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Transport in living things. 25.1 Diffusion How are you able to smell various aromas from food? oThe aromas come from vapour from the food. oMolecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Transport in living things. 25.1 Diffusion How are you able to smell various aromas from food? oThe aromas come from vapour from the food. oMolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transport in living things

2 25.1 Diffusion How are you able to smell various aromas from food? oThe aromas come from vapour from the food. oMolecules in the vapour move about randomly. oThey bump into one another and spread out quickly. oAs a result, some molecules enter your nostrils. oThe spreading out of molecules is brought about by diffusion. Diffusion in the overall movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

3 Movement of sucrose molecules from A to B Movement of water molecules from A to B Diffusion in non-living systems Solutions A and B are separated by a permeable membrane, which allows both small and large molecules to pass through. Both the solvent (water) and the solutes (the sucrose molecules) can pass through it. AB permeable membrane 10 % sucrose solution 2 % sucrose solution permeable membrane sucrose molecules water molecules Movement of sucrose molecules from A to B Movement of water molecules from A to B Both types of molecules are free to move across the membrane as the particles are in constant random motion. Since solution A has a higher concentration of sugar, more sugar molecules will diffuse from solution A to solution B. Also, solution B has a higher concentration of water molecules. Thus, more water molecules will diffuse from solution B to solution A. Hence, there is a net movement of sugar molecules from solution A to solution B and a net movement of water molecules from solution B to solution A. Eventually, both solutions will have the same concentration of sugar and water molecules.

4 Diffusion in living organisms Diffusion in living organisms occurs continuously and it does not always take place across a membrane (e.g. cell membranes). Diffusion is important in moving materials in and out of the cells.

5 Diffusion in living organisms Diffusion in the absence of membranes cross-section of part of leaf air spaces high concentration of oxygen low concentration of carbon dioxide carbon dioxide diffuses in through stomata oxygen diffuses out through stomata Diffusion occurs during photosynthesis in the absence of membranes. Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through the stomata, moving into air spaces in the leaves. This is because the carbon dioxide concentration is higher outside the leaves than in the air spaces inside the leaves. Similarly, oxygen given off during photosynthesis diffuses out of leaf air spaces as there is a lower concentration of oxygen outside the leaves.

6 Diffusion in living organisms Diffusion through a partially permeable membrane oA partially permeable membrane is a membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but not others. oThe cell surface membrane in plants is an example of a partially permeable membrane. Gases (e.g. oxygen) and smaller molecules (e.g. sugar) diffuse into the plants cells through the membrane. oIn humans, gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs by diffusion. When we breathe in, oxygen enters the air sacs in our lungs. The oxygen concentration is higher in the air sacs than in the blood surrounding them. Thus, oxygen diffuses out of the air sacs into the bloodstream.

7 Diffusion in living organisms Diffusion through a partially permeable membrane oIn humans, gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs by diffusion. During respiration in the cells, carbon dioxide is produced as waste. Carbon dioxide is carried in the bloodstream leading to the lungs. It then diffuses out into the air sacs, and leaves the body when we breathe out.

8 Diffusion in living organisms Diffusion through a partially permeable membrane air sac tube cluster of air sacs lungs Blood entering blood vessel has high concentration of carbon dioxide and low concentration of oxygen. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the bloodstream and into the air sac. Oxygen diffuses from surrounding air into the air sac and bloodstream. Blood leaving blood vessel has high concentration of oxygen and low concentration of carbon dioxide.

9 25.2 Osmosis Osmosis is the net movement of water molecules from a region of higher concentration of water molecules (higher water potential) to a region of lower concentration of water molecules (lower water potential) through a partially permeable membrane.

10 5% sucrose solution (higher concentration of water molecules; higher water potential) Osmosis in non-living systems A Partially permeable membrane Solutions A and B are separated by a partially permeable membrane. The membrane allows smaller water molecules to pass through but not the larger sugar molecules. Water molecules can pass freely through the membrane 10% sucrose solution (lower concentration of water molecules; lower water potential) B Sucrose molecules are too big to pass through its pores. During osmosis, the water molecules will flow from solution B with higher concentration of water molecules (higher water potential) to solution A with lower concentration of water molecules (lower water potential). As water molecules flow, the volume of solution A rises and the volume of solution B drops. When the concentrations of both solutions A and B are the same, there will be no net movement of water molecules.

11 Osmosis in living organisms Recall some properties of cells: oCell membrane of both plant and animal cells is partially permeable. oThe plant cell wall is made of cellulose. It is permeable. oThe plant cell has a relatively rigid (firm) cell wall.

12 Osmosis in living organisms What happens to animal cells when they are placed in distilled water? Animal cells oAnimal cells have elastic membranes. When the water molecules flow in, the animal cells will swell and eventually burst. water moves in Water potential outside the cell is higher than that in the cytoplasm. Cell expands and eventually bursts.

13 Osmosis in living organisms What happens to plant cells when they are placed in distilled water? Plant cells oPlant cells have strong, rigid cells walls which prevent the cells from expanding too much. oWhen water molecules flow in, the contents in the cell press the cell wall. oThe water creates a pressure on the cell wall of the plant cell. This is called turgor pressure and keeps the plant tissues turgid. oSoft tissues in plants depend on turgor for support. If plants lose too much water, they will wilt.

14 Osmosis in living organisms Plant cells Water potential outside the cell is higher than that in the cell sap. Cell expands and becomes turgid. The rigid cellulose cell wall expands slightly only. This prevents the cell from bursting. water moves in

15 Osmosis in living organisms What happens to animal cells when they are placed in concentrated solution? Animal cells oAnimal cells will shrivel up as they lose water. Water leaves the cell by osmosis Concentration of water molecules outside the cell is lower than that in the cytoplasm. Cell shrinks and becomes soft. It is dehydrated.

16 Osmosis in living organisms What happens to plant cells when they are placed in concentrated solution? Plant cells oWhen the concentration of water molecules of the cytoplasm and cell sap is higher than that of the surrounding solution, water leaves the plant cells by osmosis. oThe vacuoles shrink and the cell contents pulls away from the cellulose cell walls. The plant cells lose turgor pressure and become flaccid.

17 Osmosis in living organisms Plant cells Concentration of the water molecules outside the cell is lower than that in the cell sap. Cell contents pull away from the cell walls and the cell becomes flaccid. Water leaves the cell by osmosis.

18 25.3 The Need for a Transport System A multicellular organism like a plant or a human being is made up of billions of cells. Most of these cells lie deep inside the body of the organism. Nutrients and oxygen need to reach each cell in the body to support the life of the cells. A transport system ensures that substances are transported fast enough throughout the organism.

19 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants Water and mineral salts are absorbed by the root hairs from the surrounding soil. Water enters the roots by osmosis. Mineral salts enter by active transport.

20 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants How is water absorbed by the roots? oThere are numerous root hairs at the ends of young roots. oA root hair is an outgrowth of a root hair cell. oIt has a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a large central vacuole. oThe vacuole contains cell sap, which contains mainly water and dissolved substances such as mineral salts.

21 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants How is water absorbed by the roots? root hair cell soil particles film of water water entering root hair lower concentration of water molecules higher concentration of water molecules

22 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants How is water absorbed by the roots? oThe soil solution consists of water with dissolved mineral salts. oIt is less concentrated (higher concentration of water molecules) than the cell sap and the cytoplasm. oAs the cell membrane is partially permeable, water enters the root hairs by osmosis.

23 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants How are dissolved mineral salts absorbed by the roots? oThe concentration of mineral salts in the root hairs is often higher than in the soil solution. oThus, mineral salts should diffuse out of the root hairs. oHowever, this does not occur as the root hairs not only prevent the outflow of the salts, but absorb salts from the soil solution.

24 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants How are dissolved mineral salts absorbed by the roots? xylem soil particles root hair absorbing mineral salts from the soil Flow of mineral salts upwards The root hairs absorbed dissolved mineral salts from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher salt concentration. This occurs because the root hairs are using energy during the absorption process. The movement of substances against a concentration gradient using energy is called active transport.

25 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants Why is energy required in active transport? oThe higher concentration of molecules is at the top of the slope. oThe lower concentration of molecules is at the bottom of the slope. oIn diffusion, molecules can roll down the slope without using much energy. Diffusion

26 25.4 Absorption of Water and Mineral Salts by Roots of Plants Why is energy required in active transport? oIf the molecules were to move up the slope, energy is needed. oThis is what happens in active transport. Active transport


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