowships 6)Technical Training 7)Supply, Installation Commissioning for Equipment Rehabilitation and upgrading of the Kenya TVET training centers
TIVET approach Kenya Comprehensive (holistic) approach. = whole package: both hard as well as soft. Stepwise: upgrading of KTTC, and 9 TVET colleges to become Centers of Excellence. Roll out to other colleges (nation wide), approx. thirty, through ToT, curriculum reviews; Focus is on Technical VET; Main objective: to improve the quality of TVET. More demand-driven (societal needs), better access, promote entrepreneurship, self employment, higher enrolment.
ORIO programme ORET/ORIO is a Dutch facility for infrastructure development, e.g. educational infrastructures, including equipment; Governments in developing countries join with the business community to set up large infrastructure projects; Emphasis is on building and construction for example of workshops, including equipment and machinery.
NICHE programme Capacity development in post secundaire education in developing countries to enable them to provide themselves with better education and workforce in the long run. Special attention for: Relation with the labour market; Vocational Education and Training; Gender issues; Input of local/regional expertise.
Niche budget and countries Budget: from ca. 40 MLN EURO in 2007 tot ca. 65 MLN EURO in 2012 (50% naar Sub Sahara Afrika). 33 partner countries (inclusive fragile states). Fully operational in 14 countries (also in South Africa) in 2009 (?), Gradual extension with more countries in the coming years, Budget for hardware (renovation, equipment) max. approx. 20% of total budget.
Strategy continued In North: Promotion of cooperation between Centers of Expertise, TVET (ROCs), private sector, and NGOs. In South: focus on establishment of Centers of Excellence rather than spreading limited resources over too many small projects with little impact in view of sustainability of efforts. Support both at national and school level.
Final conclusions (to summarize) Strengthening of TVET in the South requires combining Dutch TVET capacity as well as (Dutch) funding, To create a (small) number of TVET Centres (of Excellence) as regional or national good TVET practices (small diamonds). To act as examples (awareness building, dissemination, ToT) for other TVET schools in the South, and as sustainable basis. For meaningful twinning of TVET N/S, for student exchange, traineeships and others.
Definition TVET (UNEVOC) Post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programmes delivered by Higher Education, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills