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Cultural Evolution Sources of cultural variation Proximal vs Distal Transmitted vs Evoked Biological vs Cultural evolution How do ideas spread? How have.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Evolution Sources of cultural variation Proximal vs Distal Transmitted vs Evoked Biological vs Cultural evolution How do ideas spread? How have."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Evolution Sources of cultural variation Proximal vs Distal Transmitted vs Evoked Biological vs Cultural evolution How do ideas spread? How have cultures been changing? Flynn Effect

2 Sweden – A dichotomous culture

3 Ideology: The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture Ethnotheory: The theories of a culture that inform and influence cultural practices

4 World cultures and life satisfaction

5 The Jante Law (Old Scandinavian value system) “Folk theory” – 10 “commandments” for instilling in children self- inhibition and conformity Reflected in current Swedish “personality” traits – humility, lack of confidence, shyness 1.Du skal ikke tro at du * er * noe. Thou shalt not presume that thou art anyone [important]. 2.Du skal ikke tro at du er like saa meget som * oss *. Thou shalt not presume that thou art as good as us. 3.Du skal ikke tro at du er klokere en * oss *. Thou shalt not presume that thou art any wiser than us. 4.Du skal ikke innbille deg du er bedre enn * oss *. Thou shalt never indulge in the conceit of imagining that thou art better than us. 5.Du skal ikke tro du vet mere enn * oss *. Thou shalt not presume that thou art more knowledgeable than us. The “Jante Law”

6 6. Du skal ikke tro du er mere enn * oss *. Thou shalt not presume that thou art more than us [in any way]. 7. Du skal ikke tro at * du * duger til noe. Thou shalt not presume that that thou art going to amount to anything. 8. Du skal ikke le av * oss *. Thou art not entitled to laugh at us. 9. Du skal ikke tro at noen bryr seg om * deg *. Thou shalt never imagine that anyone cares about thee. 10. Du skal ikke tro at du kan lære * oss * noe. Thou shalt not suppose that thou can teach us anything.

7 Child’s Rights Right of inheritance – regardless of gender Right to inherit property from the biological father whether or not parents are married Right to be wanted Right to a healthy prenatal environment (free prenatal care – ALL Swedes receive) Healthy perinatal environment (newborns)

8 The summer home stuga Love of nature and tradition –Scandinavians invented orienteering; hiking, canoeing, picking berries –Strong ties to farm life –Low power distance; horizontal individualists –Individualism = self-reliance  600,000 in Sweden  Privacy essential  Commune with nature

9 Individualism through self-development –Retreat to stuga for self-reflection, self-growth –Swedes are individualistic in order to promote personal growth, not gain advantages over others –Swedes are insular; not as open, or “friendly” toward neighbors Equality –Allelamansratt – everyman’s right – camp, walk, canoe anywhere – nature belongs to everyone –jamlikhet – egalitarianism –High level of feminism

10 Leisure More regular exercise, including elderly No golf carts at courses People used to walking everywhere Skiing, Hiking, Camping – “Allelamansratten” Computer use more popular among youth Gardening

11 End of High School celebration – Norway and Sweden


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