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Nutrition in Acute Kidney Injury Antonio R. Paraiso, MD, FPCP, FPSN Medical Specialist IV, NKTI Asst. Professor, College of Medicine, UERMMMCI.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition in Acute Kidney Injury Antonio R. Paraiso, MD, FPCP, FPSN Medical Specialist IV, NKTI Asst. Professor, College of Medicine, UERMMMCI."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition in Acute Kidney Injury Antonio R. Paraiso, MD, FPCP, FPSN Medical Specialist IV, NKTI Asst. Professor, College of Medicine, UERMMMCI



4 DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE Predictive equations –BEE (Basal Energy Expenditure) kcal/24 hr Men = 66 + (13.7 x wt) + (5.0 x ht) – (6.7 x Age) Women = (9.6 x wt) + (1.8 x ht) – (4.7 x age) –REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) REE = 1.2 x BEE Simplified computations: kcal/kg ideal body wt depending on activity –Caloric requirements: 70% from carbohydrates & 30% from fats –Protein requirements: 0.8 to 1.2 in normal metabolism, 1.2 to 1.8 in hypercatabolism 3

5 ENDOGENOUS FUEL STORES Energy stores can last up to 10 days depending of the rate of catabolism. Carbohydrate stores are limited and daily intake is needed for CNS functions which rely heavily on carbohydrates In periods of starvation fat and protein (from breakdown of adipose tissue and muscle) become the main sources of calories FUEL STORES IN HEALTHY ADULTS FUEL SOURCEAMOUNT (KG) ENERGY YIELD (KCAL) ADIPOSE TISSUE ,000 MUSCLE PROTEIN6.024,000 TOTAL GLYCOGEN TOTAL KCAL165,900 4

6 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI HYPERMETABOLIC STATE –Energy expenditure (EE) being proportional to the amount of stress –Although active solute transport in a functioning kidney is an energy-consuming process, the presence of AKI by itself (in the absence of critical illness) does not seem to affect resting EE (REE) –EE in AKI patients is therefore determined mainly by the underlying condition. Studies in chronic kidney disease yield conflicting results varying between increased, normal, or even decreased REE. 5

7 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI DIABETES OF STRESS' –hyperglycemia and insulin resistance –Hepatic gluconeogenesis (from amino acids and lactate) increases mainly due to the action of catabolic hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol –The normal suppressive action of exogenous glucose and insulin on hepatic gluconeogenesis is decreased –Peripheral glucose utilization in insulin-dependent tissues (muscle and fat) is also decreased 6

8 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI UNDERLYING CRITICAL ILLNESS In normal conditions, the kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis The loss of kidney function by itself may contribute to the altered carbohydrate metabolism in AKI 7

9 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI PROTEIN CATABOLISM AND NET NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE –The increased protein synthesis is unable to compensate for the higher proteolysis –In the acute phase, this catabolic response may be beneficial, providing amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis (supplying substrate for vital tissues such as the brain and immune cells) and for synthesis of proteins involved in immune function and in the acute-phase response. 8

10 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI PROTEIN CATABOLISM AND NET NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE –However, the sustained hypercatabolism in the chronic phase of critical illness results in a substantial loss of lean body mass and in muscle weakness and decreased immune function –Protein catabolic rates may go up to 1.3 and 1.8 g/kg per day –Protein catabolism also accelerates the increases of serum potassium and phosphorus 9

11 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI ABNORMAL NUTRIENT PROCESSING –The malnutrition of starvation is due deficits in essential nutrients and nutrient intake will correct the malnutrition –The malnutrition in AKI and other critical illnesses is due to a disease-induced abnormal nutrient processing. Nutrient intake alone may not correct the malnutrition. The underlying disease must be addressed 10

12 METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN AKI NUTRIENT TOXICITY –In healthy subjects,5% of glucose is metabolized to lactate. In critically ill patients, this may rise up to 85% 11

13 Who Should Get Nutritional Support? Patients who: –Cannot meet nutrient requirements –Have documented inadequate oral intake –Have unpredictable return of GI function –Need a prolonged period of NPO/bowel rest

14 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT ENTERAL NUTRITION (EN) IS ALWAYS BETTER THAN PARENTERAL NUTRITION (PN) –Meta-analyses comparing EN with PN - no difference in mortality –Lower incidence of infectious complications with EN may be explained by the higher incidence of hyperglycemia in patients receiving PN IF THE GUT IS AVAILABLE, USE IT!!! 13

15 EN –vs- PN OUTCOMES IN CRITICALLY ILL ADULT PATIENTS A systematic review of the literature Gramlich, K et al, Nutrition 2004 Infectious complications Favors ENFavors PN

16 EN -vs- PN Gramlich, K et al, Nutrition 2004 Mortality Favors ENFavors PN

17 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT IN AKI EARLY VERSUS LATE EN –Meta-analysis showed reduced infectious complications and length of hospital stay with early EN, but no effect on noninfectious complications or mortality –However, enterally fed critically ill patients often do not meet their nutritional targets, especially in the first days of ICU stay –Adequate early nutrition is easier with the parenteral route –Most of the mortality benefits of PN suggests that PN should be given when EN cannot be initiated within 24 hours of ICU admission 16

18 The rationale for early EN McClave, J Clin Gastro, Sept 2002 »Use of the gut stimulates GALT & MALT resulting in enhanced immune response »Early feeding can trigger gut immunity and thereby improve outcomes Delay or failure may promote a pro-inflammatory state with disease severity & morbidityDelay or failure may promote a pro-inflammatory state with disease severity & morbidity

19 The rationale for early EN Absence of gut stimulation is associated with gut atrophyAbsence of gut stimulation is associated with gut atrophy –Changes in gut integrity begin w/in 6 hrs Higher incidence of infection/ sepsisHigher incidence of infection/ sepsis Window of opportunity = 24 – 48 hrs Zaloga GP. Crit Care Med 1999;27:259 McClave, J Clin Gastro, Sept 2002

20 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT IN AKI OPTIMAL AMOUNT OF CALORIES –Overfeeding should be avoided Hyperglycemia excess lipid deposition Azotemia excess carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production with difficult weaning from the respirator infectious complications 19

21 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT IN AKI OPTIMAL AMOUNT OF CALORIES –Although not based on solid evidence, recent recommendations suggest a nonprotein energy supply 25 to 30 kcal/kg per day in men and 20 to 25 kcal/kg per day in women The proposed proportions of nonprotein energy supply are 60% to 70% of carbohydrate and 30% to 40% of fat 20

22 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT IN AKI OPTIMAL AMOUNT OF CALORIES –Results from two recent trials renewed interest in hypocaloric feeding, combining normal protein with reduced caloric supply fewer infectious complications and reduced ICU caloric intake of between 33% and 66% of the target was associated with better survival 21

23 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT IN AKI PROTEIN INTAKE –Goal is to improve protein synthesis and nitrogen balance Although negative nitrogen balances are associated with the worst outcomes, there are no randomized studies comparing different protein or nitrogen intakes with regard to clinical outcomes in ICU patients Although the ideal amount is still debated, a protein intake of between 1.2 and 1.6 g/kg per day (0.16 to 0.24 g nitrogen/kg per day) is usually recommended Because many nonessential amino acids are not readily synthesized or increasingly used in critically ill patients, the combination of essential and nonessential amino acids is supposed to be superior 22

24 ROLE OF SPECIFIC COMPONENTS Glutamine –Most abundant amino acid in the body –Important fuel for cells of the immune system –In stress situations, concentrations decrease and it becomes a 'conditionally' essential amino acid –Available guidelines recommend enteral and parenteral supplementation Antioxidant micronutrients –Micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) play a key role in metabolism, immune function, and antioxidant processes, AKI patients have increased oxidative stress –They are deficient in critically ill patients and should be supplemented –Selenium, zinc, vitamin E, and vitamin C show promising effects on infectious complications and/or mortality in ICU patients –Recommended vitamin C in AKI varies between 30 to 100 mg 23

25 ROLE OF SPECIFIC COMPONENTS Immunonutrients –Nutrients with an immune-modulating effect include: glutamine, arginine, nucleotides, and omega-3 fatty acids Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide synthesis and may be detrimental in critically ill patients with an ongoing inflammatory response Meta-analysis aggregating the results of three RCTs of enteral supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrated that enteral formula enriched with fish oils significantly reduces mortality and ventilator days and tended to reduce ICU length of stay. A role for exogenous omega-3 fatty acids in human renal protection is, at this moment, purely speculative. –Cocktails of several immunonutients (containing glutamine, arginine, nucleotides, and omega-3 fatty acids) in critically ill patients showed no difference in clinical outcome with standard EN 24

26 AKI Etiology and severity of AKI is diverse Recommendations for nutritional support can at best be described as debatable 25

27 CATEGORIES OF AKI PRE-RENAL –Decreased renal perfusion of whatever cause with preserved integrity of the renal parechyma INTRA-RENAL –Renal parenchymal disease usually post-ischemic or nephrotoxic and is classicall associated with atn POST-RENAL –Acute obstruction of the urinary tract 26

28 SEVERITY OF AKI RIFLE CRITERIA (As recommended by the ADQI) RISK of renal dysfunction INJURY to the kidney FAILURE of kidney function LOSS of function END stage kidney disease 27 SEVERITY OUTCOME

29 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NUTRITION IN ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY 28 ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CONSERVATIVE (NON-DIALYZED) DIALYZED CASES USUALLY MILDER CASES MORE SEVERE ? EN or PN There are no large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of nutritional support versus starvation in AKI

30 RECOMMENDATIONS IN CRRT The effect of CRRT on EE and protein catabolic rate is probably small and not clinically relevant. Blood-membrane contact during RRT may induce a protein catabolic effect – debatable nutritional significance Protein intake: we do not know the metabolic fate of the administered amino acids –may be used for synthesis of 'beneficial' proteins –may be burnt for energy –May join the inflammatory mediator pool Daily amino acid losses may reach between 10 and 15 g Extracorporeal losses of lipoproteins are not to be expected The optimal nutritional support strategy for patients with AKI requiring CRRT remains a matter of controversy. 29

31 Traditional administration of PN Infusion from single bottles via Y- connection early in the history of parenteral nutrition 30

32 KABIVEN: 3 CHAMBER BAG ALL IN ONE means that all nutrients in a dose needed for 1 day, such as the amino acid solution, the glucose solution(s) and the lipid emulsion as well as additions such as electrolytes, trace elements and vitamins are mixed in one single container. This admixture is administered over 24 hours via one single connection at a constant rate to the patient. 31

33 KABIVEN: Advantages of the All in One system 1.Improved safety 2.Saving hospital time and money 3.Improved vein tolerance due to the lipids contained 4.Optimal peripheral parenteral nutrition 5.Metabolic advantages 6.Safe, efficient and well-tolerated 7.Increased patient convenience and satisfaction 8.Facilitating home PN (HPN) 32

34 Kabiven® Characteristics The Kabiven range: Kabiven (central) –1900 kcal to meet total requirements Kabiven Peripheral –1000 kcal as a supplement –1400 kcal as a supplement or for TPN

35 Kabiven : Characteristics Kabiven (central, 2.0L) – The contents Kabiven Peripheral (2.0L) – The contents Osmolarity: 750 mosm/L Amino acids (g) Nitrogen (g)Glucose (g)Lipids (g)Total energy (kcal) Amino acids (g) Nitrogen (g)Glucose (g)Lipids (g)Total energy (kcal)

36 Nutritional support for acute kidney injury Li Y, Tang X, Zhang J, Wu T Main results –Compared to lower calorie-total parenteral nutrition (TPN), higher calorie- TPN did not improve estimated nitrogen balance, protein catabolic rate, or urea generation rate, but increased serum triglycerides, glucose, insulin need and nutritional fluid administration. –Urea nitrogen appearance was lower in the low nitrogen intake group than in the high nitrogen intake group. –There was no significant difference in death between EAA and general amino acids (GAA) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.63 to 3.68). High dose amino acids did not improve cumulative water excretion, furosemide requirement, nitrogen balance or death compared to normal dose amino acids. Authors' conclusions –There is not enough evidence to support the effectiveness of nutritional support for AKI. Further high quality studies are required to provide reliable evidence of the effect and safety of nutritional support 35

37 OUR CONCLUSIONS Use the GUT if available!!! Non-dialyzed AKI: low protein, adequate carbohydrates Dialyzed AKI: although no strong evidence is available, physiologic arguments favor nutritional support If PN is to be used, KABIVENs all-in-one 3 chamber bag is convenient either for central or peripheral vein administration 36

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