2 (b)(6)(i)All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required.The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas.
3 (b)(6)(ii)”Confined or enclosed space" means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
4 (b)(6)(ii)Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.
5 1926.353(b) Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. Either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section shall be provided whenever welding, cutting, or heating is performed in a confined space.
6 1926.353(b) Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained without blocking the means of access, employees in the confined space shall be protected by air line respirators.An employee on the outside of such a confined space assigned to maintain communication with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency.
7 1926.353(b) Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. "Lifelines." Where a welder must enter a confined space through a manhole or other small opening, means shall be provided for quickly removing him in case of emergency.
8 1926.353(b) Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this purpose they shall be so attached to the welder's body that his body cannot be jammed in a small exit opening.An attendant with a pre-planned rescue procedure shall be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and be capable of putting rescue operations into effect.
9 (g)(1)Where oxygen deficiency (atmospheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen) or a hazardous atmosphere exists or could reasonably be expected to exist, such as in excavations in landfill areas or excavations in areas where hazardous substances are stored nearby, the atmospheres in the excavation shall be tested before employees enter excavations greater than 4 feet (1.22 m) in depth.
10 Background Many workplaces contain spaces which are "confined”. Their configurations hinder the activities of any employees who enter, work in, and exit them.Employees who work in process vessels must squeeze in and out through narrow openings or perform their tasks while cramped or contorted.Septic TanksSewage DigesterPumping/Lifting StationsSilo’sVatsDuctsUtility VaultsBoilers & Pipeling
11 OSHA PerspectiveIn some cases, confinement itself poses entrapment hazards.In other cases, confined space work keeps employees closer to hazards, such as asphyxiating atmospheres or the moving parts of machinery.Workers often introduce hazards through materials they bring into the confined space, and the tasks they perform:PaintingSolvent cleaningWelding
12 NIOSH Definition Any space which, by design, has: limited openings for entry and exit;unfavorable natural ventilation which could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants, and;which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy.
13 Statistics NIOSH report: 1993 - 1996 276 Confined Space incidents Resulted in 234 deaths193 injuriesUp to half of those killed in confined spaces were rescuers
14 OverviewFailure to recognize confined space hazards is high on the list of accident causes
15 Overview First Priority - Define the hazards of the space: Restricted areas within the confined spaceVoidsThe nature of the contaminants presentThe size of the spaceThe type of work to be performedThe number of people involved
16 Ventilation Considerations The ventilation air should not create an additional hazard:Recirculation of contaminantsImproper arrangement of the inlet ductThe substitution of anything other than fresh (normal) air (approximately 20.9% oxygen, % nitrogen, and 1% argon with small amounts of various other gases).
17 Categories of Confined Spaces 1. Open tops and with a depth that will restrict the natural movement of air2. Enclosed spaces with very limited openings for entry.
18 Properties of Gasses - Open Top Confined Spaces Gases that are heavier than air (butane, propane, and other hydrocarbons) remain in depressions and will flow to low points where they are difficult to removeWater tanks that appear harmless may develop toxic atmospheres such as hydrogen sulfide from the vaporization of contaminated water
19 Properties of Gasses - Closed Vessel Confined Spaces Gases which are heavier than air such as carbon dioxide and propane, may lie in a tank or vault for hours or even days after the containers have been opened.
20 Properties of Gasses - Closed Vessel Confined Spaces Because some gases are odorless, the hazard may be overlooked with fatal results.Gases that are lighter then air may also be trapped within an enclosed type confined space, especially those with access from the bottom or side.
21 Confined Space Hazards - Controlling Factors (1) The material stored or used in the confined space;(2) The activity carried out,(3) The external environment,
22 Combination HazardsThe most hazardous kind of confined space is the type that combines limited access and mechanical devices.Boilers usually contain power-driven equipment which, unless properly isolated, may be inadvertently activated after entry.
24 Flammable Atmospheres Enriched oxygen atmospheres,Vaporization of flammable liquids,Byproducts of work,Chemical reactions,Concentrations of combustible dusts
25 Flammable Atmospheres The byproducts of work procedures can generate flammable or explosive conditions within a confined space.
26 Carbon MonoxideFatal at 1000 ppm in airDangerous at 200 ppm
27 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Colorless, odorless noncombustible gas Heavier than airCommon in solid and compressed liquid formsCarbonationInertingOrganic decay (grain elevators, sewers, storage bins, wells)Fermentation (digestors, molasses pits, beer and wine vats)
28 CO2 (cont’d) PEL = 5,000 ppm - TWA (Table Z-1) TLV/REL = 5,000 ppm - TWA; 30,000 ppm - STELIDLH = 50,000 ppmLEL = none
29 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless gas Slightly lighter than air Chemical asphyxiantPrimary source: incomplete combustion of organic materialGasoline-fueled combustion engines
30 CO (cont’d) PEL = 35 ppm - TWA TLV = 25 ppm - TWA BEI: <3.5% COHb; 20 ppm (end-exhaled air)REL = 200 ppm - STEL; 35 ppm - TWAIDLH = 1500 ppmLEL = 12.5%; UEL = 74.2%
31 Concentration of CO Necessary to Produce Symptoms Percent ppm EffectsPossibly headache, mild frontal in 2-3 hrs.Headache, frontal, and nausea after 1-2 hrs.; occipital after 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 hrs.Headache, dizziness and nausea in 3/4 hour, collapse and possibly unconsciousness in 2 hrs.0.16 1,600 Headache, dizziness and nausea in 20 min.; collapse, unconsciousness, possibly death in 2 hr.0.32 3,200 Headache and dizziness in 5 to 10 min., unconsciousness and danger of death in 30 min.0.64 6,400 Headache and dizziness in 1 to2 min., unconsciousness and danger of death in 10 to 15 min.,800 Immediate effect; unconsciousness and danger of death in 1 to 3 min.(Source: Hamilton & Hardy)
32 Symptoms of CO Exposure Percent* Symptoms0-10 Shortness of breath on exertionTightness across forehead, slight headacheThrobbing headacheSevere headache, nausea, vomiting, collapse on exertionAll symptoms increased, pulse rate and breathing increasedComa, interrupted breathing (Cheyne-Stokes), death* Percent saturation of Hemoglobin with CO [Blood Levels](Adapted from Dubois and Geiling)
33 Carbon Monoxide Any untested atmosphere must be suspect Carbon monoxide must be tested for specifically.
36 Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres O2 Content15-19%Effects and Symptoms (at patm)Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination and induce early symptoms in persons with coronory, pulmonary, or circulatory problems.Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired coordination, perception, and judgment.Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor judgment, lips blue.Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face, blueness of lips, nausea, and vomiting.8 min., 100% fatal; 6 min., 50% fatal; 4-5 min., recovery with treatment.Coma in 40 sec., convulsions, respiration ceases, death.12-14%10-12%8-10%6-8%4-6%NOTE: Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that individuals cannot help or protect themselves.(Source: Compressed Gas Association Bulletin SB-2)
37 THE CONCENTRATION LINE HEALTHSAFETY0%AL PEL IDLH LEL UEL %PURECLEANFRESHAIRPUREDIRTYAIRAL - ACTION LEVELPEL - PERMISSIABLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (OSHA)REL - RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMIT (NIOSH)TLV- THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (ACGIH)LEL - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT
43 Definition-NIOSHAny space which, by design, has limited openings for entry and exit; unfavorable natural ventilation which could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants, and which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy.Roll-off box exampleclosed door vs non-closed
46 Hazardous atmosphereFlammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL)Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL; NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.
47 Hazardous atmosphereAtmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is publishedAny other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
48 InertingThe displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
49 Retrieval systemThe equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.