Presentation on theme: "INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Diseases, causes, transmission and controlThe answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered
2 These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answer.For this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives(a) to see if there is a better answer and(b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptable.
3 Question 1 Which of the following is a transmissible disease? (a) Scurvy(b) Food poisoning(c) Diabetes(d) CancerQuestion 2
5 YesFood poisoning is caused either by one of a number of viruses or the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium or S. enteritidis.It is spread by contact with an infected person, or via food which has been handled by an infected person. The bacterial form may also come from animals, e.g. chickens, which carry the bacteria
6 NoDiabetes is a metabolic disorder. It is caused either by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or by the failure of cells in the body to respond properly to insulin
7 NoCancer occurs when the normal control of cell division in a tissue fails
8 Question 2 Contagious disease is spread by … (a) infected droplets in exhaled air(b) mosquitoes or other biting, insects(c) contaminated food(d) direct or indirect contact with aninfected personQuestion 3
9 NoThe term ‘contagious’ means that some form of contact is necessary to spread the disease
10 NoMosquitoes and other biting insects do spread diseases but not by mere contact. They need to insert their probosces into the infected person to pick up and transmit the disease
11 NoContaminated food can cause spread of disease but not by contagion. The food has to be ingested to cause the disease.
12 YesThe disease can be transmitted by direct contact with an infected person or by contact with some item used by that person, e.g a towel. Tinea is spread in this way
13 Question 3 Which of the following are sexually transmitted diseases? (a) Typhoid fever(b) Syphilis(c) Cholera(d) HIV (AIDS)Question 4
14 NoTyphoid is transmitted by infected water or food
15 YesSyphilis is spread by sexual intercourse with an infected person. Rarely it can be passed from an infected woman to her offspring.Syphilis can be treated by a course of injections with an antibiotic
16 NoCholera is an intestinal disease spread by contaminated food or water
17 YesHIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is spread by sexual contact with an infected person. It may also be transmitted unwittingly by the use of contaminated syringe needles.If untreated, HIV can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
18 Question 4To reduce the chances of spreading disease, it is important to wash the hands …(a) frequently(b) before handling food(c) after handling food(d) after visiting the lavatoryQuestion 5
19 NoAlthough frequent hand-washing may reduce the chances of disease, unless it takes place at specific times it is not effective
20 YesIntestinal diseases such as food poisoning or typhoid can be spread if food is contaminated by hands which carry disease organisms such as Salmonella
21 NoIf the food-handler’s hands are contaminated, the harm has been done while handling the food. Washing at this stage might be desirable but it will not reduce the spread of infection.
22 YesAfter visiting the lavatory, there is the possibility that the fingers may have become contaminated by bacteria present in the faeces. Thorough hand-washing at this stage greatly reduces the chances of the bacteria contaminating food or objects such as door handles
23 Question 5The chances of catching a sexually transmitted disease are greatly reduced if …(a) the man uses a condom(b) the couple keep themselves clean(c) the woman is on ‘the pill’(d) the partners are ‘faithful’ to each otherQuestion 6
24 YesThe condom prevents direct contact between the penis and vagina and also retains the semen. Viruses and bacteria cannot therefore be transmitted from one partner to the other
25 NoCleanliness is desirable but cannot prevent the spread of infection.
26 NoThe contraceptive pill may reduce the chances of conception but it can have no influence on the transmission of disease
27 YesIf both partners are free from disease to start with, so long as they remain ‘faithful’ to each other, there is no chance of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
28 Question 6 The blood system combats infection by producing … (a) antibodies(b) antigens(c) antibiotics(d) antisepticsQuestion 7
29 YesAntibodies are chemicals (immunoglobulins) produced by certain of the white cells in the blood. They neutralise or destroy foreign substances in the blood such as bacteria or their products.
30 NoAntigens are foreign substances such as bacteria or their toxins in the blood, which provoke an immune reaction.
31 NoAntibiotics are chemicals made by fungi or related organisms. They can be extracted and processed to be used as drugs to combat infection. Penicillin is an example of an antibiotic
32 NoAn antiseptic is an artificially produced substance which kills bacteria. It is used to sterilise instruments, surfaces or systems such as drains. Some forms can be used on the skin.
33 Question 7A vaccine reduces the chances of getting a virus infection by …(a) killing the virus(b) making the bone marrow produce more white cells(c) prompting the body to produce antibodies(d) raising the body temperatureQuestion 8
34 NoA vaccine prompts an immune reaction which destroys viruses but does not itself ‘kill’ them.
35 NoA virus infection may result in an increase in the population of white cells but this is not the primary function of a vaccine
36 YesVaccines provoke an immune reaction in the body which results in the production of antibodies against viruses and bacteria
37 NoThe body temperature may rise during an infection but this is not a function of the vaccine.
38 Question 8If you have a wound contaminated by soil you may be given an anti-tetanus injection. The injection will contain anti-tetanus antibodies. This is an example of …(a) passive immunity(b) active immunity(c) artificial immunity(d) drug therapyQuestion 9
39 YesIt is passive immuity because the antibodies have not been produced by your own body but from another organism, e.g. a genetically engineered bacterium
40 NoActive immunity results from the production of antibodies by your own immune system
41 NoArtificial immunity is produced by injecting the body with a harmless form of the infective agent or its products. The body produces antibodies to the antigens and is stimulated to do so when when the real infective agent enters the body
42 NoDrug therapy is used in order to cure rather than to prevent a disease
43 Question 9 Malaria is spread by … (a) exhaled droplets (b) houseflies (c) contact with an infected person(d) mosquitoesQuestion 10
44 NoMany diseases are spread by droplet infection but not malaria
45 NoHouseflies do spread diseases such as typhoid and cholera but they do so by contaminating food. They do not suck blood and so cannot transmit malaria
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