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Acronyms and Glossary People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

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Presentation on theme: "Acronyms and Glossary People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acronyms and Glossary People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

2 Acronyms People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

3 Acronyms ACF Action Contre le Faim AFASS
Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability & Performance ARV Antiretroviral (treatment of AIDS) BCG Bacille Calmette Guerin (vaccination against tuberculosis) BFHI Baby friendly hospital initiative BMI Body mass index BMS Breast milk substitute CAP Consolidated appeals process CBO Community based organization People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

4 Acronyms … CBTD Community based targeting and distribution (of food aid) CDC Centre for Disease Control (US) CERF Central emergency response fund CHAP Consolidated humanitarian action plan CHASE Conflict, humanitarian and security department (of DFID) CHW Community health workers CI Confidence interval CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CIMIC Civil-military cooperation CMAM Community based management of acute malnutrition People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

5 Acronyms … CMR Crude mortality rate CRED
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters CRS Catholic Relief Services CSB Corn soya blend CTC Community therapeutic care DAC Development assistance committee DEC Disasters Emergency Committee (of UK agencies) DFID Department for Int. Development (of UK government) DHA Department for Humanitarian Affairs DHS Demographic and health surveys People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

6 Acronyms … DRC Danish Refugees Council DSM Dried skimmed milk ECB
Emergency Capacity Building project ECHO European Community Humanitarian Organization EMOP Emergency operation (by WFP) ESFP Emergency supplementary feeding programme ENA Emergency nutrition assessment ENN Emergency Nutrition Network ERC Emergency relief coordinator Emergency supplementary feeding programmes People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

7 Acronyms … ACF Action Contre le Faim AFASS
Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability & Performance ARV Antiretroviral (treatment of AIDS) BCG Bacille Calmette Guerin (vaccination against tuberculosis) BFHI Baby friendly hospital initiative BMI Body mass index BMS Breast milk substitute CAP Consolidated appeals process CBO Community based organization People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

8 Acronyms … ACF Action Contre le Faim AFASS
Acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability & Performance ARV Antiretroviral (treatment of AIDS) BCG Bacille Calmette Guerin (vaccination against tuberculosis) BFHI Baby friendly hospital initiative BMI Body mass index BMS Breast milk substitute CAP Consolidated appeals process CBO Community based organization People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

9 Acronyms … EWS Early warning system FANTA
Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FFW Food for work FSAU Food Security Analysis Unit GAM Global acute malnutrition GFD General food distribution GHD Good humanitarian donorship HAP Humanitarian Accountability Partnership HBC Home based care People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

10 Acronyms … HDR Humanitarian daily ration HFA Height for age HIS
Health information system HIV Human immunodeficiency virus IASC Inter-Agency Standing Committee IBFAN International Baby Food Action Network ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross IDD Iodine deficiency disorder IDP Internally displaced person IEC Information, education and communication People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

11 Acronyms … IFE Infant and young child feeding in emergencies IFRC
International Federation of the Red Cross IGA Income generation activity IHL International humanitarian law IMCI Integrated management of childhood illnesses IRA Initial rapid assessment IYCF Infant and young child feeding KABP Knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practice LBW Low birth weight LQAS Lot quality assurance sampling People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

12 Acronyms … MCH Mother and child health MDD
Micronutrient deficiency disorder MDG Millennium development goal MICS Multi-indicator cluster surveys MOH Ministry of Health MOU Memorandum of understanding MSF Medecins San Frontieres MTCT Mother to child transmission (of HIV) MUAC Mid upper arm circumference NCHS National Center for Health Statistics People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

13 Acronyms … NGT Naso-gastric tube NICS
Nutrition information in crisis situations (bulletin of the SCN) NIE Nutrition in emergencies NIV Nutrient intake values OSDM On-site distribution monitoring (of food aid) OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ODA Official development assistance ODAN Emergency needs assessment branch (of WFP) ODI Overseas Development Institute OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

14 Acronyms … OFDA Office for disaster assistance (of USAID) ORS
Oral rehydration solution OTP Outpatient PDM Post-distribution monitoring (of food aid) PLWHA People living with HIV and AIDs PMTCT Prevention of mother to child transmission (of HIV) RC Relief Committee RTF Ready to feed formula RUTF Ready to use therapeutic food SD Standard deviation People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

15 Acronyms … SAM Severe acute malnutrition SCHR
Steering committee for humanitarian response (of NGOs) SCN Standing Committee on Nutrition (of the UN) SC-UK Save the Children Fund UK SLI Safe levels of intake SMART Standardized Monitoring & Assessment of Relief & Transitions SFP Supplementary feeding programme STI Sexually transmitted infection UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Fund People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

16 Acronyms … UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development U5MR Under five mortality rate VAM Vulnerability assessment and monitoring unit (of WFP) VCT Voluntary counseling and testing (for HIV) WASH Water, sanitation and hygiene WFA Weight for age WFH Weight for height WFP World Food Programme WHO World Health Organization People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

17 Glossary People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

18 Accountability Acute malnutrition
Means by which individuals and organisations report to a recognised authority and are held responsible for their actions Acute malnutrition Also known as wasting, is a sign of ‘thinness’ and develops as a result of recent rapid weight loss or a failure to gain weight. In children, it is measured through the weight for height nutritional index In adults it is measured by body mass index or mid upper arm circumference People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

19 Acute respiratory infection
Continu… Acute respiratory infection One of the major killers of young children in developing countries It is defined as the presence of a runny nose or cough for atleast two consecutive days plus one or more of the following signs independent of duration: Erythematous mucosa (an increased redness of the mucosa, due to an increase in its hemoglobin content because of increased blood flow) Hoarse-cry (rough in sound) Respiratory distress or fever People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

20 Adequate basic ration Anaemia Angular stomatitis Continu…
Adequate ration meets the population's minimum energy, protein, fat and micronutrient requirements for light physical activity It is nutritionally balanced, diversified and culturally acceptable Fit for human consumption and easily digestible for children Anaemia Caused by lack of iron, folate or vitamin B12 Difficult to diagnose accurately from clinical signs which include pallor, tiredness, headaches and breathlessness Angular stomatitis A Sign of riboflavin deficiency characterized by inflammation in the corners of the mouth People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

21 Anthropometric status
Continu… Anthropometric status Growth status of an individual in relation to population reference values Anthropometry Body measurements Used as a measure of an individual's nutritional (anthropometric) status Artificial feeding Feeding of young infants with breast milk substitute Antiretroviral therapy Treatment that suppresses or stops a retrovirus People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

22 Ariboflavinosis Beri-beri Blanket feeding Continu…
Retrovirus is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS Ariboflavinosis Condition resulting from a deficiency in riboflavin (vitamin B2) Characterised by the presence of angular stomatitis Beri-beri Caused by thiamine deficiency Clinically recognizable syndromes include: Wet beri-beri (involvement of CNS) Dry beri-beri (involvement of CV system) Infantile beri-beri (Beri-beri of infants) Blanket feeding Feeding of all an affected population without targeting specific population groups People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

23 Bitot’s spots Blended food Body mass index Continu…
Clinical sign of vitamin A deficiency Characterized by dryness accompanied by foamy accumulations on the conjunctiva that often appear near the outer edge of the iris Blended food A precooked fortified mixture of cereals and other ingredients such as pulses, dried skimmed milk and vegetable oil Blended foods include wheat soy blend, corn soy blend, and 'faffa’ – Chinese sea food dish Body mass index Acute malnutrition in adults is measured using body mass index or weight/height2 People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

24 Breast milk substitutes
Continu… Breast milk substitutes Any food being marketed or otherwise represented as a partial or total replacement for breast milk, whether or not suitable for that purpose Cash transfer A form of humanitarian assistance Providing cash in some form to emergency-affected populations Chronic malnutrition Also known as stunting, is a sign of ‘shortness’ and develops over a long period of time In children and adults, it is measured through the height for age nutritional index People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

25 Cluster Cluster sampling The Code Cold chain Corn soya blend Continu…
A group of individuals selected in a sample on the basis of a common criterion (e.g. living within a particular neighbourhood) Cluster sampling A representative sample where the sampling unit, children or adults, are selected in groups (clusters) rather than individually The Code International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1981 Cold chain A temperature-controlled supply chain for vaccines Corn soya blend Type of blended food People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

26 Community based therapeutic care
Continu… Colostrum First thick yellow milk secreted by the breasts in the last few weeks of pregnancy and the first two to three days after childbirth Contains high levels of protein and antibodies Conjunctiva Membrane around the eye which is examined for signs of anaemia and jaundice Community based therapeutic care Concept of treating as many cases as possible of severe acute malnutrition as outpatients using RUTFs; Also called home-based treatment or ambulatory treatment Complementary feeding Age-appropriate, adequate and safe solid or semi-solid food in addition to breast milk or a breast milk substitute People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

27 Confidence interval Coping strategies Crude mortality rate Continu…
Statistical term which reflects the error introduced by the sampling method and the sample size Confidence intervals are usually associated with a probability of 95 per cent For example, if the survey is done 100 times the value will be within the range of the confidence interval 95 times out of 100 Coping strategies Strategies employed by individuals or households during crises to preserve productive assets which are needed to sustain a living in the future Crude mortality rate The proportion of a defined population who die each day expressed over 10,000 People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

28 Continu… Cretinism Sever mental and physical disability which occurs in the offspring of women with sever iodine deficiency in the first trimester of pregnancy People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

29 Emergency school feeding
Continu… Diarrhoea One of the major killer of young children in developing countries It is defined as presence of three or more liquid or semi-liquid stools per day accompanied or not by blood, mucous or fever Dry feeding Food provided in the form of a dry (take home) ration Early warning system Information system designed to monitor indicators that may predict or forewarn of impending food shortages or famine Emergency school feeding Food provided either as a cooked meal or supplement in school To improve school attendance and performance, and to alleviate hunger People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

30 Endemic disease Energy Enrichment Continu…
An infectious disease that occurs throughout the year in a population For example malaria, worms, chest infections Energy Energy is not a nutrient, but a measure of total food intake Calories or kilocalories are the unitary measure of energy Energy is needed for the essential body functions, growth and physical activities Enrichment Micronutrients lost or removed during food processing are added back or restored in the final product (e.g. wheat flour is enriched with vitamin B1, niacin and iron) People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

31 Exclusive breastfeeding
Continu… Epidemic An outbreak of an unusually high number of cases of a disease within a certain time or area Exclusive breastfeeding An infant receives only breast milk and no other liquids or solids, not even water, with the exception of drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicines Foetus Developing unborn child inside the mother’s uterus Follow-on/follow-up formula Specially formulated milks for infants of six months and over People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

32 Food economy approach Food for work Food security Food taboos
Continu… Food economy approach A particular methodology used to assess food security Food for work Food given as payment for work performed in the context of a supervised public works programme, to address acute food insecurity and create community capital Food security Access by all people at all times to sufficient, safe and nutritious food needed for a healthy and active life Food taboos Food that should not be eaten on cultural or religious grounds Fortified foods The foods to which fortificants are added People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

33 General food distribution
Continu… Fortification of food Addition of micronutrients during or after processing to a food, bringing the micronutrients to levels over and above the amounts in the original food product Fortificants The vitamins and minerals added to fortified foods General food distribution Free distribution of a combination of food commodities to an emergency affected population Global acute malnutrition Moderate and severe acute malnutrition measured by weight for height <-2 Z scores or <80 per cent of the median plus oedema People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

34 Growth monitoring and promotion
Continu… Goitre Swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck caused by iodine deficiency Growth monitoring and promotion An individual child’s growth (weight for age) is measured at intervals and the results plotted on a ‘Road to Health’ chart Healthcare system Any governmental, non-governmental or private institution providing healthcare Home-modified animal milk Breast milk substitute for infants up to six months Prepared at home from fresh or processed animal milk, suitably diluted with water and with the addition of sugar and micronutrients People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

35 Humanitarian daily rations
Continu… HIV-positive Infected with HIV Home based care Programmes to care for the chronically ill by providing support to sick people at home Humanitarian daily rations A type of emergency ration which is a nutritionally balanced, ready-to-eat complete food. They generally come in two forms: as compressed, vacuum packed bars or tablets Humanitarian imperative The premise (basis) that humanitarian action should be based on need and need alone Humanity To prevent and alleviate human suffering To protect life and health and ensure respect for the human being People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

36 Immunity Impartiality Incidence Independence Continu…
Body’s capacity to fight disease via the immune system Impartiality Aid is given regardless of the race, creed (religious) or nationality of the recipients and without adverse distinction of any kind Aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone Incidence Number of new cases Independence Humanitarian aid is not a partisan (party) or political act Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

37 Infant and young child feeding
Continu… Infant and young child feeding To describe the feeding of infants (aged less than 12 months and young children (aged from 12 to 23 months) Infant formula Breast milk substitute formulated industrially in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards Infant feeding equipment Bottles, teats, syringes and baby cups with or without lids and/or spouts (to emit or discharge forcibly) International code The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1981 People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

38 Information, education and communication
Continu… Information, education and communication Aims to provide people with an informed base for making choices Nutrition information refers to knowledge, such as information about new foods that are being introduced in an emergency situation Nutrition education refers to training or orientation for a particular purpose such as support for breastfeeding Nutrition communication refers to the method by which information is imparted Inpatient care Patients with complicated severe malnutrition (metabolic disturbances) are treated in inpatient care before continuing treatment in outpatient care People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

39 Iodine deficiency disorders Kwashiorkor
Continu… Alternative terms are phase I, therapeutic feeding unit, therapeutic feeding centre or stabilisation centre Iodine deficiency disorders A range of abnormalities including goiter and cretinism Kwashiorkor Clinical form of malnutrition associated with growth failure (in children) Characterized by oedema (swelling) and loss of appetite Livelihoods Comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living Households are assumed to have different types of assets and adopt livelihood strategies to achieve livelihood outcomes People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

40 Low birth weight Macronutrients Malaria Mastitis Continu…
A birth weight of less than 2.5 kgs Macronutrients Fat, protein and carbohydrate that are needed for a wide range of body functions and processes Malaria Infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium family Transmitted by the sting of the Anopheles mosquito or by a contaminated needle or transfusion Falciparum malaria is the most deadly type Mastitis Infection of the breast People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

41 Marasmus Malnutrition Measles Continu…
Clinical form of malnutrition associated with growth failure (in children) Characterized by a severe loss of body weight or wasting Malnutrition Broad range of clinical conditions in children and adults that result from deficiencies in one or a number of nutrients Measles Person with fever and maculopapular rash (i.e. non-vesicular) Cough, coryza (i.e. runny nose) Conjunctivitis (i.e. red eyes) People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

42 Micronutrient deficiency diseases
Continu… Micronutrients All vitamins and the minerals that are required in tiny amounts and needed for a wide range of body functions and processes Micronutrient deficiency diseases Classic nutritional diseases such as scurvy, beriberi and pellagra are good examples of these sorts of disease Micronutrient malnutrition Existence of sub-optimal nutritional status due to a lack of intake, absorption, or utilisation of one or more vitamins or minerals Excessive intake of some micronutrients may also result in adverse effects Morbidity Illness People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

43 Mid upper arm circumference
Continu… Mortality Death Mid upper arm circumference Measured on a straight left arm (in right handed people) mid way between the tip of the shoulder (acromium) and the tip of the elbow (olecranon) A measure of acute malnutrition or wasting Neonatal Applies to babies born alive during the first 28 days of life Neutrality Humanitarian assistance should be provided without engaging in hostilities or taking sides in controversies of a political, religious or ideological nature People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

44 Nutritional requirements
Continu… Night blindness Inability to see well in the dark or in a darkened room An early sign of vitamin A deficiency Nutritional index Derived by relating an individual’s body measurement with the expected value of an individual of the same height (or age) from a reference population Weight-for-height is the nutritional index commonly used to reflect acute malnutrition (wasting) in emergency nutritional assessments Nutritional requirements Amount of energy, protein, fat and micronutrients needed for an individual to sustain a healthy life People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

45 Nutritional screening
Continu… Nutritional screening Carried out to identify and select malnourished children in the population Nutritional status Growth or micronutrient status of an individual Nutrition surveillance Regular collection of nutrition information Used for making decisions about actions or policies that will affect nutrition Nutrition survey Survey to assess the severity and extent of malnutrition People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

46 Obesity Oedema Outpatient care Continu…
A person is obese when their body mass index (weight/height2) exceeds 30 Oedema Excessive accumulation of extracellular fluid in the body Bilateral oedema (fluid retention on both sides of the body) is a clinical sign of severe acute malnutrition Outpatient care Patients with non-complicated severe malnutrition are treated in outpatient care Alternative terms are home based rehabilitation, outpatient therapeutic programmes or ambulatory care (not stationery care) People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

47 Percentage of the median
Continu… Pellagra Caused by niacin deficiency Affects the skin, gastro­intestinal tract and nervous systems Sometimes called the 3Ds: dermatitis, diarrhoea and dementia Percentage of the median Anthropometric status of an individual expressed as a percentage of the expected value (or median) for the reference population Perinatal Period during birth and the first 7 days of life Plumpynut Commercial brand of ready to eat therapeutic food People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

48 Public nutrition approach
Continu… Pneumonia Inflammation of one or both lungs with consolidation (whole) Frequently but not always due to infection Infection may be bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough with sputum production (a mass of salivary material), chest pain, and shortness of breath Prevalence Percentage of the population with a specific characteristic at a given point in time Public nutrition approach To addressing nutritional problems that recognizes that nutritional status is affected by a complex mix of factors People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

49 Prophylaxis Purposive sampling Random sampling Continu…
Prevention of disease usually using an antibiotic Purposive sampling Deliberate selection of sites, i.e. not randomly selected Sites are selected as they are representative of a certain area which has specific characteristics such as specific vulnerabilities, which may not be similar for the larger area Used to determine feeding centre coverage area Results should not be extrapolated to the general population outside of the defined area Random sampling A method whereby subjects are selected as part of a sample purely by chance People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

50 Rapid nutrition assessment
Continu… Rapid nutrition assessment An assessment carried out quickly to establish whether there is a major nutrition problem and to identify immediate needs Screening individuals for inclusion in selective feeding programmes is also a form of rapid nutrition assessment Ration The ration or food basket usually consists of a variety of basic food items (cereals, oil and pulses) Additional foods known as complementary foods (meat or fish, vegetables and fruit, fortified cereal blends, sugar, condiments) which enhance nutritional adequacy and palatability People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

51 Recommended daily allowance
Continu… Ready to eat meals A type of emergency ration which is a nutritionally balanced, ready-to-eat complete food They generally come in two forms: Compressed Vacuum packed bars or tablets Recommended daily allowance Average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (approximately 98 per cent) healthy individuals People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

52 Ready to use therapeutic foods
Continu… Ready to use therapeutic foods Specialized products for use in the management of severe malnutrition Solid version of F100 with the same macro and micronutrient composition plus iron Available as pastes, spreads or biscuits They are ready to eat and do not get contaminated by bacteria Reference population Also known as growth standards Based on surveys of healthy children, whose measurements represent an international reference for deriving an individual's anthropometric status People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

53 Rehabilitation phase Re-lactation Replacement feeding Continu…
Third phase of treatment for complicated SAM or initial treatment for uncomplicated SAM Aim is to promote rapid weight gain and to regain strength through regular feeds of high nutrient and energy dense foods (F100) Ideally implemented as outpatient treatment Re-lactation Induced lactation (breastfeeding) in someone who has previously lactated Replacement feeding Feeding infants who are receiving no breast milk through alternative methods People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

54 Rickets Sample Sampling interval Scurvy Continu…
Caused by Vitamin D deficiency Affects bone development resulting in bowing of the legs when severe Sample Sub-set of the population selected to be surveyed Sampling interval The interval which separates two statistical items selected in a systematic sample, or two clusters in a cluster sample Scurvy Caused by Vitamin C deficiency Signs include swollen and bleeding gums, and slow healing or reopening of old wounds People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

55 School feeding School census Seasonality Continu…
Provision of meals or snacks to schoolchildren to improve nutrition and promote education School census Nutrition monitoring undertaken in schools usually through measuring height for age (stunting) every couple of years Seasonality Seasonal variation of various factors that affect nutritional status such as: Disease Different sources of food The agricultural cycle People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

56 Selective feeding programmes Sentinel site
Continu… Selective feeding programmes Supplementary feeding or therapeutic care programmes Sentinel site Purposively selected community or service delivery site, used to detect changes in context, programme or outcome variable Communities or areas are purposively selected for a number of reasons, such as vulnerability to food insecurity in times of stress Sentinel sites can range from health centres, to villages, to districts Severe acute malnutrition Severe acute malnutrition measured by weight for height <-3 Z scores or <70 per cent of the median plus oedema People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

57 Stabilisation phase Standard deviation Continu…
Initial phase of inpatient treatment for complicated SAM Aim is to stabilise and readjust patient's metabolism through use of special foods (F75) and medical treatment It allows close monitoring of the patient and urgent therapy if complications developed Also known as phase I or initiation phase Standard deviation A measure of the variation around the mean value of a distribution A standard deviation is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of deviations from the mean People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

58 Supplementary feeding
Continu… Standards Desired levels of programme delivery and impact in terms of quality Stunting See chronic malnutrition Supplementary feeding Provision of food to the nutritionally or socially vulnerable in addition to the general food distribution To save lives and/or to prevent malnutrition Supplementation Provision of nutrients either via a food or as a tablet, capsule, syrup, or powder People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

59 Supplementary suckling
Continu… Supplementary suckling Technique to induce lactation by providing therapeutic milk to the infant while he/she is suckling When suckling, the child gets therapeutic milk from a tube attached to the mothers nipple Suckling stimulates breast milk production which eventually replaces therapeutic milk Systematic sampling A sampling method whereby subjects are selected using a fixed interval between subjects People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

60 Targeting Therapeutic care Therapeutic milk Continu…
Restricting the coverage of the intervention to those identified as the most vulnerable Therapeutic care Feeding and medical treatment to rehabilitate severely malnourished children Therapeutic milk Milk based products developed to meet : Energy macro-and micronutrient needs of the severely malnourished promote metabolic balance (F75) and weight gain (F100) People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

61 Transition phase Under 5 mortality rate Under nutrition Continu…
Second phase of inpatient treatment for complicated SAM Aim is to adapt progressively to the large amounts of food and nutrients that will be offered in the rehabilitation phase (outpatient or inpatient) and to monitor the patient Under 5 mortality rate Proportion of children aged under five in a defined population who die each day expressed over 10,000 Under nutrition Insufficient intake of energy, protein or micronutrients, which in turn leads to nutritional deficiency People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

62 Underweight Vulnerability Weight for age Weight for height Continu…
Wasting or stunting or a combination of both, measured through the weight for age nutritional index Vulnerability Characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural (or man-made) hazard Weight for age A measure of underweight Weight for height A measure of acute malnutrition or wasting People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

63 Wet feeding Wet nursing Xerophthalmia Z score Continu…
Food aid provided in the form of a cooked ration to be consumed on site Wet nursing Breastfeeding by a woman of a baby that isn’t her own Xerophthalmia Caused by vitamin A deficiency Includes a range of eye signs including night blindness, Bitot’s spots and corneal ulceration Z score The difference between a value and the mean of a distribution. Equivalent to a standard deviation People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

64 THE END People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)


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