Presentation on theme: "Ameen F. M. Fahmy*, J.J.Lagowski** * Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt"— Presentation transcript:
Ameen F. M. Fahmy*, J.J.Lagowski** * Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt **Department of Chemistry, and Biochemistry, university of Texas at Austin TX Website: Luxor -Egypt, Nov CHEMICAL EDUCATION REFORM IN THE GLOBAL ERA: SATL AS A NEW TREND IN CHEMICAL EDUCATION
Good Teaching Good Teaching If There is no Teaching Chemistry Their is no Chemistry If There is no Teaching Chemistry Their is no Chemistry Excellent Research
SATL AS NEW TREND IN THE GLOBAL AGE - INTRODUCTION. - THEORITICAL BASES OF SATL. -- SATL-EXPERIMENTS. -- CONCLUSION. -- SELECTED SATL-CONFERENCES -&WORKSHOPS.
INTRODUCTION: After current educational Systems deals quite intensively with the impact of the globalization on educational planning and decision making. So, SATL became a must. - After the wide spread of systematization in various activities including tourism, commerce, economy, security, education, health etc.., AND After globalization became a reality that we live and survive with its positive and negative impacts on our life. AND
SATL has evolved in the field of teaching and learning starting in 1997, as a fruitful cooperation between Ain Shams University (Prof. Fahmy) and The University of Texas at (Austin (USA) ( Prof.Lagowski. JJ SATL was based on the theories of constructivist, and meaningful learning(1). Within the frame of these theories effective teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts
Taagepera and Noori (2000) (2) tracked the development of students conceptual understanding of organic chemistry during a one-year sophomore course. They found that the students knowledge base increased as expected, but their cognitive organization of the knowledge was surprisingly weak. The authors concluded that instructors should spend more time making effective connections, helping students to construct a knowledge space based on general principles.
Fahmy and Lagowski (4-7) have designed, implemented, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) Since (1998). SATL is based on the constructivist theory, and Ausubels concept of meaningful learning [8, 9] Pungente, and Badger (2003) stated that the primary goal when teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using skills of synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory.(3).
Why SATL IN CHEMICAL EDUCATION ? -SATL Tecnique ; Help students to understand interrelationships between concepts in a greater context. Assures that students attain the major goals of educationhelping them acquire the higher order cognitive skills. It provides the basis for systemic thinking and the continuous growth of knowledge that is the mark of a quality education. S It provides new forms of educator evaluation that include outputs student learning results) in addition to inputs (the observation of teachers in their classrooms.
What is the meaning of SATL? By "systemic" we mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made, clear up front, to the teachers and learners (Fig. 1b), in contrast to the usual linear method of teaching the same topics (Fig. 1a).
Fig: 1a: Linear representation of concepts concept Fig: 1b: systemic representation of concepts concept
- SATL was based on the systems analysis and theory of constructivism. The following systemic diagram illustrates the criteria& product of learning by SATL. Theoretical bases of the SATL
Nature of Learning and Teaching Processes in SATL: 1-Learning is an active process: -SATL-based learning is an active process where learners are encouraged to discover principles, concepts, and facts and arrange them in a systemic relationship. - In this process, significant learning interactions occur between learners, between learners and teachers, and between learners and context.
2-Role of the teacher in an SATL environment: - The teacher's role is not only to observe and assess students, but also to engage the students while they are completing their systemic diagrams. - Teachers also facilitate the students resolution of decisions and their self –regulation.
We started teaching of any course by Systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the course. We ended the course with a final systemic diagram (SDf) and between both we crossover several Systemics (SD1, SD2,…..) Systemic teaching strategy SD0 SDf SD2 SD1 Stage (1) Stage (2) Stage (3) (maximum Unknown chemical relation) (All chemical relations are known) (?) ( ) (?) Educational standards and objectives Educational standards and objectives Figure: 2
-We have conducted numerous experiments in EGYPT which we attempted to establish the effectiveness of SATL methods not only in chemistry, but also in other basic sciences, Medicinal sciences, Engineering sciences,Agriculture, Pharmaceutical, sciences, …… SATL Experiments in Egypt - In chemistry, we have conducted a series of successful SATL-oriented experiments, at pre-university, and university levels of education ( 8,9). -We have created SATL units in General, Analytical, Aliphatic, Aromatic, Green, and heterocyclic chemistry. -These units have been used in Egyptian universities and secondary schools to establish the validity of the SATL approach on an experimental basis.
SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS The periodicity of the properties within the horizontal periods is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 4), and within the vertical groups is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 7). Our experiments probing the usefulness of SATL to learning Chemistry at the pre-college level was conducted in Egypt at Cairo and Giza school districts(8,9). Fifteen SATL based lessons in inorganic chemistry taught over a three - week period were presented to a total 130 students(9). The achievement of these students was then compared with 79 students taught the same material using standard (linear) method. PRE-COLLEGE EXPERIMENTS
Electronegativity Atomic radius Electronaffinity Ionization energy Non-metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basicproperty By increasing the atomic number in periods ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Figure (3): Periodicity of properties of the elements within the periods
The periodicity of the properties through the periods can be illustrated systemically by changing the diagram in figure (4) to systemic diagram (SD0-P) figure (5). The previous diagrams of periods represent linear separated chemical relations between the atomic number and Atomic radius – Ionization energy - electron affinity - electronegativity - metallic and non-metallic properties - basic and acidic properties.
Electronegativity Amphoteri c property Metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 1 ? 2 ? 10 ? 17 ? ? 4 ? ? 6 ? Non-metallic property Figure (4): Systemic Diagram (SD 0 - P) for the periodicity of properties of elements within periods
Electronegativity Amphoteric property Metallic property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods The oxidation number for element in its oxide Figure(5 ): Systemic Diagram (SD f - P) for the periodicity of the Properties for the elements within periods After studying the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify systemic diagrams (SD0-P) Figure (4) to (SDf-P) Figure (5), for periods.
Figure (6): The linear relationships of the properties within groups. Atomic radius Electron affinity Ionization energy Non- metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basic property By increasing the Atomic number in groups ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? Electronegativity Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groups
Also the periodicity of the properties within groups can be illustrated systemically be changing Figure (7) to systemic diagram (SD0G) Figure(8). Electronegativity Metallic Property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 19 ? 17 ? 10 ? 13 ? 2 ? ? 1 4 ? 6 ? Figure (7): Systemic Diagram (SD 0 - G) for the periodicity of properties of the elements within groups
Electronegativi ty Metallic Property Non- metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups Figure (8): Systemic Diagram (SD f - G) for the periodicity of the properties of elements within groups After studying the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify (SD0-G) Figure (7) to (SDf-G) Figure (8).
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the exp. (group) Figure 9: Percent of students in the experimental groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period - The results of experimentation
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the control (group) Figure 10: Percent of students in the control groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention period.
Teachers feedback indicated that the systemic approach seemed to be beneficial when the students in the experimental group returned to learning using the conventional linear approach. After the experiment both teachers and learners retain their understanding of SATL techniques and continue to use them. The results from the pre-university experiment point to a number of conclusions: Teachers from different experiences, and ages can be trained to teach by the systemic approach in a short period of time with sufficient training. students taught systematically improved their scores significantly after being taught by using SATL techniques.
UNIVERSITY EXPERIMENTS I-ALIPHATIC CHEMISTRY A study of the efficacy of systemic methods applied to the first semester of the second year organic chemistry course (16 lectures, 32 hours) at Zagazeg University. The details of the transformation of the usual linear approach usually used to teach this subject that involves separate chemical relationships between alkanes and other related compounds (Figure 11) and the corresponding systemic closed concept cluster that represents the systemic approach were presented (Figure 12).
Figure 11: The classic linear relationship involving the chemistry of the alkanes organized to begin to create a systemic diagram of that chemistry.
Figure 12:systemic diagram (SD 0 ) that represents some of the major chemistries of alkanes.In the systemic diagram some chemical relationships are defined whereas others are undefined. These undefined relationships are developed systematically.
Figure 13: The SATL relation ship between hydrocarbons and their related After using the diagram shown in Fig. 12 as the basis for the study of the synthesis and reactions of alkenes, and alkynes, we can modify this systemic diagram (SD0 in Fig. 12) to accommodate other chemistries of hydrocarbons as shown in (SD1), Fig. 13. compounds.
Expanding the chemistry of acetylene converts the systemic diagram(SD1) in Figure (13) to (SD2) shown in Figure (14). Figure 14. The SATL relationship between the hydrocarbons and derived compounds
Systemic diagram (SD2) shown in Figure (14) can accommodate to the chemistries of ethyl bromide and ethanol yielding a new systemic diagram. The systemic diagrams developed in Figures (12) through (14) were used as the basis for teaching organic chemistry course to experimental group at Zagazeg University Egypt). The experiment was conducted within the Banha Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry with second year students. The experiment involved (41) students in the control group, which was taught using the classical (linear) approach; (122) students formed the experimental group, which was taught using SATL methods illustrated in the systemic diagrams shown as Figures (12 ) through (14 ).
- The success of the systemic approach to teaching organic chemistry was established by using an experimental group, which was taught systemically, and a control group, which was taught in the classical linear manner. -Figures (15) and (16) show the final data in terms of student achievement. - These data indicate a marked difference between the control and experimental groups
Figure 15: Average scores for experimental groups before and after intervention.
Figure 16: Average scores for experimental groups before and after intervention.
HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY A course on heterocyclic chemistry using the SATL technique was organized and taught to 3rd year students at Ain Shams University. A portion of the one-semester course (10 lectures, 20 hours) was taught to students during the academic years and We use heterocyclic chemistry to illustrate, again, how a subject can be organized systemically, to help students to fit the new concepts into their own mental framework. Figure (17) summarizes all the significant reactions of furan, the model heterocyclic compound.
Figure 17. The classic linear relations involving chemistry of furan
Figure18: Systemic organization of the furan chemistry These are the reactions that are generally discussed in a linear fashion (Figure 1a) in the conventional teaching approach. However, these reactions can be organized systemically as shown in Figure (18)
Figure 19. The result of completing the undefined relations that appear in Figure 19. Inspection of Figure (18) reveals seven unknown chemical relations (1-7) among the furan compounds. Figure (18) can be refined to give figure (19) by adding the unknown chemical relations.
Table 2. Percentage increase in student scores. Percent increase in student scores Before interventionAfter intervention Linear questions37.32 %49.53 % Systemic questions21.19%90.29% Total32.52%69.1% These results are statistically significant at the 0.01 level. The data summarized in Table 2 show that students taught systematically improved their scores significantly after being taught by using SATL techniques..
SYSTEMICS AND LABORATORY INSTRUCTION Applying Systemics to laboratory instruction reveals the following advantages, which constitute the principles of benign analysis(2 ) - Smaller amounts of Chemicals are used. - Recycling of Chemicals. - Experiments are done with less hazards, and more safety. - Experiments are done more rapidly. - Students easily acquire a working sense of the principles of green chemistry.
-Classical laboratory-oriented subject of qualitative analysis involves the application of linearly obtained chemical information to an unknown solution in a linear way -In contrast to the linear approach of learning chemistry of cations from a laboratory experience, -a systemic approach has been developed that focuses attention on individual species(Figure 20)
Applying this approach to laboratory instruction allows students to experience the colors of chemical species, their solubility characteristics, and their redox behavior. we have created. Qualitative benign analytical chemistry course for the first-year students of faculty of Sci., Benha, Zigzag University, and Faculty of Education, Helwan University, Egypt. The Systemic based course materials were presented in 24hrs (2hrs period/ per week) From Sept.-Dec. (2001) (5). TheGreen Chemistry aspects of this approach involve a very small amount of the cation-containing species, which is contained in a very small volume.
Exp. 4 Exp. 3Exp. 2 Exp. 1 (?) A+X-A+X- A+E-A+E- A+Y-A+Y- A+Z-A+Z- Figure 20: Systemic Investigation of species A + (SI-Plane) The diagram shows the Plane for qualitative investigation of the species (A + ), the preparation of (A + ) Compounds, and the interconversion of the species.
of experiments (1-4) in a single test tube on a small sample of lead nitrate (0.5 ml), then they recycle the product of (Exp. 4) to Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (Cf. SI - Final). (SI -1 - Plane) Exp.1 Pb++ Exp.2 Nitrate Salt Exp.3 (White ppt) Lead hydroxide (White ppt.) Lead Oxalate HNO 3 (?) (Yellow ppt) Lead iodide Exp.4 (?) (White ppt) Lead carbonate Na 2 C 2 O 4 Pb++ i) HNO3 ii)NH4OH Nitrate Salt i) HNO 3 ii) Na 2 CO 3 (White ppt) Lead hydroxide (White ppt.) Lead Oxalate HNO 3 ( ) (Yellow ppt) Lead iodide i) HNO3 ii) KI ( ) (White ppt) Lead carbonate Recycling (SI -1 - Final) The students follow the plane (SI-1) to investigate (Pb 2+ ) in a series Systemic Investigation of [Pb ++ ] (SI-1): Lead Cycle
Systemic Investigation of [Ag + ] (SI-2): Silver Cycle The students follow the plane (SI-2) to investigate (Ag + ) in a series of experiments (1-3), then recycle the product of (Exp.3) to AgNO 3 (Cf. SI-2-Final). (White ppt.) Silver phosphate (White ppt.) Silver sulphite. (White ppt.) Silver carbonate Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 HNO 3 Ag + Silver nitrate. (SI-2 Plane) (?) (White ppt.) Silver phosphate (White ppt.) Silver sulphite. (White ppt.) Silver carbonate Na 2 SO 3 i) HNO 3 ii) Na 2 CO 3 HNO 3 Ag + Silver nitrate. (SI-2 Final) ( ) Recycling i) HNO 3 ii) Na 3 PO 4
Results of Experimentation : - The experimentation results showed that the Benign scheme reduces the consumption chemicals in Comparison with the classical scheme as shown in table (1). This means low cost, and less pollution. Table 1: Amount of salts needed for Experimental group (Benign scheme), and Reference group (Classic scheme) SaltsAmount required (gm / 50 Students) Classic Scheme Solid/ (g) Benign Scheme 0.1M Solution (1/2 liter) Pb(NO 3 ) Al(NO 3 ) CrCl 3. 6H 2 O NiCl 2.6H 2 O Co(NO 3 ) 2.6H 2 O CdCl 2 5H 2 O BaCl 2.2H 2 O MgSO 4. 7H 2 O
RESULTS OF EXPERIMMENTATION The results, of experimentation indicate that; - a greater fraction of students exposed to systemic techniques in the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by linear Approach. -
*SATLC improved the students ability to view the chemistry from a more global perspective. *SATLC helps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis. *SATLC increases students ability to learn subject matter in a greater context. * SATLC increases the ability of students to think Systemically. * Helping students to see the pattern of pure and applied chemistry rather than isolated concepts, and facts. - CONCLUSION
*SATLC Helping students to see the pattern of pure and applied chemistry rather than isolated concepts, and facts. *SATLC in Egypt could be used as a successful Model for teaching and learning Chemistry in other African countries. * CONCLUSION
SELECTED CONFERNCES & WORKSHOPS ON SATL 1- 15th International Conference on Chemistry Education (15th ICCE) IUPAC Organized By: Chem. Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University & UNESCO office Cairo, and IUPAC. (Aug. 1998), Cairo, Egypt 2 - Workshop on: "Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry" for Teachers and Experts from Cairo, and Giza Organized By: Chem. Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (Feb. 1998), Cairo, Egypt 4-1st Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & UNESCO Office Cairo (Feb. 2001), Cairo, Egypt 3-Workshop on SATLC In Reform of Chemical Education. Organized By A. F. M. Fahmy, Peter Atkins, J. Bradley, J. Lagowski, M. Schallies, I.F.Zeid. 18th International Conference on Chemical Education (18th ICCE), Istanbul, Turky, Aug. 3-8 (2004).
5 - 2nd Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & UNESCO Office Cairo (Feb. 2002), Cairo, Egypt
6 - 3ed Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & Garish University, Jordan (April. 2003), Cairo, Egypt
7- 4th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University (April 2004), Cairo, Egypt
8- 5th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University (April 2005), Cairo, Egypt
9- 6th Arab Conference on Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning. Organized By: Science Education Center, Ain Shams University & Misr International University (April 2006), Cairo, Egypt
10-The 2nd Jordanian Egyptian Conference on SATL and its Applications in different Sciences. Organized by: Tafila Technical University Jordan, and Ain Shams University Egypt. (July 2005) Tafila, Jordan
11-Workshop on SATLC Satellite to Malta III Conference : Organized By:UNISCO,IUPAC,RCS,ACS, University;Istanbul,Turky. (December.2006) 12-Pakistanis School on SATLC, Organized By: Karachi, University;Karachi,Pakistan (18-31 Nov.2008)
Literature (1) CaineR.N.&Caine,G.(1991).Making connections: Teaching and Human brain.Aleandria,VA:Association for supervision and curriculum Development. (2)Taagepera, M.; Noori, S.; J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1224 (3) Michael, P., Badger R., J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80, 779. (4) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J., The use of Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning for 21st Century, J pure Appl. 1999, [15th ICCE, Cairo, August 1998]. (5) Fahmy, A. F. M., Hamza, M. A., Medien, H. A. A., Hanna, W. G., Abdel- Sabour, M. : and Lagowski, J.J., From a Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry (SATLC) to Benign Analysis, Chinese J.Chem. Edu. 2002, 23(12),12 [17th ICCE, Beijing, August 2002]. (6) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J; Systemic Reform in Chemical Education An International Perspective, J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80 (9), 1078.
(10) Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999) (8) Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003) (9) Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000) (7) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Systemic multiple choice questions (SMCQs in Chemistry [19th ICCE, Seoul, South Korea, August 2006].
SATLC-Research Group Prof. Dr. Hashem A. F. (Egypt) Prof. Dr. El-Shahat, M. T. (Egypt) ) Mrs. Said, A. (Egypt Dr. Hamza, S. M. (Egypt) Prof. Dr. Hanna, W. G. (USA) Prof. Dr. Medin, H. (Saudia Arabia) Prof. Dr. Lagowski, J. J. (USA) ( Founder ) Prof. Dr. Kandil, N. G. (Egypt) Prof. Dr. El-Hashash, M. (Egypt) Prof. Dr. Abdel – Sabour, M. (Egypt)