Presentation on theme: "1 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Primary Mission: TO LEAD NATIONAL EFFORTS TO REDUCE ILLICIT DRUG USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES."— Presentation transcript:
1 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) Primary Mission: TO LEAD NATIONAL EFFORTS TO REDUCE ILLICIT DRUG USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.
ONDCP/FEB02 ONDCP n Created by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, as amended n Develops National Drug Control Strategies and Coordinates and Oversees Implementation n Develops Federal National Drug Control Budgets n Recommends improvements in management and organization of drug control efforts n Conducts evaluations and performance measurement to improve program effectiveness
ONDCP/FEB02 National Drug Control Strategy National Priorities u Stopping Use Before It Starts: Education and Community Action u Healing Americas Drug Users: Getting Treatment Resources Where They Are Needed u Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic Basis of the Drug Trade
ONDCP/FEB02 Two and Five Year Goals Two-Year Goals: u A 10 percent reduction in current use of illegal drugs by the age group u A 10 percent reduction in current use of illegal drugs by those aged 18 and older Five-Year Goals: u A 25 percent reduction in current use of illegal drugs by the age group u A 25 percent reduction in current use of illegal drugs by those aged 18 and older
ONDCP/FEB02 These Goals translate into these declines in Past Month Drug Use Source of 1999 and 2000 data: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2000.
ONDCP/FEB02 Budget Highlights: Funding by Major Initiatives
ONDCP/FEB02 Stopping Use Before It Starts Education and Community Action Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program: $644 million ($634.8 million drug-related) National Youth Media Campaign: $180 million Drug-Free Communities Program: $60 million Parents Drug Corps Program: +$5 million Drug-Free Workplace Programs: $3 million
ONDCP/FEB02 HHS Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration â Targeted Capacity Expansion Program: +$109 million â Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant: +$60 million HHS Drug Abuse Treatment Research: â National Institute on Drug Abuse: +$57.5 million Healing Americas Drug Users: Getting Treatment Resources Where They Are Needed:
ONDCP/FEB02 DOJ Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Promoting Drug Treatment in the Criminal Justice System â Residential Substance Abuse Treatment: +$7 million ($77 million total) â Drug Courts: +$2 million ($52 million total) Healing Americas Drug Users: Getting Treatment Resources Where They Are Needed: (continued)
ONDCP/FEB02 Andean Counterdrug Initiative: $731 million Coast Guards Deepwater Project: +$500 million Border Control and Enforcement: +$76.3 million ($11.4 million drug-related) Southwest Border Prosecutor Initiative: $50 million Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic Basis of the Drug Trade:
ONDCP/FEB02 The Federal Drug Control Budget has more than quadrupled since ONDCP was established in Dollars, in Billions FY 2003: Presidents Request FY 2002: Enacted Level All Other Year: Actual Expenditures
ONDCP/FEB02 Demand Reduction and Domestic Law Enforcement account for the bulk of Federal Drug Control Spending Fiscal Year Dollars, in Billions
ONDCP/FEB02 Fiscal Year 2003 Presidents Request, by Area Total Resources: $19.2 Billion (Dollars in Millions) Domestic Law Enforcement (49%) Treatment w/Research (20%) Prevention w/Research (13%) Interdiction (12%) International (6%)
ONDCP/FEB02 Restructuring the National Drug Control Budget u One of the key changes in the new National Drug Control Strategy is a restructuring of the Drug Control Budget. The budget has partly been based on imperfect estimation techniques that gauge the portion of a program related to drug control. Under the new approach, all drug programs will tie directly to actual line items in agency budgets – establishing clearer lines of authority and accountability for results. Principles: u All funding items displayed in the drug budget should be readily identifiable line items in the Budget of the President or agency budget justifications; and u The budget presentation should be simplified by eliminating several supporting agencies from the drug tabulation. Only agencies with a primary demand reduction or supply reduction mission would be displayed in the drug budget
ONDCP/FEB02 Restructuring the National Drug Control Budget u Department of Defense u Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools u Health and Human Services SAMHSA NIDA u Department of Justice DEA OCDETF INS OJP u ONDCP u Department of State u Department of Transportation Coast Guard u Department of Treasury Customs Service OCDETF u Department of Veterans Affairs u Other Presidential Initiatives u Drug-Free Workplace Programs Parents Drug Corps Program SWB Prosecutor Initiative Proposed Agencies Included Under Budget Restructuring:
ONDCP/FEB02 Restructuring the National Drug Control Budget Modified Pro Forma Drug Control Budget Federal Drug Control Funding by Function ($ in Millions) (Detail may not add to totals due to rounding)
17 The Current Drug Situation Including Prevention and Treatment ONDCP
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: The National Household Survey n The main finding in the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is that overall drug use remains level. The rate of current (past month) illicit drug use is unchanged from 1999, with 6.3 percent of the population 12 years and older reporting past month use of an illicit drug in both 1999 and This represents an estimated 14.0 million current users in None of the major drug categories registered any significant change in their rates of current use. n Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug--76 percent of current illicit drug users used marijuana, and approximately 59 percent consumed only marijuana. The remaining 41 percent of current illicit drug users, those who used illicit drugs other than marijuana, total about 5.7 million Americans. Of these, 3.8 million were using psychotherapeutics, non-medically. This includes pain relievers (2.8 million users), tranquilizers (1 million users), stimulants (800,000 users), and sedatives (200,000 users). n This Nation is clearly moving away from cocaine. Current use of cocaine in the household population is down from its peak of 5.7 million users in 1985 to 1.2 million in The estimated number of current crack users in 2000 was 265,000. n Almost 3 million persons (2.8 million) reported having tried heroin in their lifetime (1.4 percent), but only 130,000 (0.1% of the household population) reported heroin use in the past month. n Lifetime use of methamphetamine was reported by 8.8 million persons (4.0 percent), but only 387,000 (0.2%) reported use in the past month. n Lifetime inhalant use was reported by 16.7 million persons (7.5 percent), with 622,000 reporting use in the past month (0.3 percent). Among youth, 8.9 percent reported having tried inhalants, while 1.0 percent reported current use. As noted above, a significant decline was noted among those aged n Lifetime use of MDMA in 2000 is estimated at 6.4 million persons, compared to 5.1 million in The 2000 NHSDA was not designed to report past month or past year use of MDMA.
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: Continued n There were 2 million new marijuana users in 1999 – 18 percent fewer than the 2.5 million new users in This continues the gradual decline that begun in 1995, when there were 2.6 million new users. The average age at first use was 17.0 years. n Youths aged 12 to 17 have constituted about two-thirds of the new users of marijuana in recent years, with young adults aged 18 to 25 constituting most of the remaining third. Rates of use for both youth and young adults decreased between 1998 and n New cocaine users in 1999 numbered about 768,000, down 13 percent from 1998 (882,000). However, average age at first dropped from 19.9 years in 1998 to 19.5 years in n Initiates to heroin use were estimated at 104,000 in 1991, 26 percent less than in 1998 with 140,000 new users. Average age at first use was 19.8 years, younger than the 23.5 and 21.9 years estimated for 1997 and 1998, respectively. n Initiates to hallucinogen use (incl.. LSD and PCP) were estimated at 1.2 million, the highest estimate since Estimates of substance abuse incidence, or initiation (I.e., number of new users during a given year) provide a valuable measure of the Nations drug use problem. They can suggest emerging patterns of use, particularly among young people. The initiation estimates in the 2000 NHSDA are based on combined 1999 and 2000 data, so direct comparison to older data is problematic. The key findings on initiation for 2000 follow:
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: Continued n Among youth (ages 12-17), the rate of any illicit drug use in the past month is statistically unchanged, from 9.8 percent in 1999 to 9.7 percent in Heroin use in the past month declined significantly from 0.2 percent in 1999 to 0.1 percent in 2000, while rates of current use for other major drugs did not change significantly from the previous year. n The youngest subset of youth (ages 12-13) reported a significantly lower rate of current use of any illicit drug, from 3.9 percent in 1999 to 3.0 percent in Inhalant use in the past month decreased significantly from 1.3 percent in 1999 to 0.7 percent in Rates of use for other specific drugs did not change significantly over the same period. n However, for the oldest subset of youth (ages 16-17), some significant increases in current use were noted. There was a significant increase in past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs, from 3.4 percent in 1999 to 4.3 percent in Within the psychotherapeutics category, past month nonmedical use of pain relievers increased significantly from 2.6 percent in 1999 to 3.3 percent in Current use of stimulants also increased significantly, from 0.8 percent to 1.2 percent. Methamphetamines, a category of stimulants, also showed a significant increase in this age subgroup, doubling from 0.3 percent in 1999 to 0.6 percent in n Youth attitudes are unchanged from last year. Perceptions of risk of drug use among youth show no statistically significant increases or decreases from 1999 to While perceptions of risk of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD use are stable, the percentage of youth reporting great risk in smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day increased significantly from 60.7 percent in 1999 to 64.1 percent in Also showing improvement is the percentage of youth reporting great risk in drinking five or more drinks once or twice a week, from 42.0 percent to 43.2 percent. n Youth perception of the availability of drugs declined for each drug class. Significant declines in the percentage of youth reporting that marijuana was fairly or very easy to obtain declined from 56.5 percent in 1999 to 54.1 percent in Significant declines also were reported for cocaine (27.5 percent to 25.2 percent), crack (28.4 percent to 26.8 percent), heroin (18.1 to 17.0), and LSD (24.9 to 23.0).
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: Continued n Among young adults, the subgroup that has the highest rate of drug use, 15.9 percent reported current use in 2000 compared to 16.4 in 1999 (this change is not statistically significant). A significant reduction was found for current stimulant use, from 1.1 percent in 1999 to 0.8 percent in Rates of current use for the other major drugs are statistically unchanged from n For the subset of young adults aged 18-20, no significant changes were noted over the two-year period, except for a decrease in past year use of cocaine, from 5.7 percent in 1999 to 4.8 percent in n For the older young adults (ages 21-25), a significant decline in past year use of any illicit drug was noted, from 25.8 percent in 1999 to 24.1 percent in Cocaine and nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics may account for this decline. In 1999, 1.6 percent reported past month use of cocaine, declining to 1.1 percent in Current crack use also declined from 0.2 percent to 0.1 percent. Stimulant use in the past month declined significantly from 0.8 to 0.5 percent. n In the age group 26 to 34, current crack use declined significantly, from 0.4 percent in 1999 to 0.1 percent in However, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics increased significantly for lifetime and past month use (current use increasing from 1.5 percent to 2.1 percent). Current nonmedical use of pain relievers* (a subset of psychotherapeutics) rose significantly from 0.9 percent to 1.6 percent. n The nonmedical use of this category includes drugs used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused and excludes use of over-the-counter pain relievers. It does include, among others, prescription pain relievers such as Codeine, Demerol, Hydrocodone, OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan, and Vicodin. n No statistically significant changes were noted for the age group 35 and older in any drug class. Drug use among young adults (age 18-25):
ONDCP/FEB02 For the total population ages 12 or older, there were no significant changes in recent years. Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. *The survey methodology was changed in Estimates based on the new survey series are not comparable to previous years. New survey series*
ONDCP/FEB02 This flattening is true for all major classes of drugs. Percentage of Population Reporting Past Month Use NOTE: Changes made to the design and execution of the NHSDA in 1999 make long term comparisons of trend data impossible. The second set of data provided below for 1999 and 2000 are comparable, but the data labeled 99 is the last year for long term trend data. The 99 and 1999 data differ slightly, because of the changes in the survey. Data break Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 14 million were current (past month) users of an illicit drug in (incl. crack) Past Month Users (in Millions) (any psychotherapeutic) Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Among youth (ages 12 to 17), current use of any illicit drugs is unchanged in the last two years. Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. New survey series* *The survey methodology was changed in Estimates based on the new survey series are not comparable to previous years.
ONDCP/FEB02 Among young adults (ages 18 to 25), current use of any illicit drugs is unchanged from 1999 to Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. New survey series* *The survey methodology was changed in Estimates based on the new survey series are not comparable to previous years.
ONDCP/FEB02 Marijuana only Marijuana and some other drug Only a drug other than marijuana Among Current Drug Users, Marijuana is Still the Most Abused Illicit Drug. Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, 2000 Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Among youth (aged 12 to 17), current use of any illicit drug in 2000 also is unchanged from 1999, except for heroin use, which is significantly lower. Percent Reporting Past Month Use Source: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
ONDCP/FEB02 Percent Reporting Past Month Use Young adults have the highest drug use rates. Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Percent Reporting Past Month Use Drug use rates among young adults peak at age Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Males consistently have higher rates of any illicit drug use. Percent Using in Past Month Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Persons of multiple race and American Indian/Native Alaskans have the highest rate of current use of any illicit drug. Percent Using in Past Month Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Current use of any illicit drug is lowest in rural areas. Percent Using in Past Month Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Marijuana accounts for the largest proportion of drug use, both in the general population and among youth. Percent Reporting Use Age 12 or Older Youth (12 -17) Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Percent Reporting Past Month Use of an Illicit Drug Current Drug Use Varies Widely, by Age, but the Cohort Effect Lasts a Lifetime. Prime example of an aging cohort of drug users -- this group began use in 1970s. Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Past Month Drug Use Varies by by Race/Ethnic Group: those reporting Puerto Rican and American Indian as Race/Ethnic Group show highest rates of use.. Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Drug, Age 12 and Older, 1999 Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Adults on parole or supervised release and those on probation have substantially higher rates of current drug use compared to those not on parole or probation. Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
ONDCP/FEB02 Heroin Use is a growing concern. n The ONDCP Pulse Check and the Community Epidemiology Working Group Report indicate heroin use nationwide is low, but on the rise. n High purity heroin and lower prices contribute to increased use. n Increased heroin abuse in the U.S. in the 1990s may be attributable in large part to growing polydrug use. Many heroin users also use other illegal drugs, most often cocaine or methamphetamine. n Majority of users are in their 30s and injecting; younger users beginning to inhale or smoke heroin.
ONDCP/FEB02 DUF/ADAM data and the 1999 NHSDA State-level data both indicate that methamphetamine use is primarily a problem in Western and Southwestern states, especially in certain key cities. There are valid concerns about the potential impact and spread of methamphetamine use, especially into the Midwest. Using treatment admission rates as a proxy for the spread of methamphetamine use shows a dramatic shift over the last five years. The following four slides illustrate clearly the pattern of the spread and the full extent of the problem. While methamphetamine use is low, it continues to be a major concern due to the potential for rapid spread.
ONDCP/FEB02 MAINE SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000) In 1994, five states had serious methamphetamine problems -- Hawaii and four others, all in the far west. > 55 < 3 No data
ONDCP/FEB02 MAINE SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000) In 1996, ten states had serious methamphetamine problems, and the problem had spread into the midwest. > 55 < 3 No data
ONDCP/FEB02 MAINE SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000) In 1998, 13 states had serious problems, including four midwestern states -- the problem was worse all over the midwest. > 55 < 3 No data
ONDCP/FEB02 MAINE SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000) In 1999, the same 13 states still had serious problems, but two midwestern states showed improvement. > 55 < 3 No data
ONDCP/FEB02 CURRENT DRUG USE TRENDS AMONG YOUTH BASED ON TWO NATIONAL SURVEYS FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MONITORING THE FUTURE STUDY (MTF) AND NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE (NHSDA)
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: The Monitoring the Future Survey
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: The Monitoring the Future Survey (continued)
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: The Monitoring the Future Survey (continued)
ONDCP/FEB02 Summary of Current Situation: 2000 National Household Survey n Among youth (ages 12-17), the rate of any illicit drug use in the past month is statistically unchanged, from 9.8 percent in 1999 to 9.7 percent in Heroin use in the past month declined significantly from 0.2 percent in 1999 to 0.1 percent in 2000, while rates of current use for other major drugs did not change significantly from the previous year. n The youngest subset of youth (ages 12-13) reported a significantly lower rate of current use of any illicit drug, from 3.9 percent in 1999 to 3.0 percent in Inhalant use in the past month decreased significantly from 1.3 percent in 1999 to 0.7 percent in Rates of use for other specific drugs did not change significantly over the same period. n However, for the oldest subset of youth (ages 16-17), some significant increases in current use were noted. There was a significant increase in past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs, from 3.4 percent in 1999 to 4.3 percent in Within the psychotherapeutics category, past month nonmedical use of pain relievers increased significantly from 2.6 percent in 1999 to 3.3 percent in Current use of stimulants also increased significantly, from 0.8 percent to 1.2 percent. Methamphetamines, a category of stimulants, also showed a significant increase in this age subgroup, doubling from 0.3 percent in 1999 to 0.6 percent in n Youth attitudes are unchanged from last year. Perceptions of risk of drug use among youth show no statistically significant increases or decreases from 1999 to While perceptions of risk of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD use are stable, the percentage of youth reporting great risk in smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day increased significantly from 60.7 percent in 1999 to 64.1 percent in Also showing improvement is the percentage of youth reporting great risk in drinking five or more drinks once or twice a week, from 42.0 percent to 43.2 percent. n Youth perception of the availability of drugs declined for each drug class. Significant declines in the percentage of youth reporting that marijuana was fairly or very easy to obtain declined from 56.5 percent in 1999 to 54.1 percent in Significant declines also were reported for cocaine (27.5 percent to 25.2 percent), crack (28.4 percent to 26.8 percent), heroin (18.1 to 17.0), and LSD (24.9 to 23.0).
ONDCP/FEB02 Drug use remains highest among 12th graders. More than 50 percent of them have tried an illicit drug, and more than one in four are current users. Percent Reporting Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 By the time they are seniors, almost a quarter of youth are current marijuana users and more than 1 in 20 use every day. Marijuana Percent Reporting Use Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 MDMA/ecstasy use is found in all grades. Source: Monitoring the Future Study MDMA/ecstasy Percent Reporting Use
ONDCP/FEB02 Cocaine use is less prevalent, but almost 9 percent of seniors have used cocaine during their lifetime. Cocaine Percent Reporting Use Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 Heroin use among students is low, but any use among students is a cause for great concern. Source: Monitoring the Future Study Heroin Percent Reporting Use
ONDCP/FEB02 Alcohol is a serious problem among youth percent of high school seniors and 25 percent of 10th graders are heavy, binge drinkers. Source: Monitoring the Future Study Alcohol Percent Reporting Use
ONDCP/FEB02 More than one in five high school seniors are daily smokers. Source: Monitoring the Future Study Cigarettes Percent Reporting Use
56 LONG TERM DRUG USE TRENDS AMONG YOUTH AND SPECIAL DATA ABOUT MARIJUANA USE ONDCP
ONDCP/FEB02 While drug use is still unacceptably high, 2001 is the fifth year without significant changes in the current use of "Any Illicit Drug. Current (past month) Use of Any Illicit Drug Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 Marijuana continues to predominate youth drug use. Current (past month) Marijuana Use. Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 MDMA/ecstasy use has increased notably among students in each grade, but there is some limited good news for Current (past month) MDMA/ecstasy Use. Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 Trends in 30-day use of alcohol are generally stable. Current (past month) Alcohol Use Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 Trends in current Cigarette use show declines for all grade, with significant declines since 1998 for all grades. Current (past month) Cigarette Use. Source: Monitoring the Future Study
ONDCP/FEB02 For those age 12 to 17, there is a clear relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and current use of an illicit drug other than alcohol. Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Intensity of Alcohol Use Source: 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 For those age 12 to 17, there is also a clear relationship between smoking cigarettes and current illicit drug use. Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Whether or not They Smoke Cigarettes Source: 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Percentage of those ages 12 to 17 who reported aggressive behavior in past 6 months, by number of days marijuana was used in the past year Aggressive Anti-Social Behavior Among Youth is Clearly Linked to Frequency of Marijuana Use Source: NHSDA Household Survey Data, Destroyed Other's PropertyPhysically Attacked People Percentage of times activity was engaged in. Frequency of Marijuana Use
ONDCP/FEB02 Percentage of those ages 12 to 17 who reported delinquent behavior in past 6 months, by number of days marijuana was used in the past year Marijuana use is also related to other delinquent behaviors Source: NHSDA Household Survey Data, Cutting Classes Stealing Percentage of times activity was engaged in. Frequency of Marijuana Use
ONDCP/FEB02 Percent Dependent on or who Abuse Illicit Drugs Among Adults, by Age Marijuana First Used (Dependence Based on DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria) Drug Dependence as an Adult is Clearly Related to the Age at which a Person Starts Using Marijuana. The Younger the Age at First Use, the Higher the Rate of Adult Drug Dependency. Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
ONDCP/FEB02 Role and Objectives of Drug Prevention n Deter new use and encourage existing users to stop using n Take steps to deter progression into more serious use n Break intergenerational cycle n Reduce risk factors and increase protective factors n Improve knowledge and attitudes n Reduce drug and alcohol problem behaviors
ONDCP/FEB02 Initiates (1000s) Marijuana and cocaine initiation show a downturn, but hallucinogen and inhalant initiates are trending upwards. Source: SAMHSA, 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
ONDCP/FEB02 Heroin initiation rates are lower than for any other major drug. Movement over the past few years illustrates how rapidly the heroin situation can change. Heroin Initiates (1000s) Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Data not available for 1982
ONDCP/FEB02 What hypotheses seem most promising to account for the observed changes [in drug use] ? Possible factors thought to have an affect on Risk Perception Source: ONDCP Report on the Meeting of the Ann Arbor Group, June n Rates of delinquent behaviors and risk taking n Use of gateway drugs (cigarettes) n Changes in perceived harmfulness of drug use n Impacts of mass culture (e.g., media) n Changes in informal learning about risks of drug use n Changes in Executive Leadership (Federal, State, local, civic) n Changes in illicit drug availability and lower price/higher purity (e.g., Marijuana, Heroin)
ONDCP/FEB02 Consequences of Drug Use Drug Use Consequences of Drug Use Crime Violence Health Economic Family Community
ONDCP/FEB02 Consequences of Drug Use The Social Costs of illicit drug abuse reached $143 billion in 1998 U.S. drug users spend substantially more than $60 billion annually to purchase drugs Cocaine and heroin problems seriously impact our Hospital Emergency Departments: cocaine continues to be the most frequently mentioned illicit drug, followed by heroin and marijuana. For the most recent year (2000), heroin visits rose, cocaine visits were statistically unchanged, and marijuana rose, but the change was not statistically significant There are more than 1.5 million drug arrests each year -- half of all arrestees test positive for illicit drug use There is a high correlation between drug use and gang behavior, violence, threats, and carrying a gun to school There is a high incidence of property crime among drug users Violence is common to drug trafficking
ONDCP/FEB02 The money spent on drugs saps our economic power U.S. Users Spend $63.2 Billion Annually Billions of Dollars (Projections for 1999) Source: ONDCP Paper, What Americas Users Spend on Illegal Drugs
ONDCP/FEB02 The Economic Costs relating to drug abuse are increasing, reaching $143.4 billion in Dollars, in Billions Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2001.
ONDCP/FEB02 The bulk of the economic costs relate to lost earning potential. (Billions of dollars) Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2001.
ONDCP/FEB02 Estimated cost (in millions) All components of the costs of drug abuse to society are increasing at about the same rate. Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2001.
ONDCP/FEB02 Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, Total is $143 billion Crime-Related $88.9B Non-Crime- Related $54.5B The costs of crime that can be attributed to drug abuse are substantial.
ONDCP/FEB02 Total: $89 billion (Millions of dollars) Breakdown of crime-related costs, 1998 Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2001.
ONDCP/FEB02 Productivity Cost Components u Lost productivity from: è Premature death due to drug abuse è Drug abuse related illness è Institutionalization/hospitalization è Victims of crime è Incarceration è Crime careers
ONDCP/FEB02 Health Care Cost Components u Community-based specialty treatment u Federally provided specialty treatment u Support for drug abuse related services u Medical consequences of drug abuse è hospital and ambulatory care è special disease costs è crime victim health care costs è health administration costs
ONDCP/FEB02 Other Cost Components u Goods and services lost to crime è Criminal justice system and other public costs ! police protection ! legal adjudication ! state and federal corrections ! local corrections ! federal spending to reduce drug supply è Private costs ! private legal defense ! property damage for victims of crime u Social welfare
ONDCP/FEB02 Estimated cost (in millions) The economic costs of drug abuse increased at an average annual rate of 5.9 percent from 1992 to Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, *1999 and 2000 are projections dollars current dollars
ONDCP/FEB02 Drug-related murders have declined substantially over the past 10 years. Source: FBI, Uniform Crime Reports Murders Related to Narcotic Drug Laws Number of Deaths
ONDCP/FEB02 In 2000, more than 600,000 drug-related ED episodes were reported in DAWN -- cocaine is the most often mentioned drug. Number of Drug Emergency Episodes Source: SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 1999.
ONDCP/FEB02 Since 1990 marijuana ED mentions have been rising. In 2000 they were at about the same level as Heroin. Source: HHS Drug Abuse Warning Network Hospital Emergency Room Mentions, Heroin and Marijuana
ONDCP/FEB02 Since 1990, ED mentions of marijuana/hashish have increased by more than 500 percent. Number of Marijuana/Hashish Mentions Source: SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
ONDCP/FEB02 Among youth, ED mentions of marijuana/ hashish have shown a seven-fold increase since Number of Marijuana/Hashish Mentions (Ages 12-17) Source: SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
ONDCP/FEB02 Mentions per 100,000 population for Marijuana Rates for ED mentions of marijuana are highest for young adults and are increasing. Source: SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
ONDCP/FEB02 Drug-related criminal activity is still a serious problem Source: NIDA, Drug Procurement Study. l NIDA study of drug users not in treatment found: percent report legal-only sources of income percent report illegal-only sources of income percent report both legal and illegal sources -- 2 percent report no income percent of illegal income was generated from property crimes; 42 percent was from commercial sex
ONDCP/FEB02 Drug-related arrests continue at high levels Source: Uniform Crime Reports, FBI. Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations (in millions)
ONDCP/FEB02 Reason For Drug Arrest Source: Uniform Crime Reports, FBI.
ONDCP/FEB02 Less than 7 percent of drug trafficking convictions in State Courts are for marijuana Breakdown of Drug Trafficking Convictions, by Drug 6.9% 60.2% 39.7% 27.4% 63%
ONDCP/FEB02 The total number of people in State or Federal prisons or local jails reached more than two million in However the rate of annual increase was the lowest since Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001 State Prisons 1,236,476 Local Jails 621,149 Federal Prisons 145,416 Number of Inmates, in Millions
ONDCP/FEB02 The number of Prisoners Serving Time for Drug Offenses is Climbing- Up More Than 1000 Percent Since 1980 Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics 251,200 Drug Offenders in State Prisons in ,360 Drug Offenders in Federal Prison in 1999
95 Drug Treatment ONDCP
ONDCP/FEB02 Clients in Specialty Treatment for Drugs and Alcohol (one-day census of active clients) More than 1 million persons are in treatment, every day Source: Uniform Facility Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA,
ONDCP/FEB02 On average, the benefits of drug treatment outweigh the costs by a margin of 3 to 1. Source: CSAT, National Evaluation Data Services Report
ONDCP/FEB02 More than half those in treatment are being treated in outpatient settings Percentage of Clients in Treatment, by Facility Setting Source: Uniform Facility Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA, Dec 97
ONDCP/FEB02 Presenting problems can include both alcohol and other drugs, but illicit drug use is present for 72 percent of those in treatment Source: Treatment Episode Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA, Sept 2000
ONDCP/FEB02 Primary Substance of Abuse for Treatment Admissions SOURCE: TEDS, 1998
ONDCP/FEB02 Referral source for treatment admissions, by primary substance SOURCE: TEDS, 1998
ONDCP/FEB02 A total of 15.3 million persons were drug or alcohol dependent or abusers in the past year. Number of Dependents or Abusers (in 1000s)
ONDCP/FEB million Americans reported substance dependence* or abuse* in (nonmedical use) Abusers or Drug Dependents (in 1000s) *Dependence or abuse is based on the definition found in the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
ONDCP/FEB02 Only half of those in the household population 12 and older that were drug dependent actually received drug treatment in the 12 months prior to the interview. Percent of Population 12 or Older.
ONDCP/FEB02 One year after treatment Illicit drug use decreased 50 percent Illegal activity decreased 60 percent Drug selling fell by nearly 80 percent Arrests by down more than 60 percent Trading sex for money or drugs down by nearly 60 percent Homelessness dropped by 43 percent and receipt of welfare by 11 percent Employment increased 20 percent Source: Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) THE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT LAST
ONDCP/FEB02 FIVE YEARS AFTER TREATMENT Users of any illicit drugs reduced by 21 percent Cocaine users by 45 percent Marijuana users by 28 percent Crack users by 17 percent Heroin users by 14 percent Numbers engaging in illegal activity significantly reduced 56 percent fewer stealing cars 38 percent fewer breaking and entering 30 percent fewer selling drugs 23 percent fewer victimizing others 38 percent fewer injecting drugs 34 percent fewer homeless THE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT LAST (continued) Source: Services Research Outcome Study (SROS)
ONDCP/FEB02 In summary Drug dependent people who participate in drug treatment decrease their drug use decrease their criminal activity increase their employment improve their social and intrapersonal functioning improve their physical health Drug use and criminal activity decrease for virtually all who enter treatment, with increasingly better results the longer they stay in treatment.
108 Supply Reduction ONDCP
ONDCP/FEB02 Interdiction must be included as a key element in a comprehensive approach n Interdiction alone cannot greatly impact the drug flow. It must be supported by other programs and approaches, if it is to have the desired impact. n Without production control at the source, with every interdiction the producers can simply increase production. We must focus attention on destroying the source of drugs in the prime source countries. n Targeted interdiction based on solid intelligence data will have the greatest longterm impact.
ONDCP/FEB02 The Source Country Focus n Provides for better intelligence, so interdiction assets can be strategically placed and efficiently used n Focuses attention close to where drugs are produced, increasing the leverage from each action n Limits production to maximize the impact from interdiction and eradication n Interdiction is most effective when it occurs closest to the source because alternative supplies of coca leaf and base are limited n Thus, stopping the flow before the drugs can be moved into the broader expanse of the transit zone is the most effective strategy
ONDCP/FEB02 Breaking Up the Delivery System n Our strategy also focuses on breaking up the delivery system, at all levels n The air bridge between Peru and Colombia has historically been seen as the weakest link, and, over the years, there has been some success there n Peru and Colombia end game participation is key to success n Successfully attacking the air bridge and other key supply routes can cause backups all the way back to the sources of coca leaf, depress the price, and impact profits
ONDCP/FEB02 An estimated 80% of the MDMA (Ecstasy) in the U.S. is thought to come from the Netherlands and Belgium Global Drug Threat Opium Production Coca Production MEXICO COLOMBIA PERU BOLIVIA GOLDEN TRIANGLE GOLDEN CRESCENT MDMA Production Cocaine fuels organized crime/violence; corruption; and addiction Threatens regional stability Social costs to U.S.: more than $ 140B/year 52,000 drug related deaths/yr in U.S. 90% of all cocaine consumed in U.S. comes from Colombia About 200 MT About 150 MT About 278 MT 75% of the heroin seized in the U.S. comes from Colombia or Mexico
ONDCP/FEB02 Global Drug Production and Trafficking Amphetamine Type Stimulants Cocaine MDMA Potential Cocaine Production (mt) Heroin
ONDCP/FEB02 The Worldwide Cocaine Threat A Hemispheric Perspective U.S. Portion of Worldwide Consumption Declining 1990 = 400 MT 2000 = 300 MT Worldwide Consumption Increasing 1990 = 500 MT 2000 = 600 MT All coca grown in the Andean Region
Andean Region Coca & Poppy Cultivation Success and Displacement BOLIVIA Coca cultivation decreased 70% to 15K hectares Alternative development and forced eradication Sound economic policies but slow growth PERU Coca cultivation decreased 70% to 34K hectares Air-bridge denial and abandonment Alternative development and forced eradication Democratic transition, economy slow COLOMBIA Coca cultivation increased 166% to 136K hectares Cocaine yield per hectare increased 250% Opium poppy cultivation reached 2500 hectares Displaced cultivation from Peru and Bolivia Violence increasing as peace process falters and economy lags ONDCP/FEB02
Nature of the Problem and the Interdiction Response CHANGES IN THREAT World consumption dominated by US Transit movement via aircraft Cultivation primarily from Peru and Bolivia Increasing European consumption Transit movement via maritime vessels Cultivation primarily from Colombia TRANSIT ZONE SOURCE ZONE ARRIVAL ZONE 50% 3% direct 16% 21% 10% SOURCE: Annual Interagency Assessment of Cocaine Movement, April 2001 ONDCP/FEB02
, METRIC TONS HCl ANDEAN POTENTIAL COCAINE PRODUCTION PERU COLOMBIABOLIVIA TOTALS
ONDCP/FEB02 54 percent Mexico/Central American Corridor 1999 Estimate of Cocaine Flow from South America 43 percent Caribbean Corridor 3 percent Direct to U.S.
ONDCP/FEB02 Estimated Cocaine Flow to the United States: Calendar Year Metric Tons Depart South America for U.S. Arrival Zone Seizures Transit Zone Seizures MEXICO / CENTRAL AMERICAN CORRIDOR -60 MT-37 MT 3% 15 MT 43% 220 MT 54% 277 MT 75 METRIC TONS DETECTED DEPARTING FOR NON-US MARKETS -14 MT-7 MT -12 MT DIRECT TO CONTINENTAL U.S. CARIBBEAN CORRIDOR 382 MT Potentially Arrives in the U.S.
ONDCP/FEB02 EUROPE 92% AFRICA < 1% CANADA 7% ASIA < 1% 1999 COCAINE FLOW DIRECT TO NON-U.S. MARKETS MT TOTAL
ONDCP/FEB02 Colombia - Crisis in 1999 DRUGS Colombia producing 74% of world coca leaf -- and 90% of all cocaine HCl shipped to U.S. Cultivation exploding and concentrating in isolated, guerrilla-dominated areas east of Andes GUERRILLAS Especially FARC, moving heavily into Colombias expanding drug production Becoming stronger and more capable of attacking government PARAMILITARIES Maintaining some links with COMIL, at least at local level Challenging FARC in the south, and vying for access to drug revenue ECONOMY Going into deep recession, first in 50 years Foreign investment drying up Domestic capital fleeing World bank seeking austerity budget PEACE PROCESS Began in 1998 DMZ established Process moving slowly FARC unwilling to make concessions
ONDCP/FEB02 GOC Response - Plan Colombia (July 1999) Comprehensive Strategy - Peace, Counternarcotics, Economy - Justice Reform and Human Rights Goals - 30% reduction in coca by end of % reduction in coca by end of Reduce insurgent drug profits - Increase pressure for real peace negotiations - Spur economic growth Estimated Total Cost - $7.5B with $GOC paying $4.0B - First nationwide counternarcotics effort
ONDCP/FEB02 USG Response - FY 2000 Emergency Supplemental (July 2000) Amount ($1.319B) is in addition to regular appropriations Augments existing $300M appropriated for annual regional programs (all sources) Expands existing military and alternative development programs Support to Colombia - $938M Support to Region - $382M TWO MAJOR COMPONENTS
ONDCP/FEB02 Widespread Effects of Narcotrafficking Adversely impacts democracy and social development Destabilizes governments Undermines rule of law Exacerbates corruption Distorts legitimate economies Inhibits investment and economic growth
ONDCP/FEB02 Colombias drug-fueled violence, exploding drug production, economic distortion and efforts to combat them have regional implications and require a regional approach Implications for Andean Region
Promote and support democracy and democratic institutions Foster sustainable economic development and trade liberalization Significantly reduce the supply of illegal drugs to the U.S. at the source, while simultaneously reducing U.S. demand Proposed Andean Regional Initiative supports seven countries and supports overarching United States goals in the Andes SUMMARY ONDCP/FEB02
Overview of Successes Over Time n Development of expanded international cooperation and consensus, with aggressive international engagement. n Increased European cooperation. n Hemispheric Strategy, Action Plan, and Multilateral Evaluation Methodology. n Reduction in potential cocaine production, with cultivation in Peru down 66 percent, 1995 to 1999, and cultivation in Bolivia down 55 percent in the same time period. n Cali and Medillin Cartels dismantled. n Improved interagency coordination of interdiction, C3I, and Force Structure, with new Intelligence Architecture (GCIP). n Improved budget and resource processes, performance targets and measures, Intelligence Architecture.
ONDCP/FEB02 Meeting New Challenges n Concentration of cocaine industry in Colombia. n Adapting programs in Peru and Bolivia. n Increasing regional coordination. n Countering globalization of drug industries, with internationalization of money laundering. n Responding to increases/improvements in trafficker technology. n Continue to improve interdiction performance. n Arrival Zone planning and coordination (AZIC). n More accurate flow modeling for cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine.
ONDCP/FEB02 Positive News on Worldwide Opium/Heroin Production n For the U.S. heroin market, the predominate supplier is Colombia. n Mexico also supplies the U.S. market with black tar and brown heroin, but there are indications that higher purity Mexican heroin is entering the market, in competition with high purity Colombian heroin. n In recent years the UNDCP has reported that the worlds largest producer of opium/heroin was Afghanistan. Actions in the past year have radically reduced production. n This success shows what can be done when political will and alternative development are in place and working together. The lesson learned should not be lost, even given the current world situation and the impact of terrorism in Afghanistan. n The following slides illustrate the current heroin situation, both in Southwest Asia and worldwide.
Southwest Asia: Opium Poppy Cultivation, A Success for Eradication and Alternative Development Hectares ONDCP/FEB02
Afghanistan: Potential Opium Production has dropped to near zero. Hectares ONDCP/FEB02
Afghanistan vs. the World Opium Production Metric Tons ONDCP/FEB02
World Potential Opium Production * Values for Latin America are projected 3,4413,389 3,671 3,302 4,068 5,106 5,000 4,452 4,263 5,082 1,264 Metric Tons ONDCP/FEB02
FEDERAL-WIDE DRUG SEIZURE SYSTEM ANNUAL SEIZURES, BY FISCAL YEAR Source: DEA's Federal Drug Seizure System