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Learning culture and vocabulary from reading texts Do input-processing directions make a difference? Lies Sercu & Lieve De Wachter K.U. Leuven.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning culture and vocabulary from reading texts Do input-processing directions make a difference? Lies Sercu & Lieve De Wachter K.U. Leuven."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning culture and vocabulary from reading texts Do input-processing directions make a difference? Lies Sercu & Lieve De Wachter K.U. Leuven

2 TBLT Leuven Sept Research goal Better results?Worse results? Dual learning task Single learning task

3 TBLT Leuven Sept …more specifically Group 1 = condition 1: reading text ‘cultural’ contents Group 2 = condition 2: reading text ‘cultural’ contents reading text ‘cultural’ contents + vocabulary Group 3 = condition 3: reading text vocabulary reading text vocabulary

4 TBLT Leuven Sept Do dual learning tasks (culture + vocabulary) lead to better or worse learning effects than single learning tasks ?

5 TBLT Leuven Sept Hypotheses Learners with dual task => less good in answering cultural questions than learners with single task cultureLearners with dual task => less good in answering cultural questions than learners with single task culture Learners with single task vocabulary => better in vocabulary test than learners in other conditionsLearners with single task vocabulary => better in vocabulary test than learners in other conditions Learners with single task vocabulary => less good in cultural test than learners in other conditionsLearners with single task vocabulary => less good in cultural test than learners in other conditions

6 TBLT Leuven Sept Research design CALL-environment in Question Mark Perception 1. General questionnaire: Personal elementsPersonal elements Learning stylesLearning styles Motivation to learn the language + cultureMotivation to learn the language + culture IntegrationIntegration … 2. Pretest vocabulary + pretest culture 3. Posttest vocabulary + posttest culture

7 TBLT Leuven Sept Pre-test culture (open) 1 april Manneke Pis Justine Henin Prins Laurent Dutroux 11 november

8 TBLT Leuven Sept Pre-test culture (closed) Multiple choice questions on ‘cultural’ aspects Multiple choice questions on ‘cultural’ aspects E.g. would you say it is common for men to urinate in public? To kiss each other on the street? … E.g. would you say it is common for men to urinate in public? To kiss each other on the street? …

9 TBLT Leuven Sept Pre-test vocabulary On basis of frequency list for Dutch as a foreign language On basis of frequency list for Dutch as a foreign language 20 target words + 30 distractor words of same frequency band 20 target words + 30 distractor words of same frequency band Goals: Goals: Check respondents’ overall level of proficiency in foreign languageCheck respondents’ overall level of proficiency in foreign language Check whether respondents knew target words before experimentCheck whether respondents knew target words before experiment

10 TBLT Leuven Sept Pre-test vocabulary 1. de spanning (a) Ik heb dit woord nog nooit ontmoet (b) Ik heb dit woord al ontmoet, maar weet niet meer wat het betekent (c) Ik weet wat dit woord betekent (1) ik kan dit woord gebruiken in een zin waaruit de betekenis van het woord duidelijk wordt. De zin die ik wil voorstellen is (vul hieronder aan) OF (2) ik kan een synoniem geven, namelijk (doe dat hieronder) OF (3) ik kan een omschrijving (definitie, parafrase) geven (doe dat hieronder) 2. zoenen (werkwoord) (a) Ik heb dit woord nog nooit ontmoet (b) Ik heb dit woord al ontmoet, maar weet niet meer wat het betekent (c) Ik weet wat dit woord betekent (1) ik kan dit woord gebruiken in een zin waaruit de betekenis van het woord duidelijk wordt. De zin die ik wil voorstellen is (vul hieronder aan) OF (2) ik kan een synoniem geven, namelijk (doe dat hieronder) OF (3) ik kan een omschrijving (definitie, parafrase) geven (doe dat hieronder)

11 TBLT Leuven Sept Participants Students of Dutch as a Foreign Language of university language centre (ILT) – K.U. Leuven Students of Dutch as a Foreign Language of university language centre (ILT) – K.U. Leuven Students have degree of higher secondary education – most of them university degree Students have degree of higher secondary education – most of them university degree Level B1 of CEF Level B1 of CEF

12 TBLT Leuven Sept Materials Text: ‘Kussen’ from Niet Vanzelfsprekend (Van Loo & Schoenaerts) Text: ‘Kussen’ from Niet Vanzelfsprekend (Van Loo & Schoenaerts) Kissing habits in Belgium / The Netherlands (1, 2 or 3 kisses / men- women kissing, evolution in kissing traditions) Kissing habits in Belgium / The Netherlands (1, 2 or 3 kisses / men- women kissing, evolution in kissing traditions) 809 words (among them 20 target words) 809 words (among them 20 target words) Authentic text about culturally ‘relevant’ topic => incites learner’s reflection on culture (ICC) Authentic text about culturally ‘relevant’ topic => incites learner’s reflection on culture (ICC)

13 TBLT Leuven Sept Post-test vocabulary Two parts: 1. Receptive test: recognizing target words’ meaning + formal characteristics - 40 sentences (2 per target word) - some contained mistakes (semantic, morphological, grammatical) 2. Productive test: - gap filling - first letter given

14 TBLT Leuven Sept Post-test culture 12 questions on cultural information provided in the text 12 questions on cultural information provided in the text Multiple choice test Multiple choice test

15 TBLT Leuven Sept Data collection procedure 2 occasions: 2 occasions: General questionnaire + pre-tests culture and vocabularyGeneral questionnaire + pre-tests culture and vocabulary Reading authentic text + posttests culture and vocabularyReading authentic text + posttests culture and vocabulary

16 TBLT Leuven Sept No time limit No time limit Text reading: twice at their own pace Text reading: twice at their own pace Text input: on paper (words in margin explained + use of dictionary + asking teacher) Text input: on paper (words in margin explained + use of dictionary + asking teacher)

17 TBLT Leuven Sept Sample Number of ‘valid’ tests: 81 Number of ‘valid’ tests: 81 condition 1: focus on culture: 23condition 1: focus on culture: 23 condition 2: focus on culture + voc.: 38condition 2: focus on culture + voc.: 38 condition 3: focus on voc.: 20condition 3: focus on voc.: 20 Variables: Variables: gendergender ageage nationalitynationality mother tonguemother tongue degreedegree number of months / years in Belgiumnumber of months / years in Belgium

18 TBLT Leuven Sept Significant differences between conditions? No significant differences between conditions in numbers between No significant differences between conditions in numbers between Men – womenMen – women Older people – younger peopleOlder people – younger people Belgians – other nationalitiesBelgians – other nationalities …

19 TBLT Leuven Sept

20 Overall results Learning effect vocabulary (= voc. posttests): Learning effect vocabulary (= voc. posttests): no significant difference between conditions 1, 2 and 3 -> students who were instructed to concentrate on vocabulary reacted statistically similar to students who did not get this instruction

21 TBLT Leuven Sept Learning effect culture (= cult. posttests): Learning effect culture (= cult. posttests): Significant difference between condition 3 and conditions 1 and 2 -> students who were instructed to concentrate on vocabulary (!) had better scores on the posttest culture than students in other conditions

22 TBLT Leuven Sept Input processing directions do not have expected results Input processing directions do not have expected results Differences on pre-test level? no significant differences there for culture or for vocabulary Differences on pre-test level? no significant differences there for culture or for vocabulary Task too easy for culture? Task too easy for culture? Students in condition 3 intrinsically better? Students in condition 3 intrinsically better? => seems to be reinforced by general results during Summer Course Students in condition 2 intrinsically weaker? Students in condition 2 intrinsically weaker? => seems to be reinforced by general results during course of June

23 TBLT Leuven Sept Dual or single tasking? no conclusive evidence no conclusive evidence probably due to sampling issues probably due to sampling issues simply giving directions on how to process materials may not be enough to change input-processing behaviour simply giving directions on how to process materials may not be enough to change input-processing behaviour


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