# Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts

## Presentation on theme: "Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts"— Presentation transcript:

Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts
Chapter 16

Identify the split-off point(s) in a joint-cost situation.
Learning Objective 1 Identify the split-off point(s) in a joint-cost situation.

Joint-Cost Basics (E.g. 1)
Split-off point Joint costs are costs Incurred in producing the raw milk Raw milk Separable costs are costs incurred in producing these separately identifiable products Cream Liquid Skim

Joint-Cost Basics (E.g. 2)
Coal Gas Benzyl Tar

Distinguish joint products
Learning Objective 2 Distinguish joint products from byproducts.

Joint Products and Byproducts
Main Product = 1 Joint Products ≥ 2 Byproducts High Low Sales Value

Explain why joint costs should be allocated to individual products.
Learning Objective 3 Explain why joint costs should be allocated to individual products.

Why Allocate Joint Costs?
to compute inventory cost and cost of goods sold to determine cost reimbursement under contracts for insurance settlement computations for rate regulation for litigation purposes

Allocate joint costs using four different methods.
Learning Objective 4 Allocate joint costs using four different methods.

Approaches to Allocating Joint Costs
Two (2) basic ways to allocate joint costs to products are: Approach 1: Market based Approach 2: Physical measure

Approach 1: Market-based Data – 3 methods
(1) - Sales value at split-off method (2) - Estimated net realizable value (NRV) method (3) - Constant gross-margin percentage NRV method

(1) Sales Value at Split-off Method Example
10,000 units of A at a selling price of \$10 = \$100,000 Joint processing cost is \$200,000 10,500 units of B at a selling price of \$30 = \$315,000 11,500 units of C at a selling price of \$20 = \$230,00 Splitoff point

(1) Sales Value at Split-off Method Example
A B C Total Sales Value \$100,000 \$315,000 \$230,000 \$645,000 Allocation of Joint Cost 100 ÷ ,008 315 ÷ ,674 230 ÷ ,318 200,000 Gross margin \$ 68,992 \$217,326 \$158,682 \$445,000

(1) Sales Value at Split-off Method Example
Assume all of the units produced of B and C were sold. 2,500 units of A (25%) remain in inventory. What is the gross margin of product A ? What is the gross margin percentage of each product?

(1) Sales Value at Split-off Method Example
Product A Revenues: 7,500 units × \$ \$75,000 Cost of goods sold: Joint product costs \$31,008 Less ending inventory \$31,008 × 25% , ,256 Gross margin \$51,744

(1) Sales Value at Split-off Method Example
Product A: (\$75,000 – \$ 23,256) ÷ \$75,000 = 69% Product B: (\$315,000 – \$97,674) ÷ \$315,000 = 69% Product C: (\$230,000 – \$71,318) ÷ \$230,000 = 69%

(2) Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example
Assume that Oklahoma Company can process products A, B, and, C further into A1, B1, and C1. The new sales values after further processing are: A1: 10,000 × \$12.00 = \$120,000 B1: 10,500 × \$33.00 = \$346,500 C1: 11,500 × \$21.00 = \$241,500

(2) Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example
Additional processing (separable) costs are as follows: A1: \$35,000 B1: \$46,500 C1: \$51,500 What is the estimated net realizable value of each product at the splitoff point?

(2) Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example
Product A1: \$120,000 – \$35,000 = \$85,000 Product B1: \$346,500 – \$46,500 = \$300,000 Product C1: \$241,500 – \$51,500 = \$190,000 How much of the joint cost is allocated to each product?

(2) Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example
To A1: 85 ÷ 575 × \$200,000 = \$29,565 To B1: 300 ÷ 575 × \$200,000 = \$104,348 To C1: 190 ÷ 575 × \$200,000 = \$66,087

(2) Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example
Allocated Separable Inventory joint costs costs costs A1 \$ 29,565 \$ 35,000 \$ 64,565 B , , ,848 C , , ,587 Total \$200,000 \$133,000 \$333,000

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
This method entails three steps: Step 1: Compute the overall gross-margin percentage. Step 2: Use the overall gross-margin percentage and deduct the gross margin from the final sales values to obtain the total costs that each product should bear.

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
Step 3: Deduct the expected separable costs from the total costs to obtain the joint-cost allocation.

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
What is the expected final sales value of total production during the accounting period? Product A1: \$120,000 Product B1: ,500 Product C1: ,500 Total \$708,000

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
Step 1: Compute the overall gross-margin percentage. Expected final sales value \$708,000 Deduct joint and separable costs ,000 Gross margin \$375,000 Gross margin percentage: \$375,000 ÷ \$708,000 = %

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
Step 2: Deduct the gross margin. Sales Gross Cost of Value Margin Goods sold Product A1: \$120,000 \$ 63,559 \$ 56,441 Product B1: 346, , ,973 Product C1: 241, , ,587 Total \$708,000 \$375,000 \$333,000 (\$1 rounding)

(3) Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method
Step 3: Deduct separable costs. Cost of Separable Joint costs goods sold costs allocated Product A1: \$ 56,441 \$ 35,000 \$ 21,441 Product B1: 162, , ,473 Product C1: 113, , ,087 Total \$333,000 \$133,000 \$200,000

Approach 2: Physical Measure Method Example
\$200,000 joint cost 20,000 pounds A 48,000 pounds B 12,000 pounds C Product A \$50,000 Product B \$120,000 Product C \$30,000

Explain why the sales value at splitoff method is preferred
Learning Objective 5 Explain why the sales value at splitoff method is preferred when allocating joint costs.

Choosing a Method It measures the value of the joint product
Why is the sales value at split-off method widely used? It measures the value of the joint product immediately. It does not anticipate subsequent management decisions. It uses a meaningful basis. It is simple.

Choosing a Method The NRV method should be used when there is
not enough information about individual selling prices at split-off point. The physical-measure method is a more appropriate method to use in rate regulation.

Avoiding Joint Cost Allocation
Some companies refrain from allocating joint costs and instead carry their inventories at estimated net realizable value.

Explain why joint costs sell-or-process-further decision.
Learning Objective 6 Explain why joint costs are irrelevant in a sell-or-process-further decision.

Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making
Assume that products A, B, and C can be sold at the splitoff point or processed further into A1, B1, and C1. Selling Selling Additional Units price price costs 10,000 A: \$10 A1: \$12 \$35,000 10,500 B: \$30 B1: \$33 \$26,500 11,500 C: \$20 C1: \$21 \$51,500

Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making
Should A, B, or C be sold at the splitoff point or processed further? Product A: Incremental revenue \$20,000 – Incremental cost \$35,000 = (\$15,000) Product B: Incremental revenue \$31,500 – Incremental cost \$26,500 = \$5,000 Product C: Incremental revenue \$11,500 – Incremental cost \$51,500 = (\$40,000)

Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making
Should A, B, or C be sold at the splitoff point or processed further? Product A: Incremental revenue \$20,000 – Incremental cost \$35,000 = (\$15,000) Split-off Product B: Incremental revenue \$31,500 – Incremental cost \$26,500 = \$5,000 Processed further Product C: Incremental revenue \$11,500 – Incremental cost \$51,500 = (\$40,000) Split-off

Account for byproducts using two different methods.
Learning Objective 7 Account for byproducts using two different methods.

Accounting for Byproducts
Method A: The production method recognizes byproducts at the time their production is completed. (Conceptually, this is the correct method) Method B: The sale method delays recognition of byproducts until the time of their sale. (used when dollar amount of byproducts are immaterial)

Accounting for Byproducts Example
Main Products Byproducts (Yards) (Yards) Production 1, Sales Ending inventory Sales price \$13/yard \$1.00/yard No beginning finished goods inventory

Accounting for Byproducts Example
Joint production costs for joint (main) products and byproducts: Material \$2,000 Manufacturing labor 3,000 Manufacturing overhead 4,000 Total production cost \$9,000

Accounting for Byproducts Method A
Method A: The production method What is the value of ending inventory of joint (main) products? \$9,000 total production cost – \$400 net realizable value of the byproduct = \$8,600 net production cost for the joint products

Accounting for Byproducts Method A
200 ÷ 1,000 × \$8,600 = \$1,720 is the value assigned to the 200 yards in ending inventory. What is the cost of goods sold? Joint production costs \$9,000 Less byproduct revenue Less main product inventory ,720 Cost of goods sold \$6,880

Accounting for Byproducts Method A
Income Statement (Method A) Revenues: (800 yards × \$13) \$10,400 Cost of goods sold ,880 Gross margin \$ 3,520 What is the gross margin percentage? \$3,520 ÷ \$10,400 = 33.85%

Accounting for Byproducts Method A
What are the inventoriable costs? Main product: 200 ÷ 1,000 × \$8,600 = \$1,720 Byproduct: 100 × \$1.00 = \$100

Journal Entries Method A
Work in Process ,000 Accounts Payable ,000 To record direct materials purchased and used in production Work in Process ,000 Various Accounts ,000 To record conversion costs in the joint process

Journal Entries Method A
Byproduct Inventory Finished Goods 8,600 Work in Process ,000 To record cost of goods completed Cost of Goods Sold 6,880 Finished Goods ,880 To record the cost of the main product sold

Journal Entries Method A
Cash or Accounts Receivable 10,400 Revenues ,400 To record the sale of the main product

Accounting for Byproducts Method B
Method B: The sale method What is the value of ending inventory of joint (main) products? 200 ÷ 1,000 × \$9,000 = \$1,800 No value is assigned to the 400 yards of byproducts at the time of production. The \$300 resulting from the sale of byproducts is reported as revenues.

Accounting for Byproducts Method B
Income Statement (Method B) Revenues: Main product (800 × \$13) \$10,400 Byproducts sold Total revenues \$10,700 Cost of goods sold: Joint production costs 9,000 Less main product inventory 1,800 \$ 7,200 Gross margin \$ 3,200

Accounting for Byproducts Method B
What is the gross margin percentage? \$3,200 ÷ \$10,700 = 29.91% What are the inventoriable costs? Main product: 200 ÷ 1,000 × \$9,000 = \$1,800 By-product: -0-

Journal Entries Method B
Work in Process 2,000 Accounts Payable ,000 To record direct materials purchased and used in production Work in Process 7,000 Various Accounts ,000 To record conversion costs in the joint process

Journal Entries Method B
Finished Goods 9,000 Work in Process ,000 To record cost of goods completed Cost of Goods Sold 7,200 Finished Goods ,200 To record the cost of the main product sold

Journal Entries Method B
Cash or Accounts Receivable 10,400 Revenues ,400 To record the sale of the main product Cash or Accounts Receivable Revenues To record the sale of the byproduct

End of Chapter 16

Similar presentations