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Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management K. Krishnaiah.

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Presentation on theme: "Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management K. Krishnaiah."— Presentation transcript:

1 Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management K. Krishnaiah

2 Gall midge Stem borer Leaf folder Leaf and planthoppers Gundhi bug

3 Relative Importance of Insect Pests of Rice in India BPH 16% Stem borer 29% 29% Other Pests 14% 14% GLH 9% 9% WBPH Leaf Folder 10% Gall midge 13% 13%

4 Current pesticide-based control technologies are not desirable or sustainable Current pesticide-based control technologies are not desirable or sustainable typically farmers apply 2-3 sprays in the wet season and up to 15 sprays in dry season cash crops typically farmers apply 2-3 sprays in the wet season and up to 15 sprays in dry season cash crops Alternatives control strategies are required Alternatives control strategies are required natural enemies, pheromones, viruses, Bt natural enemies, pheromones, viruses, Bt

5 Semiochemicals Mediate interaction between organisms Pheromones (produced and received by same members of same species - communication) – Sexual attraction, aggregation,alarm, Allelochemicals (affect species other than the Producer, – Allomones, kairomones, synomones (attraction or repellence, oviposition, symbiosis)

6 Uses of Pheromones Monitoring Populations Detection – Quarantine Detection – Quarantine Prediction - ETL Prediction - ETL Control Populations Mass Trapping / Male annihilation Mass Trapping / Male annihilation Lure and Kill Lure and Kill Mating Disruption Mating Disruption Auto-confusion Auto-confusion

7 Insect Pests with commercially available Pheromones Paddy lepidopterous pests Paddy lepidopterous pests Sugarcane stem / Inter node borers Sugarcane stem / Inter node borers Cotton – Helicoverpa, Spodoptera spp, Earias spp, Pectinophora Cotton – Helicoverpa, Spodoptera spp, Earias spp, Pectinophora Brinjal –Shoot and fruit borer Brinjal –Shoot and fruit borer Ground nut – Leaf roller/miner, Ground nut – Leaf roller/miner, (Root grub (poly phagous Aggregation) (Root grub (poly phagous Aggregation) Red Palm weevil (aggregation) Red Palm weevil (aggregation) Sweet Potato weevil (Aggregation) Sweet Potato weevil (Aggregation) Cucurbit Fruit Fly ( Cue- lure and Methyl Eugenol) Cucurbit Fruit Fly ( Cue- lure and Methyl Eugenol)

8 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India S. No Name of the insectPheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 1Helicoverpa armigera (Gram Caterpillar) Z-11-16Ald : Z-9-16Ald 97 : 3Monitoring4-630 – 60Cotton, Gram, Pigeon pea etc. 2Scirpophaga incertulas (Rice yellow stem borer) Z-11-16Ald : Z-9-16Ald 3:1Monitoring Male annihilation (Mass -Trapping) Paddy 3Spodoptera litura (Tobacco caterpillar) 9,11-Z,E- 14Ac: 9,12-Z,E- 14Ac 9:1 Monitoring Mass Trapping Cotton, Ground nut, Vegetables Other crops 4Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink boll worm) Z,E-7, 11-16Ac: Z,Z-7, 11-16Ac 1:1Monitoring460Cotton 5Leucinodes orbonalis (Brinjal Shoot &Fruit borer) E-11-16Ac: E-11-16OH 100:1 Mass trapping1660Brinjal, Potato

9 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,) S. No Name of the insectPheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 6Aproaerema modicella (Groundnut Leaf miner) Z-7,Decenyl acetate, E-7, Decenyl acetate Z-7,9 Decadienyl acetate Monitoring Male annihilation Ground nut 7Plutella Xylostella (Diamondback moth) Z-11-16Ald: Z-11-16Ac: Z-11-16OH 10:10:0.1Monitoring430 Cole crops 8Chilo infuscatellus (Early shoot borer of Sugarcane) Z-11-16OH100Male annihilation Monitoring Sugarcane 9Chilo sacchariphagus (Internode borer of Sugarcane) Z-13-18Ac: Z-13-18OH 7:1Male annihilation 860Sugarcane Monitoring230 10Scripophaga excerptalis (Sugarcane Top Borer) Z-11-16Ald3Male annihilation 830Sugarcane E-11-16Ald7Monitoring330 11Chilo auricilius (Sugarcane Stalk Borer) Z-8-13Ac: Z-9-14Ac: Z-10-15Ac 8:4:1Male annhilation 830Sugarcane Monitoring330

10 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,) S. No Name of the insect Pheromone components Comp o -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 12Rhynchophoru s ferrugineus (Red Palm Weevil) 4-Methyl-5- Nonanone: 4-Methyl-5 nonanol 1:9Mass Trapping 2 / Ha90Coconut Monitoring1 / Ha180 13Oryctes rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Beetle) Ethyl-4-Methyl octanoate 100Male annihilation Monitoring 2 / Ha 1 / Ha 120Coconut 14Earias vittella (Spotted bollworm) Z Ald: E,E-10,12- 16Ald: Z-11-18Ald 2:10:2Monitoring4 -630Cotton 15Earias insulana (Spiny bollworm) E,E-10,12-16Ald Z-11-16Ald 10 :1 Monitoring4 -630Cotton

11 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,) S. NoName of the insect Pheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 16Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fly) Cue lure: 4-(p- acetoxyphenyl)-2- butenone(ethanol + cue lure +dichlorvos in the ratio of 6:4:1) (ethanol + cue lure + DDVP 6:4:1) Male annihilation Cucurbits 17Bactrocera dorsalis (Fruit fly) Methyl Eugenol100Male annihilation Mango, Guava 18Xylotrechus quadripes (Coffee white stem borer) 2-Hydroxy-3-decanone100Male annihilation Monitoring Coffee 19Conopomorp ha cramerella (Cocoa pod borer) E,E,Z-4,6,10-16 AC E,E,Z-4,6,10-16 OH E,Z,Z-4,6,10-16 AC 60:6:40Male annihilation8 / Ha90Cocoa 20Cylas formicarius (Sweet potato weevil) Z(3)dodecenyl-2- butenoate Monitoring Male annihilation 230Sweet Potato

12 Yellow Stem Borer Striped Stem Borer White Stem Borer Pink Stem Borer Dark headed Stem Borer

13 Different stages of Yellow Stem Borer Female Egg mass LarvaWhite head

14 STEM BORER SPECIES COMPOSITION IN RICE AICRIP,KHARIF 2002 Nellore : > 90% YSB Maruteru : > 90% YSB Bankura : > 90% YSB

15 Female Male

16 YSB management through Monitoring Install 3 sleeve traps loaded with dispensers impregnated with 5mg YSB pheromone in a paddy field of 1 acre in a triangular pattern) Record male moth catches at 3 day interval. Sudden rise in moth catch synchronizes with brood emergence (Average 25/30 catch/trap/week in most of the observations) Observe fields for egg masses after 3 days; dead hearts after a week. On confirming moth activity/ egg mass / dead heart incidence ( following YSB ETLs) take decision on insecticide application

17 Relationship among PT and LT catches and YSB damage of YSB, AICRIP Kharif Aug-IIIIIIIVSep-IIIIIIIVOct-IIIIIIIVNov-IIIIIIIV Weeks PT & LT catch % Infestation % Inf. PT catchLT catch RAGOLU

18 Pheromone trap capture threshold TENTATIVE ECONOMIC TRAP CAPTURE THRESHOLDS = 25 to 30 males/trap/week By closely monitoring the sudden increase in the trap catch around 25 to 30 male moths/ trap/ week followed by field scouting after 3 days for presence of egg masses or 2 weeks for dead hearts may lead to fairly precise decision on need for insecticidal intervention ( Varma, N.R.G.).

19 Pheromone based monitoring systems of rice insect pests Insect S. incertulas C. suppressalis S. inferens C. medinalis M. separata Components (Z11-16AI (Z) 9-16: Al ( Z) 11-16: Al (Z) 9-16: Al (Z) 13-18: Al (Z) 11-16: Ac (Z) 11-16: OH (Z) 11-16: Al (Z) 13-18: Ac (Z) 11-16: Ac (Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z)-11 hexa decenal-1ol Best blend3:0110:01:0140:10:0110:018:01 Dose 2 to 5 mg0.3 to 0.6 mg2mg1mg2mg Dispenserrubber polythene vialrubber Replacement period3-4 weeks4 weeks3-4 weeks 4 weeks Trap designsleeveplastic funnelsleevedelta stickySleeve traps Sleeve colourwhiteyellow-- white Trap elevation m0.5 m1.0mcanopy level 0.5m above crop canopy

20 Lepidopteran Mating Disruption - Market Insecticide resistance, reduce chemical inputs, IPM programmes, organic sector Over 600,000 treated ha worldwide (2002) – 230,000 ha (forestry) USA against gypsy moth – 120,000 ha apple, pear, walnut worldwide against Codling moth – 90,000 ha specific EU uses on grapes : grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) and European grape berry moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella)

21 Control of YSB by Mating Disruption Field Installed with Pheromone Dispensers

22 Mating disruption Plumes of Pheromone/or its analogue (para pheromone) in high conc are permeated into entire field-cause sensory adaptation of pheromone receptors leading to inability of insects to discriminate odours from background. YSB damage could be effectively managed by treating the field with pheromone dose of 40g a.i/ha incorporated through 625 controlled release point sources(shoe lace formu.). But not considered as it was cost prohibitive

23 MANAGEMENT OF RICE YELLOW STEM BORER THROUGH PHEROMONE MEDIATED MATING DISRUPTION (MULTILOCATION TRIALS) YSB damage Location Area (Acre) SeasonPheromone 40g a.i./ha) Farmers Practice Medchal25Rabi Warangal25Rabi Nellore25Rabi Karjat25Rabi Mandapaka12.5Rabi

24 Pheromone Mediated Male annihilation /Mass trapping Method Pheromone Mediated Male annihilation /Mass trapping Method

25 Male annihilation/ Mass trapping technique Phe Lure strength (Phe): 5 mg Phe Lure strength (Phe): 5 mg Pheromone traps : 20 traps/ha (25x20 m) Pheromone traps : 20 traps/ha (25x20 m) Lure effect : 3 Wks. Renew monthly Lure effect : 3 Wks. Renew monthly Trap height : 50…….100cm ensuring lure placed just above crop canopy Trap height : 50…….100cm ensuring lure placed just above crop canopy Time of application: 10 DAT Time of application: 10 DAT

26 Yellow stem borer management by pheromone aided mass trapping of male moths (over large areas) Medchal, Rabi 1997* Mandapaka, Rabi 1998** % InfestationYield% InfestationYield Treatments DHWE(kg/ha)DHWE(kg/ha) Pheromone treated 0.04a4.39a6380a1.4a4.1a7100a Farmers practice 1.09a19.41b4932b7.8b17.6b4800b * Area 350 Ac. **Area 150 Ac.

27 Effect of pheromone mass trapping integrated with chemical control on YSB infestation and yield Kapurthala Kharif 1997 Kharif 1998 Treatment %DHYield (Kg/ha) %WEYield (Kg/ha) PT + I1.6 a 5360 a 11.2 b 6500 a FP8.9 c 4480 b 31.7 c 5480 c Area = 40 acre/ treatment, Sub plots = 5, Hills sampled = 50/ sub plot.

28 Protection Measures Cost of Protection (Rs./ha) Insecticide application 1 Granule spray lakh/ha for 6 wks (Rs.50/20000) 3000 Pheromone 20/ha (Rs.30-35/trap) Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

29 b 5.7 a FP d 17.5 b IPM a 6.5 a IPM c 17.6 b IPM1 CBRYield (kg/ha)%WETreatments * in IPM 2 pheromone mass trapping was employed Optimized pest management practices in different IPM modules at Maruteru, rabi 2007

30 Pheromone based monitoring and Mass Trapping Technology Adoption and Promotion ICAR included in Technologies for offer(2000) ICAR included in Technologies for offer(2000) DBT recommd. as one of itsTransferable Technologies. DBT recommd. as one of itsTransferable Technologies. SAUs - in package of practices & SDAs promoting through ongoing special Rice IPM schemes and FFS SAUs - in package of practices & SDAs promoting through ongoing special Rice IPM schemes and FFS DRDAs, and NGOs included in their TT programmes DRDAs, and NGOs included in their TT programmes Organic Basmathi Rice cultivation Cooperatives, Uttaranchal as sole method for YSB management Organic Basmathi Rice cultivation Cooperatives, Uttaranchal as sole method for YSB management

31 Other successee Mass Trapping Mass Trapping Brinjal shoot and fruit borer Brinjal shoot and fruit borer Sugarcane shoot inter node borer Sugarcane shoot inter node borer Ground nut leaf roller Ground nut leaf roller Lure and Kill Lure and Kill Fruit flies - pheromone and para pheromone Fruit flies - pheromone and para pheromone Red Palm weevil Red Palm weevil Sweet potato weevil Sweet potato weevil

32 New product Exosex YSB Tab – Pheromone Formulation in Tablet form provides effective protection. {mass trapping + Mating disruption} From Exosect Co., U.K. + PCIL

33 Entostat is electrostatic wax particles that adhere to insect cuticle. YSB female sex pheromone is formulated into wax powder YSB Tab is made of compressed Entostat wax powder YSB males are attracted to tablets made of pressed powder. Powder adheres to male cuticle

34 YSB Tab mode of action Male attracted to pheromone tablet Pheromone powder sticks to male Male unable to detect female- mating disrupted Male with Ento attracts other males forming mobile dispensers

35 Deployment options using available local resources, no direct crop contact 80 point sources per ha

36

37 YSB Sex Tab 20 mg aided Auto-confusion

38 Parameters of Pheromone use methods MethodPheromone(mg) /Ha No. of point sources/Ha Times to be applied Mating Disruption40, Mass Trapping Auto confusion -Exosex YSB Tab 3.2 mg Auto confusion -Exosex YSB Tab 20 mg

39 The difference of Auto-Confusion (AC) from Mating Disruption (MD) It utilizes the natural behaviour of the male insect to effect control of the mating as opposed to prevent the natural behaviour of the male insect in M.D. Effective at a dose of 1600 mg/ha in auto- confusion as compared to 40,000 mg/ha in mating disruption (approx 25 times less pheromone used in AC compared to MD

40 Variety: Uniform variety Treatment details: AC I – 80 YSB Tab(3.2mg) point sources (11x11m) / ha applied at 10 DAT-renewed at 45 DAT(512mg ai/Ha) AC II – 80 YSB Tab 20 mg pheromone applied once at 10 DAT(1600 mg/Ha) MT – 20 Funnel traps/ ha (25x20 m) loaded with lures (5mg phe/lure) at 10 DAT. Lures renewed thrice at 3 week intervals FP –chemical control on need basis/as per farmers discretion/ recommendations PROTOCOLS

41 Lay out of Field Trial Auto-Confusion 3Ha 3Ha100m Mass Trapping 3Ha 3Ha 100 m Auto-Confusion 3Ha 3Ha > 1 Km Farmers Practice 3Ha 3Ha100mAuto-confusion 100 m Mass Trapping 3Ha.>1Km Auto-Confusion 3Ha 3Ha 100 m Mass Trapping 3Ha 3Ha 100 m AutoConfusio n 3Ha R I R II R III

42 Trials (farmers fields) on YSB management through Auto confusion Trials (farmers fields) on YSB management through Auto confusion Season, YearLocationInstitute, Scientists involved Rice Gr. situat ion Methods of protection Kh 2006Guntur, A.P.KVK, Cheru, Mahesh BabaCanal area Opti. Dose & point sources Rabi 2007Guntur, A.P.KVK, Cheru, Mahesh BabaCanal areaAC I, M.T, Chem Rabi 2007Nalg., A.P.KVK, Gaddi.Nrsihma ReddyCanal areaACI, M.T., Chem Kh 2007UttaranchalGBPUA&T,Pant.Dr.S.P.TewariBasmathiACI, M.T., Chem Rabi 2008WGL, A.P. ANGRAU, Ram Prasad, Sunitha, Anitha Ground watACI, M.T., Chem Kh 2008Fazilka, PunjabPAU, Ludhiana, Dr.Sarao, SuriBasmathiACI, M.T., Chem Rabi 2009KarimnagarAP KVK Jammi Ku.Venkateswar Rao Canal areaACI, M.T., Chem Kh loca.OrissaPAU, Ludhiana,Dr. Sarao, SuriBasmathiAC I, AC II, Chem Rabi 2009 Orissa 2 loc. A.P. 1 loc. K.Sagar, OUAT,Bub;(Dr.Panda) ANGRAU Gr. Water & CanalAC I, AC II, Chem Kh 2010Burdwan,BCKVV, W.B., Dr.Satpathy Ground waterAC I, AC II, Chem

43 Findings and conclusions Auto-confusion through Exosex YSB Tab was effective method for YSB Management Exosex YSB Tab 3.2 mg at 10 &45 DAT at 80 point sources (512 mg/Ha) was effective- either superior or match with Mass Trapping and/ Chemical control. Exosex YSB Tab.20 mg (1600 mg /Ha) applied once at 10 DAT offered season long protection from YSB. Single application of insecticide was to be supplemented at 1 or 2 occasions, where insect infestation level was very high due to high input management practices..

44 Results and conclusion (contd.) Grain yields, although high, did not differ significantly from other practices. Eco-friendly by harboring large number of predatory population and not adversely affecting egg parasite emergence. Cost of treatment matched with chemical control. Cost benefit ratios of Farmers practice and auto-confusion treatment respectively were 1:1.62 to respectively (Satpathy, 2011). Auto confusion technology - reliable component of IPM on Rice in YSB management

45 YSB Management by Auto-confusion Vs Mass Trapping Rabi,2008, ARS Warangal. Fig. Fig.1

46 Comparision of YSB Tab. 3.2mg twice (AC 1) and YSB Tab 20 mg once (AC 2)

47 Impact of Auto confusion YSB damage in at Patrasahi (Orrisa) Trial, Rabi 2010 at

48 Efficacy of YSB Tabs for management of YSB in WB, Kharif 2010

49 Efficacy of Exo sex YSB Tabs for management of YSB in WB, Kharif 2010 Treatments Exo sect Ysb Tab 45 DAT % DH 85 DAT %WE 110 DAT %WE Yield kg/ha 3.2 mg (AC1) 0.72 (0.46) 1.18 (1.10) mg (AC2) 0.16 (0.88) 1.49 (1.25) 2.14 (1.83) 4021 Farmers practice (FP) 1.57 (1.27) 3.17 (1.82) (3.34) 3702 (0.27)CD(.05)

50 Cost Benefits of Chemical Control Vs. Auto confusion (Satpathy, Kh.2010 ) Treatments Cost and value of inputs and returns (Rs./Ha) Treatment cost (Rs) Labour cost(Rs) Total production costs (Rs)* Gross return(R s) Net return(Rs) C:B ratio Farmers practice Cost of3 insecticidesare 1800/750/24760/95280/70520/1:2.84 Exosex YSB Tab tablets /ha ( twice in a season) 2000/450/24740/108600/83860/1:3.38 Exosex YSB Tab tablets /ha ( Once in a season) 3000/300/25640/104570/78930/1:3.07

51 YSBTab preserves Predator populations Rabi 08, ANGRAU, Warangal DAT35 DAT45 DAT55 DAT65 DAT75 DAT YSB Tab FP Mass trapping

52 Mean Unfertilized eggs (%) ACFP P (5%) Mean of 9 trials Auto-confusion recorded significantly more unfertilised eggs than FP, Kh07, Pantnagar

53 Central Insecticide Board Exemption from Registration Auto-Confusion Mass Trapping Auto-Confusion Monitoring Pheromone Based

54


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