Presentation on theme: "CHEMICAL EDUCATION REFORM IN THE GLOBAL ERA:"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHEMICAL EDUCATION REFORM IN THE GLOBAL ERA: SATL AS A NEW TREND IN CHEMICAL EDUCATIONAmeen F. M. Fahmy*, J.J.Lagowski** * Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt**Department of Chemistry, and Biochemistry, university of Texas at Austin TX78712.Website:Luxor -Egypt, Nov. 2010
2 If There is no Teaching Chemistry Their is no ChemistryGood TeachingExcellent Research
3 SATL AS NEW TREND IN THE GLOBAL AGE - INTRODUCTION.- THEORITICAL BASES OF SATL.- SATL-EXPERIMENTS.- CONCLUSION.- SELECTED SATL-CONFERENCES&WORKSHOPS.
4 INTRODUCTION:After the wide spread of systematizationin various activities including tourism, commerce,economy, security, education, health etc..,ANDAfter globalization became a reality thatwe live and survive with its positive and negativeimpacts on our life.After current educational Systems deals quite intensively with the impact of the “globalization“on educational planning and decision making.So, SATL became a must.
5 SATL has evolved in the field of teaching and learning starting in 1997, as a fruitful cooperation between Ain Shams University (Prof. Fahmy) and The University of Texas at (Austin (USA)(Prof.Lagowski. JJSATL was based on the theories of constructivist, and meaningful learning(1).Within the frame of these theorieseffective teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts
6 Taagepera and Noori (2000) (2) tracked the development of students conceptual understanding of organic chemistry during a one-year sophomore course.They found that the students knowledge base increased as expected, but their cognitive organization of the knowledge was surprisingly weak.The authors concluded that instructors should spend more time making effective connections, helping students to construct a knowledge space based on general principles.
7 Pungente, and Badger (2003) stated that the primary goal when teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using skills of synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory.(3).Fahmy and Lagowski (4-7) have designed, implemented, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) Since (1998).SATL is based on the constructivist theory, and Ausubel’s concept of meaningful learning [8, 9]
8 Why SATL IN CHEMICAL EDUCATION ? SATL Tecnique;Help students to understand interrelationships between concepts in a greater context.Assures that students attain the major goals of education—helping them acquire the higher order cognitive skills.It provides the basis for systemic thinking and the continuous growth of knowledge that is the mark of a quality education. SIt provides new forms of educator evaluation that include outputs student learning results) in addition to inputs (the observation of teachers in their classrooms.
9 What is the meaning of SATL? By "systemic" we mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made, clear up front, to the teachers and learners (Fig. 1b),in contrast to the usual linear method ofteaching the same topics (Fig. 1a).
10 Fig: 1a: Linear representation of concepts Fig: 1b: systemic representation of concepts
11 Correct Systemic Cognition Theoretical bases of the SATL- SATL was based on the systems analysis and theory of constructivism. The following systemic diagram illustrates the criteria& product of learning by SATL.T. Q.SystemizationContinuityDual Feed(SATL)DynamicsIntegrationHolismConstructivismPositiveAttitudesHighSkillsCorrect Systemic CognitionSystemic ThinkingSelectivityMulti Vision
12 Nature of Learning and Teaching Processes in SATL:1-Learning is an active process:SATL-based learning is an active process where learnersare encouraged to discover principles, concepts, and factsand arrange them in a systemic relationship.- In this process, significant learning interactions occurbetween learners, between learners and teachers, andbetween learners and context.
13 2-Role of the teacher in an SATL environment: - The teacher's role is not only to observe and assessstudents, but also to engage the students while theyare completing their systemic diagrams .- Teachers also facilitate the students’ resolution ofdecisions and their self –regulation.
14 Systemic teaching strategy We started teaching of any course by Systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the course.We ended the course with a final systemic diagram (SDf) and between both we crossover several Systemics (SD1, SD2,…..)SD0SDfSD2SD1Stage (1)Stage (2)Stage (3)(maximum Unknownchemical relation)(All chemical relations are known)(?)()Educational standardsand objectivesFigure: 2
15 SATL Experiments in Egypt We have conducted numerous experiments in EGYPTwhich we attempted to establish the effectiveness ofSATL methods not only in chemistry, but also in other basic sciences, Medicinal sciences, Engineeringsciences ,Agriculture, Pharmaceutical, sciences, ……- In chemistry, we have conducted a series of successfulSATL-oriented experiments, at pre-university, anduniversity levels of education ( 8,9).-We have created SATL units in General, Analytical,Aliphatic, Aromatic, Green, and heterocyclic chemistry.-These units have been used in Egyptian universities and secondary schools to establish the validity of the SATL approach on an experimental basis.
16 PRE-COLLEGE EXPERIMENTS SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Our experiments probing the usefulness of SATL to learning Chemistry at the pre-college level was conducted in Egypt at Cairo and Giza school districts(8,9).SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTSFifteen SATL based lessons in inorganic chemistry taught over a three - week period were presented to a total 130 students(9).The achievement of these students was then compared with 79 students taught the same material using standard (linear) method.The periodicity of the properties within the horizontal periods is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 4), and within the vertical groups is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 7).
17 Non-metallic property By increasing the atomic number in periods ElectronegativityAtomic radiusElectronaffinityIonization energyNon-metallic propertyMetallic propertyAcidic propertyBasicpropertyBy increasing the atomic number in periods?Figure (3): Periodicity of properties of the elements within the periods
18 The previous diagrams of periods represent linear separated chemical relations between the atomic number and Atomic radius – Ionization energy - electron affinity - electronegativity - metallic and non-metallic properties - basic and acidic properties.The periodicity of the properties through the periods can be illustrated systemically by changing the diagram in figure (4) to systemic diagram (SD0-P) figure (5).
19 By increasing atomic number within the periods ElectronegativityAmphoteric propertyMetallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic propertyAcidic propertyAtomic radiusBy increasing atomic number within the periods3?571114981216151820121017191346Non-metallic propertyFigure (4): Systemic Diagram (SD 0- P) for the periodicity of propertiesof elements within periods
20 Figure(5 ): Systemic Diagram (SDf - P) for the periodicity of the After studying the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify systemic diagrams (SD0-P) Figure (4) to (SDf-P) Figure (5), for periods.ElectronegativityAmphoteric propertyMetallic propertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic propertyAcidic propertyAtomic radiusBy increasing atomic number within the periods3571114981216151820121017191346The oxidation number for element in its oxide212223Figure(5 ): Systemic Diagram (SDf - P) for the periodicity of theProperties for the elements within periods
21 Non-metallic property By increasing the Atomic number in groups Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groupsAtomic radiusElectron affinityIonization energyNon-metallic propertyMetallic propertyAcidic propertyBasic propertyBy increasing the Atomic number in groups?ElectronegativityFigure (6): The linear relationships of the properties within groups.
22 Non-metallic property By increasing Atomic number within the groups Also the periodicity of the properties within groups can be illustrated systemically be changing Figure (7) to systemic diagram (SD0G) Figure(8).ElectronegativityMetallic PropertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic PropertyAcidic propertyHXAtomic radiusBy increasing Atomic number within the groups3?571114981216151820191710132146Figure (7): Systemic Diagram (SD0 - G) for the periodicity of propertiesof the elements within groups
23 Non-metallic property By increasing Atomic number within the groups After studying the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify (SD0-G) Figure (7) to (SDf-G) Figure (8).ElectronegativityMetallic PropertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic PropertyAcidic propertyHXAtomic radiusBy increasing Atomic number within the groups3571114981216151820191710132146Figure (8): Systemic Diagram (SDf - G) for the periodicity of the properties of elements within groups
24 -The results of experimentation 47152110088569220406080120BeforeAfterEltabary Roxy "boys"Nabawia Mosa"girls"Gamal Abedel Naser "girls"all the exp.(group)Figure 9: Percent of students in the experimental groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period
25 Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" 8756413394610203040506070BeforeAfterEltabary Roxy "boys"Nabawia Mosa"girls"Gamal Abedel Naser "girls"all the control(group)Figure 10: Percent of students in the control groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention period.
26 The results from the pre-university experiment point to a number of conclusions: Teachers feedback indicated that the systemic approach seemed to be beneficial when the students in the experimental group returned to learning using the conventional linear approach.Teachers from different experiences, and ages can be trained to teach by the systemic approach in a short period of time with sufficient training.After the experiment both teachers and learners retain their understanding of SATL techniques and continue to use them.students taught systematically improved their scores significantly after being taught by using SATL techniques.
27 UNIVERSITY EXPERIMENTS I-ALIPHATIC CHEMISTRY A study of the efficacy of systemic methods applied to the first semester of the second year organic chemistry course (16 lectures, 32 hours) at Zagazeg University.The details of the transformation of the usual linear approach usually used to teach this subject that involves separate chemical relationships between alkanes and other related compounds (Figure 11) and the corresponding systemic closed concept cluster that represents the systemic approach were presented (Figure 12).
28 Figure 11: The classic linear relationship involving the chemistry of the alkanes organized to begin to create a systemic diagram of that chemistry.
29 Figure 12:systemic diagram (SD0) that represents some of the major chemistries of alkanes .In the systemic diagram some chemical relationships are defined whereas others are undefined. These undefined relationships are developed systematically.
30 After using the diagram shown in Fig After using the diagram shown in Fig. 12 as the basis for the study of the synthesis and reactions of alkenes, and alkynes, we can modify this systemic diagram (SD0 in Fig. 12) to accommodate other chemistries of hydrocarbons as shown in (SD1), Fig. 13.Figure 13: The SATL relation ship between hydrocarbons and their relatedcompounds.
31 Expanding the chemistry of acetylene converts the systemic diagram(SD1) in Figure (13) to (SD2) shown in Figure (14) .Figure 14. The SATL relationship between the hydrocarbons and derived compounds
32 Systemic diagram (SD2) shown in Figure (14) can accommodate to the chemistries of ethyl bromide and ethanol yielding a new systemic diagram.The systemic diagrams developed in Figures (12) through (14) were used as the basis for teaching organic chemistry course to experimental group at Zagazeg University Egypt). The experiment was conducted within the Banha Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry with second year students. The experiment involved (41) students in the control group, which was taught using the classical (linear) approach; (122) students formed the experimental group, which was taught using SATL methods illustrated in the systemic diagrams shown as Figures (12 ) through (14 ).
33 -The success of the systemic approach to teaching organic chemistry was established by using an experimental group, which was taught systemically, and a control group, which was taught in the classical linear manner.Figures (15) and (16) show the final data in terms of student achievement.- These data indicate a marked difference between the control and experimental groups
34 Figure 15: Average scores for experimental groups before and after intervention.
35 Figure 16: Average scores for experimental groups before and after intervention.
36 HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY A course on heterocyclic chemistry using the SATL technique was organized and taught to 3rd year students at Ain Shams University. A portion of the one-semester course (10 lectures, 20 hours) was taught to students during the academic years andWe use heterocyclic chemistry to illustrate, again, how a subject can be organized systemically, to help students to fit the new concepts into their own mental framework. Figure (17) summarizes all the significant reactions of furan, the model heterocyclic compound.
37 Figure 17. The classic linear relations involving chemistry of furan
38 These are the reactions that are generally discussed in a linear fashion (Figure 1a) in the conventional teaching approach. However, these reactions can be organized systemically as shown in Figure (18)Figure18: Systemic organization of the furan chemistry
39 Inspection of Figure (18) reveals seven unknown chemical relations (1-7) among the furan compounds. Figure (18) can be refined to give figure (19) by adding the unknown chemical relations.Figure 19. The result of completing the undefined relations that appear in Figure 19.
40 Table 2. Percentage increase in student scores. The data summarized in Table 2 show that students taught systematically improved their scores significantly after being taught by using SATL techniques..Table 2. Percentage increase in student scores.Percent increase in student scoresBefore interventionAfter interventionLinear questions37.32 %49.53 %Systemic questions21.19%90.29%Total32.52%69.1%These results are statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
41 SYSTEMICS AND LABORATORY INSTRUCTION Applying Systemics to laboratory instruction reveals the following advantages, which constitute the principles of benign analysis(2)- Smaller amounts of Chemicals are used.- Recycling of Chemicals.- Experiments are done with less hazards, and moresafety.- Experiments are done more rapidly.Students easily acquire a working sense of theprinciples of green chemistry.
42 Classical laboratory-oriented subject of qualitative analysis involves the application of linearly obtainedchemical information to an unknown solution in a linear wayIn contrast to the linear approach of learning chemistry of cations from a laboratory experience,a systemic approach has been developed that focuses attention on individual species(Figure 20)
43 Applying this approach to laboratory instruction allows students to experience the colors of chemical species, their solubility characteristics, and their redox behavior.The “Green Chemistry” aspects of this approach involve a very small amount of the cation-containing species, which is contained in a very small volume.we have created. Qualitative benign analytical chemistry course for the first-year students of faculty of Sci., Benha, Zigzag University, and Faculty of Education, Helwan University, Egypt. The Systemic based course materials were presented in 24hrs (2hrs period/ per week) From Sept.-Dec. (2001) (5).
44 Exp. 4Exp. 3Exp. 2Exp. 1(?)A+X-A+E-A+Y-A+Z-Figure 20: Systemic Investigation of species A+(SI-Plane)The diagram shows the Plane for qualitative investigation of the species (A+), the preparation of (A+) Compounds, and the interconversion of the species.
45 Systemic Investigation of [Pb++] (SI-1): Lead Cycle The students follow the plane (SI-1) to investigate (Pb2+) in a seriesof experiments (1-4) in a single test tube on a small sample of lead nitrate (0.5 ml), then they recycle the product of (Exp. 4) to Pb(NO3)2 (Cf. SI - Final).(SI -1 - Plane)Exp.1Pb++Exp.2Nitrate SaltExp.3(White ppt)Lead hydroxide(White ppt.)Lead OxalateHNO3(?)(Yellow ppt)Lead iodideExp.4Lead carbonateNa2C2O4i) HNO3ii)NH4OHii) Na2CO3()ii) KIRecycling(SI -1 - Final)
46 Systemic Investigation of [Ag+] (SI-2): Silver Cycle The students follow the plane (SI-2) to investigate (Ag+) in a series of experiments (1-3), then recycle the product of (Exp.3) to AgNO (Cf. SI-2-Final).(White ppt.)Silver phosphateSilver sulphite.Silver carbonateExp. 1Exp. 2Exp. 3HNO3Ag+Silver nitrate.(SI-2 Plane)(?)Na2SO3i) HNO3ii) Na2CO3(SI-2 Final)()Recyclingii) Na3PO4
47 Amount required (gm / 50 Students) Results of Experimentation:- The experimentation results showed that the Benign scheme reduces the consumption chemicals in Comparison with the classical scheme as shown in table (1). This means low cost, and less pollution.Table 1: Amount of salts needed for Experimental group (Benign scheme), and Reference group (Classic scheme)SaltsAmount required (gm / 50 Students)Classic SchemeSolid/ (g)Benign Scheme0.1M Solution (1/2 liter)Pb(NO3)210016.5Al(NO3)320011.0CrCl3.6H2O13.5NiCl2.6H2O12.0Co(NO3)2.6H2O15.0CdCl2 5H2O150BaCl2.2H2OMgSO4.7H2O
48 RESULTS OF EXPERIMMENTATION The results, of experimentation indicate that;- a greater fraction of students exposed to systemic techniques in the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by linear Approach.-
49 CONCLUSION*SATLC improved the students ability to view the chemistry from a more global perspective.*SATLC helps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis.*SATLC increases students ability to learn subject matter in a greater context.*SATLC increases the ability of students to think Systemically.* Helping students to see the pattern of pure and applied chemistry rather than isolated concepts, and facts .-
50 CONCLUSION*SATLC Helping students to see the pattern of pure and applied chemistry rather than isolated concepts, and facts.*SATLC in Egypt could be used as a successful Model for teaching and learning Chemistry in other African countries.*
51 WORKSHOPS ON SATL SELECTED CONFERNCES & Organized By: 1- 15th International Conference on Chemistry Education (15th ICCE) IUPACOrganized By:Chem. Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University & UNESCO office Cairo, and IUPAC.(Aug. 1998), Cairo, Egypt2 - Workshop on: "Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry" for Teachers and Experts from Cairo, and GizaOrganized By: Chem. Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University(Feb. 1998), Cairo, Egypt3-Workshop on “SATLC In Reform of Chemical Education .Organized By A. F. M. Fahmy, Peter Atkins, J. Bradley, J. Lagowski, M. Schallies, I.F.Zeid.18th International Conference on Chemical Education (18th ICCE),Istanbul, Turky, Aug. 3-8 (2004).4-1st Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and LearningOrganized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & UNESCO Office Cairo(Feb. 2001), Cairo, Egypt
52 5 - 2nd Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & UNESCO Office Cairo(Feb. 2002), Cairo, Egypt
53 6 - 3ed Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & Garish University, Jordan(April. 2003), Cairo, Egypt
54 7- 4th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University(April 2004), Cairo, Egypt
55 8- 5th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University(April 2005), Cairo, Egypt
56 9- 6th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University& Misr International University(April 2006), Cairo, Egypt
57 10-The 2nd Jordanian Egyptian Conference on SATL and its Applications in different Sciences. Organized by: Tafila Technical University Jordan, and Ain Shams University Egypt. (July 2005) Tafila , Jordan
58 12-Pakistanis School on SATLC, 11-Workshop on SATLC Satellite to Malta III Conference : Organized By:UNISCO,IUPAC,RCS,ACS, University;Istanbul,Turky (December.2006)12-Pakistanis School on SATLC,Organized By: Karachi, University;Karachi,Pakistan (18-31 Nov.2008)
60 Literature(1) CaineR.N.&Caine,G.(1991).Making connections: Teaching and Human brain.Aleandria,VA:Association for supervision and curriculum Development (2)Taagepera, M.; Noori, S.; J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1224(3) Michael, P., Badger R., J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80, 779.(4) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J., The use of Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning for 21st Century, J pure Appl. 1999, [15th ICCE, Cairo, August 1998].(5) Fahmy, A. F. M., Hamza, M. A., Medien, H. A. A., Hanna, W. G., Abdel-Sabour, M. : and Lagowski, J.J., From a Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry (SATLC) to Benign Analysis, Chinese J.Chem. Edu. 2002, 23(12),12 [17th ICCE, Beijing, August 2002].(6) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J; Systemic Reform in Chemical Education An International Perspective, J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80 (9), 1078.
61 (7) Fahmy, A. F. M. , Lagowski, J. J (7) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Systemic multiple choice questions(SMCQs in Chemistry [19th ICCE, Seoul, South Korea, August 2006].(8) Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003)(9) Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; “Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry”; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000)(10) Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., “Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry”. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999)
62 SATLC-Research Group Prof. Dr. Lagowski, J. J. (USA) (Founder) Prof. Dr. Hashem A. F. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. El-Shahat, M. T. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. Kandil, N. G. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. El-Hashash, M. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. Abdel – Sabour, M. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. Hanna, W. G. (USA)Prof. Dr. Medin, H. (Saudia Arabia)Dr. Hamza, S. M. (Egypt) ) Mrs. Said, A. (Egypt