Presentation on theme: "Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger"— Presentation transcript:
1 Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 4 – The First Two Years: Psychosocial DevelopmentThese colors actually are a template design in PPT, but match the scheme of the book…do you agree? If so, this will be an easy formatting task. The cover has been revised to reflect the new title “Invitation to the Life Span”. I’ve been waiting to get it, that’s why this slide has been delayed getting to you…but I didn’t want to wait any longer. So the cover needs to be swapped in/out when it arrives. Lastly, I got rid of the chapter outline…as it’s repetitive. Do you agree?PowerPoint Slides developed byMartin Wolfger and Michael JamesIvy Tech Community College-Bloomington
2 Emotional Development Infants’ EmotionsSmiling and LaughingSocial smile (6 weeks): Evoked by viewing human facesLaughter (3 to 4 months): Often associated with curiosityAngerFirst expressions at around 6 monthHealthy response to frustrationSadnessIndicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisolStressful experience for infants
3 Emotional Development Fear: Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situationsStranger wariness:Infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too closeSeparation anxiety:Tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves.If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder.
4 Emotional Development Toddlers’ EmotionsAnger and fear become less frequent and more focusedLaughing and crying become louder and more discriminatingNew emotions:PrideShameEmbarrassmentGuiltRequire an awareness of other peopleEmerge from family interactions, influenced by the culture
5 Emotional Development Self-awarenessA person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people.First 4 months: Infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers.5 months: Infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers.15-18 months: Emergence of the Me-selfSense of self as the “object of one’s knowledge”
6 Emotional Development Mirror RecognitionClassic experiment (M. Lewis & Brooks, 1978)Babies aged 9–24 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses.None of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them.15- to 24-month-olds: Showed self-awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity.
8 Brain Maturation and the Emotions SynesthesiaThe stimulation of one sensory stimulus to the brain (sound, sight, touch, taste, or smell) by another.Common in infants because boundaries between sensory parts of the cortex are less distinct.Cross-modal perceptionInfant associates textures with vision, sounds with smells, own body with the bodies of othersBasis for early social understandingSynesthesia of emotionsInfant’s cry can be triggered by pain, fear, tiredness, or excitement; laughter can turn to tears.Infants’ emotions are difficult to predict because of the way their brains are activated.
9 Social Impulses Emotional Self-regulation Directly connected to maturation of the anterior cingulate gyrusParticular people begin to arouse specific emotionsToddlers get angry when a teasing older sibling approaches them or react with fear when entering the doctor’s office.Memory triggers specific emotions based on previous experiences.
10 StressHypothalamusRegulates various bodily functions and hormone productionMay grow more slowly in stressed than in nonstressed infantsAbuse (form of chronic stress)Potential long-term effects on a child’s emotional developmentHigh levels of stress hormones indicative of emotional impairmentExcessive stress in infants must be preventedStress can be avoided by:providing new mothers with help and emotional supportinvolving new fathers in the care of the infantstrengthening the relationship between mother and father
11 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORYFREUD: THE ORAL AND ANAL STAGESOral stage (first year): The mouth is the young infant’s primary source of gratificationAnal stage (second year): Infant’s main pleasure comes from the anus (e.g. sensual pleasure of bowel movements and the psychological pleasure of controlling them)Potential conflicts:Oral fixation: If a mother frustrates her infant’s urge to suck, the child may become an adult who is stuck (fixated) at the oral stage (e.g. eats, drinks, chews, bites, or talks excessively)Anal personality: Overly strict or premature toilet training may result in an adult with an unusually strong need for control, regularity and cleanliness
12 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development ERIKSON: TRUST AND AUTONOMYTrust versus MistrustInfants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are metAutonomy versus Shame and DoubtToddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodiesEarly problems can create an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic (mistrusting) or who is easily shamed (insufficient autonomy)
13 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development BEHAVIORISMParents mold an infant’s emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishmentSocial learningThe acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of othersDemonstrated in the classic Bobo Doll study by Albert Bandura
14 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development COGNITIVE THEORYWorking model: Set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiencesA person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous.The child’s interpretation of early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves.New working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences.
15 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development ETHNOTHEORYA theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture.Example:Culture’s ethnotheory includes the belief in reincarnationChildren are not expected to show respect for adults, but adults must show respect for their reborn ancestors indulgent child-rearingPerceived as extremely lenient by Western cultures
16 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development SYSTEMS THEORYEpigenetic approach to development, using all five characteristics of the life-span perspective (multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multi disciplinary, and plastic)Systems theory is especially insightful in interpreting temperament.
17 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development TemperamentInborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulationTemperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes but affected by child-rearing practicesNew York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)Started in the 1960sFound 4 categories of temperament
18 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Easy (40%)Difficult (10%)Slow to warm up (15%)Hard to classify (35%)Additional findings:Temperament often changes in the early weeks but is increasingly stable by age 3Extreme temperaments at age 3 tend to carry over to adolescence and young adulthoodParenting practices are crucial, temperament can change or be changed
19 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development The Big Five (acronym OCEAN)Five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout lifeFound in many cultures and among people of all agesOpenness: imaginative, curious, welcoming new experiencesConscientiousness: organized, deliberate, conformingExtroversion: outgoing, assertive, activeAgreeableness: kind, helpful, easygoingNeuroticism: anxious, moody, self-critical
20 Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Longitudinal study of infant temperament (Fox et al., 2001): Grouped 4-month-olds into three distinct types based on responses to fearful stimulationPositive (exuberant)NegativeInhibited (fearful)Less than half altered their responses as they grew olderFearful infants were most likely to changeExuberant infants were least likely to changeMaturation and child rearing has effect on inborn temperament
22 The Effects of Parenting Proximal parentingCaregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touchingDistal parentingCaregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching
24 Goodness of FitA similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and communityWith a good fitparents of difficult babies build a close relationshipparents of exuberant, curious infants learn to protect them from harmparents of slow-to-warm-up toddlers give them time to adjust
25 SynchronyA coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infantSynchrony in the first few monthsBecomes more frequent and more elaborateHelps infants learn to read others’ emotions and to develop the skills of social interactionSynchrony usually begins with parents imitating infants
26 Is Synchrony Needed for Normal Development? Experiments using the still-face techniqueAn experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infantBabies are very upset by the still face and show signs of stressConclusions:A parent’s responsiveness to an infant aids psychological and biological developmentInfants’ brains need social interaction to develop to their fullest
27 AttachmentAttachment is a lasting emotional bond that one person has with another.Attachments begin to form in early infancy and influence a person’s close relationships throughout life
29 Attachment TypesSecure attachment: An infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.Insecure-avoidant attachment: An infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return.Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment: An infant’s anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.Disorganized attachment: A type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return.
31 Measuring Attachment Strange Situation Key behaviors to observe: A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants’ reactions to the stress of various adults’ comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom.Key behaviors to observe:Exploration of the toys. A secure toddler plays happily.Reaction to the caregiver’s departure. A secure toddler misses the caregiver.Reaction to the caregiver’s return. A secure toddler welcomes the caregiver’s reappearance.
34 Social Referencing Social referencing Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else’s expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference.Mothers use a variety of expressions, vocalizations, and gestures to convey social information to their infants.
35 Fathers as Social Partners Fathers usually spend less time with infants than mothers do and are less involved parentsReasons:Fathers’ own ideas of appropriate male behaviorMothers often limit fathers’ interactions with their childrenQuality of marital relationship is best predictorHappier husbands tend to be more involved fathers
36 Comparing Mothers and Fathers Selected research findings:Teenagers are less likely to lash out at friends and authorities if they experienced a warm, responsive relationship with their fathers as infants (Trautmann-Villalba et al., 2006).Infants may be equally securely attached to both parents, more attached to their mothers, or more attached to their fathers (Belsky et al., 2006).Close father–infant relationships can teach infants (especially boys) appropriate expressions of emotion (Boyce et al., 2006).Close relationships with their infants reduce fathers’ risk of depression (Borke et al., 2007; Bronte-Tinkew et al., 2007).Mothers tend to engage in more caregiving and comforting, and fathers tend to engage in more high-intensity play (Kochanska et al., 2008).When toddlers are about to explore, they often seek their father’s approval, expecting fun from their fathers and comfort from their mothers (Lamb, 2000).
37 Infant Day Care Family day care Center day care Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it.Center day careChild care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children.Usually the children are grouped by age, the day-care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development.
39 The Effects of Infant Day Care The impact of nonmaternal care depends on many factors.Psychosocial characteristics, including secure attachment, are influenced more by the mother’s warmth than by the number of hours spent in nonmaternal care.Quality of care is crucial, no matter who provides that care.